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Principles of Management . Week 14 – Leadership. Definition. What is a leader? A leader is someone who can influence others and has managerial authority 7 theories of leadership. Organizational leadership. Establish organizational mission. Formulate strategy for implementing

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Week 14 – Leadership

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Week 14 leadership

Principles of Management

Week 14 – Leadership



  • What is a leader?

    • A leader is someone who can influence others and has managerial authority

    • 7 theories of leadership

Organizational leadership

Organizational leadership

Week 14 leadership





strategy for


that mission

Increase people’s

commitment and

effort toward

the mission

and strategy



strategy through






Leaders Versus Managers

Leaders - primary functionis to create the essential purpose

or mission; cope with change

Managers - primary function is to implement the leader’s vision

- create plans and monitor results

Distinguishing Leader’s and Manager’s Roles

What is leadership

What is Leadership?

Trait theories

Trait Theories


  • What are the characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders?

    • Drive to succeed

    • Desire to lead

    • Honesty and integrity

    • Self-confidence

    • Intelligence

    • Job relevant knowledge

    • Extraversion

  • Limited support

Behavioral theories

Behavioral Theories


  • What do leaders do?

    • University of Iowa Studies

      • Autocratic, democratic, & lassez-faire leader

      • Democratic style seems to relate to subordinates’ job satisfaction

    • The Ohio State Studies

      • Initiating structure (defining roles for subordinates)

      • Consideration (trusting & respect subordinates)

    • University of Michigan Studies

      • Employee-oriented

      • Production-oriented (accomplishing goals)

Week 14 leadership

Person-Oriented and Production-Oriented Leaders








Behavioral Theories


Low concern for production


High concern for people

High concern for production


High concern for people

Low concern for production


Low concern for people

High concern for production


Low concern for people

Lpc fiedler contingency model

LPC Fiedler Contingency Model


  • Effective leadership requires a match between leader’s style of interaction and the situation

    Leader’s style

    • Relationship-oriented (High LPC) vs. Task-oriented (Low LPC)

    • Least-preferred coworker questionnaire

    • http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~sa165699/esp/page03.htm


    • Leader-member relations (members’ trust & confidence?)

    • task structure (subordinates’ jobs formalized?)

    • position power (supervisor has how much power?)

Lpc fiedler contingency model1

LPC Fiedler Contingency Model


  • Assumptions:

    • A certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.

    • Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.

      • Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.

Findings of the fiedler model

Findings of the Fiedler Model

Path goal model

Path-Goal Model


  • A leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support to ensure their goals are compatible with organizational goals.

    • Directive leader

    • Supportive leader

    • Participative leader

    • Achievement oriented


Path goal theory

Path-Goal Theory

Week 14 leadership





Morale, Commitment,

and Job Performance


Morale, Commitment,

and Job Performance

Leader-Member Exchange Model (LMX)


Leaders form different relations with various subordinates and the nature of such dyadic exchanges can affect subordinates’ performance and satisfaction

In-group - receive inflated performance ratings, have positive job attitudes, and less likely to resign from their jobs

Out-group - subordinates disfavored by leaders

Transactional vs transformational leadership

Transactional vs. Transformational leadership


  • Transactional leaders

    • Guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements

    • Like making a transaction with the subordinate

  • Transformational leaders

    • Transforming followers by inspiring them to put out extra effort to achieve group goals

    • Provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation

    • Possesses charisma

Charismatic charming leadership

Charismatic (charming) Leadership


  • An enthusiastic, self-confident

    leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways

    • More specifically, 5 attributes

    • Vision, articulate the vision, willing to take risks to achieve that vision, sensitive to envt constraints and followers’ needs, and exhibit behaviors that are out of ordinary

    • Charismatic leaders can be trained

Week 14 leadership

“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character”

  • Vision

    • (e.g., Dr. Martin Luther King – racial equality)

  • Articulate the vision

    • (e.g., I envision a playground where children of all races are playing harmoniously)

  • Willing to take risks to achieve that vision

    • Demonstrates commitment to the vision to subordinates

  • Sensitive to envt constraints and followers’ needs

    • Demonstrates awareness of factors that affect the likelihood of achieving the vision

  • Exhibit behaviors that are out of ordinary

    • Followers think that you are special & unique

Cross cultural leadership

Cross-Cultural Leadership

  • Universal Elements of Effective Leadership

    • Vision

    • Foresight

    • Providing encouragement

    • Trustworthiness

    • Dynamism

    • Positiveness

    • Proactiveness

Selected cross cultural leadership findings

Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings

  • Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees.

  • Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak.

  • Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently.

  • Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals.

  • Effective leaders in Malaysia are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style.

  • Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low self-protection, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation.

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