Cranial nerves
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Cranial nerves. Nervi craniales. Cranial nerves. 12 pairs Emerging from the brain stem ( except CN I and CN II), where they have their nuclei ( somatomotor , somatosensitive , sensoric , parasympathic ) Outside brain - ganglias (sensitive, parasympathetic )

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Cranial nerves

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Cranial nerves

Cranial nerves

Nervi craniales


Cranial nerves1

Cranial nerves

  • 12 pairs

  • Emergingfromthe brain stem (except CN I and CN II), wheretheyhavetheirnuclei (somatomotor, somatosensitive, sensoric, parasympathic)

  • Outside brain - ganglias (sensitive, parasympathetic)

  • Sympatheticfibresjoinalongthecourse, fromplexusesfollowingthebloodvessels


Cranial nerves2

Cranialnerves

  • CN I – n. olfactorius - sensoric

  • CN II – n. opticus - sensoric

  • CN III – n. oculomotorius - motor + PS

  • CN IV – n. trochlearis - motor

  • CN V – n. trigeminus – sensitive + motor

  • CN VI – n. abducens - motor

  • CN VII – n. facialis – motor + PS

  • CN VIII – n. vestibulocochlearis - sensoric

  • CN IX – n. glossopharyngeus – PS + sens + motor + senz

  • CN X – n. vagus – PS + motor + sensitive + sensoric

  • CN XI – n. accessorius - motor

  • CN XII – n. hypoglossus – motor


Cranial nerves origin in the brain stem

Cranial nerves origin in the brain stem


General scheme for cn studying

General scheme for CN studying

  • number, Latin and English term

  • developmental type of CN

  • nuclei + their location

  • transmitted modalities

  • where CN submerge into skull

  • course of CN + topography

  • branches

  • overview of supplied area

  • clinical examination, reflexes

  • palsy / iritation


I n olfactorius

I – n. olfactorius

  • Olfactory nerve

  • Rather bundle of nerve fibres, than a nerve

  • Pure sensoric nerve

  • Bipolar neurons

  • Ability to regenerate

  • N. terminalis, n. vomeronasalis - rudiments


Olfactory tract

Olfactorytract

  • Fila olfactoria, bulbus – interconnection, tractus, trigonum, striaolfactoria (med. + lat.), brain areas

  • Disorders: anosmia, parosmia, kakosmia


Ii n opticus

II – n. opticus

  • Optic nerve

  • Diencephalon pouch

  • Consist of axons of the 3rd nerves of the optic tract

  • Covers: vagina externa + interna (from meninges)

  • A.+ V. centralis retinae

  • Pars intraocularis

  • Pars orbitalis

  • Pars canalis optici

  • Pars intracranialis


Optic tract

Optictract

  • N. opticus –> chiasma opticum –> tractusopticus

  • Disorders: amaurosis, hemianopsia, scotom


Nerves for the eye movement

Nervesfortheeyemovement


External muscles of the eye ball

Externalmusclesoftheeye-ball

  • 4 recti (superior, inferior, lateralis, medialis)

  • 2 oliqui (superior + inferior)

  • m. levator palpebrae superioris

  • smooth muscles: m. orbitalis, mm. tarsales


Nerves for the eye movement1

Nervesfortheeyemovement

  • CN III, IV and VI for 7 muscles

  • CN IV and VI pure somatomotor functions

  • CN III – somatomotor + PS functions


Iii n oculomotorius

III - n. oculomotorius

  • Oculomotor nerve

  • nc. oculomotorius (somatomotor)

  • nc. Edinger-Westphal (PS)

  • Ramus superior + inferior (r. communicans ad ggl. ciliare)

  • Palsy: diplopia, divergent strabismus, ptosis, mydriasis

  • Innervates:

    • m. rectus superior

    • m. rectus medialis

    • m. rectus inferior

    • m. obliquus inferior

    • m. levator palpebrae sup.


Ggl ciliare

ggl. ciliare

  • Ciliary ganglion


Cranial nerves

  • m. sphincterpupilae

  • m. dilatatorpupilae

  • m. ciliaris


Iv n trochlearis

IV - n. trochlearis

  • Trochlear nerve, pure somatomotor

  • Innervates m. obliquus superior

  • Nucleus trochlearis

  • Only one which emerges from the brain stem dorsally

  • sinus cavernosus, fissura orbitalis superior, ATC Zinni

  • Palsy: diplopiawhen looking down and laterally (downstairs)


Iv n abducens

IV - n. abducens

  • Abducens nerve, pure motor (nc. abducens)

  • Innervates m. rectus lateralis

  • Dorello´s canal, sinus cavernosus, fissura orbitalis superior, ATC Zinni

  • Palsy: diplopia, convergent strabism


Nerves for eye movement

Nervesforeye-movement


Orbita

Orbita


Sinus cavernosus

Sinus cavernosus


Anulus tendineus communis zinni

AnulustendineuscommunisZinni


Anulus tendineus communis zinni1

Anulustendineuscommunis (Zinni)


V n trigeminus

V – n. trigeminus

  • Trigeminal nerve – 3 branches

  • 3 sensitive nuclei:

    • nc. mesencephalicus

    • nc. pontinus

    • nc. spinalis (in medulla oblongata)

  • 1 motor nucleus: nc. motorius

  • Vegetative part joins along the course

  • Emerging from the pons

  • Sensitive ganglion trigeminale (Gasseri)

  • PS ganglions (ciliare, pterygopalatinum, oticum, submandibulare)


V 1 n opthalmicus

V1 – n. opthalmicus

  • Senzitive nerv

  • 3 main branches:

    • n. frontalis

    • n. lacrimalis (sensitive + PS)

    • n. nasociliaris

  • Connections with nerves for eye-movement (sensitive fibres)

  • Parasympatic fibres for n. lacrimalis from connection from n. zygomaticus (V2)


V 1 n opthalmicus1

V1 – n. opthalmicus


V 2 n maxillaris

V2 – n. maxillaris

  • Sensitive nerve

  • Parasympathetic fibres for ggl. pterygopalatinum from n. facialis

  • passes foramen rotundum, branches out in fossa pterygopalatina

    • n. infraorbitalis

    • n. zygomaticus

    • nn. pterygopalatini


V 3 n mandibularis

V3 – n. mandibularis

  • Sensitive and motor nerve

  • Parasympatic fibres for ggl. oticum from n. IX,

    for ggl. submandibulare from VII

  • passes foramen ovale, branches out in fossa infratemporalis


V 3 n mandibularis1

V3 – n. mandibularis

  • muscle branches (n. massetericus, nn. temporales profundi, nn. pterygoidei)

  • n. bucalis

  • n. auriculotemporalis

  • n. lingualis

  • n. alveolaris inferior


V 3 n mandibularis2

V3 – n. mandibularis


Ganglia of trigeminus

Ganglia of trigeminus

  • gglciliare

  • PS fibres for glands interconnects in the ganglias

  • Sympatic fibres for smooth muscles pass through

  • Sensitive fibres pass through

  • gglpterygopalatinum

  • gglsubmandibulare

  • ggloticum


Ggl ciliare1

ggl. ciliare

  • Ciliary ganglion


Cranial nerves

  • m. sphincterpupilae

  • m. dilatatorpupilae

  • m. ciliaris


Ggl pterygopalatinum

ggl. pterygopalatinum

  • PS for lacrimal gland, glands of nose, mouth from n. petrosus major (n. VII)


Ggl oticum

ggl. oticum

  • PS from nucleus of CN. IX to parotid gland


Ggl submandibulare

ggl. submandibulare

  • Near of n. lingualis and submandibular gland

  • PS from n. lingualis (by chorda tympani, n. VII)

  • S from plexus of a. facialis

  • rr. glandulares for submandibular and sublingual glands (PS)


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