Chapter 3 legal liability and insurance
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Chapter 3: Legal Liability and Insurance. Legal Concerns of the Coach and Athletic Trainer. Negligence suits involving coaches, athletic trainers, school officials and physicians have increased in frequency and amount of damages awarded Liability

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Chapter 3: Legal Liability and Insurance

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Chapter 3 legal liability and insurance

Chapter 3: Legal Liability and Insurance


Legal concerns of the coach and athletic trainer

Legal Concerns of the Coach and Athletic Trainer

  • Negligence suits involving coaches, athletic trainers, school officials and physicians have increased in frequency and amount of damages awarded

  • Liability

    • Being legally responsible for the harm one causes another person


Standard of reasonable care

Standard of Reasonable Care

Negligence: the failure to use ordinary

or reasonable care.

Standards of reasonable care

assumes that a person is of ordinary and reasonable prudence

bring commonsense approach to the situation

must operate within the appropriate limitations of one’s educational background


Negligence

Negligence

Care giver does something a reasonably prudent individual would not.

Care giver fails to do something a reasonably prudent individual would not.

Athletic trainer has a duty to provide coverage to athletes (obligation)


Chapter 3 legal liability and insurance

  • Individual possessing higher level of training will possess higher level of competence

  • Once coach or athletic trainer assumes duty of caring for athlete, that person has an obligation to provide appropriate care

  • Obligation to provide services vs. Scope of employment

  • Good Samaritan Law

    • Provides limited protection against legal liability to one that provides care should something go wrong


Torts

Torts

Legal wrongs committed against a person (liability results)

May emanate from

Nonfeasance (fail to perform legal duty, i.e. fail to refer)

Malfeasance (performs action that is not his/hers to legally perform, i.e. perform advanced treatmentleading to complications)


Statutes of limitation

Statutes of Limitation

Specific length of time an individual can sue for injury resulting from negligence.

Varies by state but generally ranges from one to three years

Clock begins at the time the negligent act results in suit or from the time injury is discovered following negligent act

Minors generally have an extension


Assumption of risk

Assumption of Risk

Athlete is made aware of inherent risks involved in sport and voluntarily decides to continue participating

Expressed in written waiver or implied from conduct of athlete once participation begins

Can be used as defense against an athlete’s negligence suit


Chapter 3 legal liability and insurance

  • Does not excuse overseers from exhibiting reasonable care and prudence in regards to conduct of activities or foreseeing potential hazards

  • Many and varied interpretations (particularly with minors)

  • Often a waiver will stand in court except in incidents of fraud, misrepresentation, or duress


Product liability

Product Liability

  • Liability of any or all parties involved in manufactured product for damages caused by product

    • Includes manufacturer of components, assemblers, wholesaler, and retail store owner

  • Products with inherent defects are subject to liability suits

  • May be based on negligence, strict liability, or breach of warranty fitness


Chapter 3 legal liability and insurance

  • Manufacturer of equipment has duty to design and produce equipment that will not cause injury

  • Express warranty

    • Manufacturer’s written guarantee – product safety

  • Equipment warning labels

    • Informs athlete of possible dangers inherent with product use

    • National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE)

      • Minimum standards for equipment to ensure safety


Insurance

Insurance

  • Major changes in insurance have occurred in light of managed care

  • Major increases in the number of lawsuits and cost of insurance

  • Medical insurance is a contract between the company and policyholder

  • Company agrees to pay portion of medical bills following payment of a deductible


General health insurance

General Health Insurance

  • Policy that covers illnesses, hospitalization and emergency care

  • Sometimes offered through academic institutions for students (athletics)

  • Secondary insurance provided through institutions to cover costs above primary insurance coverage

  • Schools and universities must ensure that athletes have primary insurance coverage (in place or arranged for)


Reimbursement

Reimbursement

  • Primary mechanism of payment for medical services in the U.S.

  • Policyholder insurance company reimburses health care providers for services rendered

  • Number of different options

    • Pre-arranged systems

    • Payment for preventive care

    • Other systems developed to contain costs


Health maintenance organization

Health Maintenance Organization

  • Provide preventive measures and dictate where individual can receive care

  • Permission must be gained to see someone outside of the plan (except in emergencies)

  • HMO will pay 100% of costs if care rendered within the HMO plan providers

  • ATC’s must have working knowledge of HMO limits and restrictions


Preferred providers organization

Preferred Providers Organization

  • Provide discount health care and also limit where treatment can be obtained

  • Must be aware of what facilities are approved for the program in order have cost completely covered

  • May include additional types of coverage (physical therapy)

  • PPO pay on a fee-for-service basis


Point of service

Point of Service

  • Combination of HMO and PPO

  • Based on HMO model but allows for care outside of the plan

  • Flexibility is allowed for certain conditions and circumstances


Indemnity plan

Indemnity Plan

  • Most traditional form of billing for health care

  • Fee-for-service plan that allows insured party to seek care without restrictions

  • Provider charges patient or third-party payer

  • Charges are set on fee schedule


Capitation

Capitation

  • Form of reimbursement where members make standard payment monthly regardless of services rendered

  • Managed care plans utilize this practice


Accident insurance

Accident Insurance

  • Low cost plan to cover accident on school grounds to student

  • Protects student against financial loss from medical and hospital bills

  • Provides for additional protection for institution above regular policy

  • Will cover costs associated with hospital care, surgery, and catastrophic injuries


Insurance to protect coach athletic trainer and other personnel

Insurance to Protect Coach, Athletic Trainer and Other Personnel

  • Protect against damages that may arise from injuries occurring on school property

  • Covers against claims of negligence on part of individuals

  • Because of rise in lawsuits, professionals must be fully protected, particularly in regards to negligence

  • Will cover negligence in civil case – not criminal complaint


Catastrophic insurance

Catastrophic Insurance

  • Catastrophic injuries in athletics are relatively rare, but are staggering to all involved

  • Organizations (NCAA, NAIA, NFSHSA) provide additional coverage to deal with lifetime extensive care

  • Errors and omissions liability insurance has evolved to protect individuals against suits claiming malpractice, negligence, errors and omissions (each person should still have personal liability insurance)


Chapter 3 legal liability and insurance

  • Ensuring that all athletes and faculty/staff coverage is in place is critically important

  • Filing of claims, at times, is the responsibility of the athletic trainer

  • Can be very time consuming taking the ATC away from other responsibilities

  • Additional staff may be necessary to deal with added responsibilities


Insurance billing

Insurance Billing

  • Must file claims immediately and correctly

  • To facilitate, collect insurance information at the start of the academic year

  • Letters should be sent home to fully explain the coverage available and necessary procedures

  • Standard forms are the norm, but accurate and thorough completion is critical


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