Skip this Video
Download Presentation
by Loren Miller

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 131

by Loren Miller - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

THE TEXAS LEGISLATURE. by Loren Miller. Points to Ponder. In 1965, a member of the Texas House submitted a resolution commending Albert DeSalvo for his efforts in population control. No one checked to see who Mr. DeSalvo was. It passed.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' by Loren Miller' - toyah

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript


by Loren Miller

points to ponder
Points to Ponder . . . .
  • In 1965, a member of the Texas House submitted a resolution commending Albert DeSalvo for his efforts in population control. No one checked to see who Mr. DeSalvo was. It passed.
    • The next day, the New York Times informed the world that the Texas Legislature had just commended the “Boston Strangler.”
  • In 1969, a newly elected member of the Texas House was in Austin for new member orientation. That night he went out on 6th street, got drunk and when a bouncer tried to escort him out of the establishment, he pulled a gun and informed the patrons that “I’m a member of the legislature, and you can’t do this to me.”
    • This also made the New York Times.
points to ponder1
Points to Ponder . . . .
  • In 1963, a bill that would have fined a Texan $50 for flying the United Nations flag failed after an amendment jacked up the penalty to death. Treason is treason!!
  • In 1981, there was HB 3333. If it had flown it would have created a Board of T-Shirt Design Examiners.
  • In 1983, there was HB 38-24-36 (yes, you got it right) to create a Board of Ecdysiast Examiners. (Ecdysiasts are strippers).
points to ponder2
Points to Ponder . . . .
  • In 1981, Rep. Mike Martin hired his cousin to give him a shotgun wound – heroic, not fatal – so that he could boast that he’d been attacked by a satanic cult alarmed by his conservatism.
  • In 1983, Rep. Jimmy Mankins proposed a law to relieve Texas prisons. He hope to parole volunteer Texas convicts and buy them a one-way bus ticket to Washington, D.C., after they promised never to return to Texas. He gave Cuba’s Fidel Castro credit for the idea.
  • Up until 1900, lawmakers carried concealed guns to work.
points to ponder3
Points to Ponder . . . .

Rep. “Mad Dog” Mengden (from Houston) began a speech about sex education thusly: “This is the way I see the problem, if there is a problem, which I deny.”

This year his legislative program includes prison reform—he wants female convicts to be more ladylike.

points to ponder4
Points to Ponder . . . .

On environmental legislation, Rep. Billy Williamson (whose district included an asbestos plant) stated: “I think we are all willing to have alittle bit of crud in our lungs and a full stomach rather than a whole lot of clean are and nothing to eat. And I don’t want a bunch of environmentalists and Communists telling me what’s good for me and my family.”

points to ponder5
Points to Ponder . . . .
  • In 1971, Rep. Jim Kaster introduced a bill requiring felons to submit twenty-four hour notice of what crimes they planned to commit and where.
  • Curtis Graves introduced a bill commonly referred to as “Curtis’ Clean Crapper Bill” as an effort to have minimum standards of cleanliness for public johns in the state.
points to ponder6
Points to Ponder . . . .
  • In the early 90’s, a member of the legislature introduced a resolution to create a committee to recommend to the next session of the legislature the “official color of the official state condom.” It passed.
  • In the mid 90’s, during a debate on an open container law, a member of the legislature stated that “Bubba, after a hard day’s work at the factory or on the farm, deserves to swig a few on the way home.”
  • “If you took all the fools out of the Legislature, it wouldn’t be a representative body anymore.”

Carl Parker

former State Senator

points to ponder7
Points to Ponder . . . .
  • In early 1997, Senator Drew Nixon (R-Carthage) was arrested in South Austin with an unlicensed handgun in his automobile after he was taped and filmed bargaining for sex from an undercover policewoman. He pled guilty to a Class B misdemeanor and served a 6-month sentence on weekends while continuing in office.
    • His election campaign focused on “family values.”
  • In 1999, a 20-year-old Brazosport College student working for Senator J.E. Brown (R-Lake Jackson) complained that he had fondled and attempted to kiss her while giving her a golf lesson in his law office. Although Brown publicly gave his former employee a letter of apology, he continued in office.
points to ponder8
Points to Ponder . . . .
  • An abortion bill was being debated in the 2013 legislative session. An amendment was offered to exempt victims of rape or incest from the 20th week requirement. Representative Jodi Laubenberg (R., Plano) spoke against the exemption stating that rape kits used in hospitals can prevent unwanted pregnancies.
      • Rape kits are used to collect evidence in a sexual assault
it s not just legislators
It’s Not Just Legislators . . . .
  • The Round Rock Leader ran a reader poll asking, “If the election was today, would you vote for Obama or Romney?” but offered responses of only “yes” and “no.” “No” won with 56 percent.
  • Lubbock County judge Tom Head claimed on a local news program that a proposed tax increase would be needed to put down civil unrest and defend the county from invading United Nations forces should President Obama be reelected.
the rise of the republicans 1970 2000
The Rise of the Republicans1970-2000

Texas Democrats are more conservative than Democratic.

Democratic presidential candidates have been viewed by many Texans as being “too liberal.”

Bedroom communities of major Texas cities have attracted white collar industries whose workers tend to be Republican.

Blacks and Hispanics, who tend to be Democrats, do not turn out to vote to the same extent as Anglos.

Impact of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

the fall of the republicans 2020
The Fall of the Republicans??2020+

The labor force today is 64 percent Anglo and 22 percent Hispanic. By 2030 it will be 45 percent Hispanic and 37 percent Anglo.

The average household income for 2000 was $45,736. In 2030 it will be $42,620.

In the past, Republicans have based winning at least 2/3’s of the Anglo vote, 1/3 of the Hispanic vote, and 1/10 of the Black vote

With the rapid growth of the Hispanic population, Texas may become a competitive two-party state.


Mitt Romney’s Stance on Hispanic Issues:

He vowed to veto the DREAM Act which would

make non-citizens who serve in the military

eligible for citizenship.

He favored a system of self-deportation, a policy

that involves making economic conditions so

difficult for undocumented workers that they choose

to leave the country. If they want to return, they

would then get in the “back of the line.”


Arizona Immigration Law:

Requires that state law enforcement officials attempt

to determine an individual’s immigration status during a

“lawful stop, detention, or arrest” or during a “lawful contact”

not specific to any activity.

Sotomayor Vote

Latino Vote:

44% for Bush (2004)

31% for McCain (2008)

27% for Romney (2012)

the fall of the republicans 20202
The Fall of the Republicans??2020+

Non-Hispanic, White








National Totals


“The future of Texas is tied to its minority populations. How well they do is how well Texas will do.”

Steve Murdock, demographer,

Texas A&M University

method of election

The Texas Legislature is a bicameral body:

-- 31 members of the Texas Senate

-- 150 members of the Texas House

-- all are elected from single-member districts

reapportionment used to redistribute the 435 seats in the u s house
Reapportionment(Used to redistribute the 435 seats in the U.S. House)
  • Done by the Bureau of the Census every ten years
  • A mathematical process (as opposed to a political process)
  • Texas uses the census figures to divide the state into the appropriate number of districts (31 and 150)
texas 2010
Texas: 2010
  • The Population of Texas 25,500,000
  • 25,500,000
  • 150
  • 25,500,000
  • 31




The people do not select their representatives; the representatives select their people.

  • Done by each state legislature usually every ten years, but legally this can be done more often than every ten years (LULAC v. Perry, 2006)
  • A political process
battles of the 1960s
Battles of the 1960s
  • State legislatures, dominated by rural interests, but whose states were predominantly urban, were challenged in a series of Supreme Court cases beginning in 1960.
supreme court requirements
Supreme Court Requirements
  • Within each state, the population of each district should be as equal as possible [(Baker v. Carr, 1960) Silent Gerrymander]
  • The districts must be contiguous
  • Districts must not be drawn to discriminate against minorities
one person one vote
One Person, One Vote
  • Baker v. Carr (1960) – lower house, state legislature
  • Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) – U.S. House of Representatives
  • Reynolds v. Sims (1964) – upper house, state legislature
avery v midland co 1968
Avery v. Midland Co. (1968)

City of


98% of



voting rights act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Districts can not be drawn to discriminate on the basis of race or color
  • It’s very difficult to prove discriminatory intent or purpose (Voting Rights Act of 1965). In 1982 Congress outlawed any arrangement that had the effect of weakening minority voting power (intended or not).
voting rights act of 19651
Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Areas with a history of discrimination, such as Texas, had to submit redistricting plans to the U.S. Department of Justice for approval before they can go into effect.
  • This is no longer the case as the Supreme Court ruled that “preclearance” is no longer required. Shelby County v. Holder (2013)
creating minority districts
Creating Minority Districts
  • Increasing representation to one group almost always means decreasing the political influence of another.
  • Blacks v. Hispanics in almost any large urban area
  • Districts can be created to protect incumbents
    • Davis v. Bandemer, 1986
gerry mander

Named after Elbridge Gerry, one of our founding fathers.

  • A term used to describe a district that has been drawn in an unusual shape for political reasons
  • “Gerrymander” has a negative connotation
  • One person’s “gerrymander” is another’s “creatively drawn” district
  • The key concept to grasp is that there are no neutral lines for legislative districts.
  • “Gerrymandering is somewhat like pornography—you know it when you see it, but it’s awful difficult to define.“

Rep. AbnerMikva

Colbert Report, Gerrymandering

types of gerrymander
Types of Gerrymander
  • Cracking
  • Packing
  • Pairing
gerrymander type ii

What would you consider to be a comfortable margin of victory for “your side”?

Then your goal in drawing districts is to create as many districts as possible with this comfortable victory margin for “your side.”

Gerrymander: Type II
gerrymander type ii1
District 1

Democrat 42% Republican 58%

District 2

Democrat 73% Republican 27%

Gerrymander: Type II

Who Drew These Districts??

Democrats or Republicans

gerrymander type ii2
Gerrymander: Type II
  • In 1992, of Texas’ 30 representatives, there were 18 Democrats and 12 Republicans.
  • The average margin of victory for the 18 Democrats was 58%.
  • The average margin of victory for the 12 Republicans was 76%.
  • Then federal judges ordered the redrawing of several districts.
gerrymander type ii3
Gerrymander: Type II
  • In 1996, of Texas’ 30 representatives, there were 17 Democrats and 13 Republicans.
  • The average margin of victory for the 17 Democrats was 59%.
  • The average margin of victory for the 13 Republicans was 66%.
gerrymander type iii

District 1

Gerrymander: Type III

District 2

Liberal Democrat

Conservative Democrat

gerrymander type iii1

New District 1

Gerrymander: Type III

New District 2

Liberal Democrat

Conservative Democrat

gerrymander type iii2

District 1

Gerrymander: Type III

District 2

Liberal Democrat

Liberal Democrat

gerrymander type iii3

New District 1

Gerrymander: Type III

New District 2

Liberal Democrat

Liberal Democrat


Ohio lost two House seats so Republicans paired two Democrats who live over 120 miles apart


Create a majority Democratic district that encompasses the major media markets in the state so that the representative becomes well known enough to run for the Senate.


Cracking Franklin County (Urban/Liberal) to create a majority Republican district

north carolina
North Carolina

College towns (Democratic) are packed.


Packing to create a majority Hispanic district and also save two Black representatives


Cracking Salt Lake City to create a majority Republican district


Republicans packed as many minorities and Democratic voters into this downtown Detroit district


Cracking of Travis County into Five Districts

gerrymandering in action
Gerrymandering in Action







gerrymandering in action1
Gerrymandering in Action

Republican Plan

2 Democrats

1 Republican







gerrymandering in action2
Gerrymandering in Action

Democratic Plan

3 Democrats

0 Republicans







gerrymandering in action3
Gerrymandering in Action








gerrymandering in action4
Gerrymandering in Action

Democratic Plan

3 Democratic

0 Republican








gerrymandering in action5
Gerrymandering in Action

Republican Plan

1 Democratic

2 Republican








the texas redistricting controversy 2001 2006
The Texas Redistricting Controversy 2001-2006
  • The Texas Legislature was unable to reach agreement in 2001.
  • A panel of three federal judges (two Republicans and one Democrat) drew the map and the map was upheld in court.
  • Election Results:
    • 17 Democrats and 15 Republicans
      • 5 Districts that were drawn to elect a Republican, instead elected a Democrat
the texas redistricting controversy 2001 20061
The Texas Redistricting Controversy 2001-2006
  • Republicans: “Texas is a Republican state; “We deserve more seats in Congress.”
  • Republicans hold every statewide office and a majority in each house of the Texas Legislature.
  • Democrats hold a 17-15 edge in Texas’ congressional delegation
the texas redistricting controversy 2001 20062
The Texas Redistricting Controversy 2001-2006
  • U.S. House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, R-Sugar Lane, argues that the congressional districts are unfairly draw to favor longtime (read Democratic) incumbents.
the texas redistricting controversy 2001 20063
The Texas Redistricting Controversy 2001-2006
  • In the regular legislative session, House Democrats bolted to Oklahoma to deny a quorum.
  • Governor Perry calls a special session and Senate Democrats bolt to New Mexico to deny a quorum.
the texas redistricting controversy 2001 20064
The Texas Redistricting Controversy 2001-2006
  • Governor Perry calls for a second special session.
  • One Democrat breaks rank which assures a quorum.
how successful were the republicans
How Successful were the Republicans?
  • Six Democratic incumbents were targeted for defeat and five were defeated for re-election.
  • The average winning margin for Republicans was 66%; the average winning margin for Democrats was 71%.
lulac v perry 2006
LULAC v. Perry, 2006

The 23rd District violates the Voting Rights Act because it discriminated against Hispanics.

the texas redistricting controversy 2011 2012
The Texas Redistricting Controversy 2011-2012
  • Texas gained four seats after the 2010 census.
  • Most of this population growth had been among the state’s minority populations.
    • Hispanics accounted for 65 percent of the population growth
    • Hispanics, Blacks and Asians accounted for 90 percent of the growth
the texas redistricting controversy 2011 20121
The Texas Redistricting Controversy 2011-2012
  • The Republican controlled state legislature drew maps that protected Republicans.
  • This was challenged in court and a three judge panel found evidence of discrimination in violation of the Voting Rights Act and redrew several districts to benefit minorities.
the texas redistricting controversy 2011 20122
The Texas Redistricting Controversy 2011-2012
  • Republicans challenged this in court stating that the redistricting was done to “advantage Republicans, not to disadvantage minorities.”
  • In 2012 Republican congressional candidates captured 59 percent of the vote but captured 67 percent of the house seats.
  • This fight is not over!
legal qualifications
Legal Qualifications
  • Texas House
    • at least 21 years of age
    • a U.S. citizen
    • a registered voter
    • have lived in the state for 2 years and in the district for 1 year
  • Texas Senate
    • at least 26 years of age
    • a U.S. citizen
    • a registered voter
    • Have lived in the state for 5 years and in the district for 1 year
practical qualifications
Practical Qualifications
  • “Birthright Characteristics”
    • includes race, ethnicity, religion, and national background
      • Legislators tend to represent their district
  • Informal Qualifications
    • includes income, education, occupation, and gender
      • Legislators tend not to represent their district

“Along with bar rooms and bordellos, there has not been a more male-dominated institution . . . than the Texas legislature. These three worlds have a lot in common, such as liquor, tobacco, money, fist fights, and, of course, politics. They are also arenas of male dominion and social bonding.”

Nancy Baker Jones, historian

good old boys
Good Old Boys . . . .
  • In a debate about a park in West Texas, Representative Mike Hamilton (R, Mauriceville) interrupted Marisa Marquez and stated:
    • “Young lady, would you please tell us why your mountains are better than any of our mountains, and are they man-made or are they real mountains?”
        • 2011
limited session

“They really meant two days every 140 years!”

Early January

Early June

Introduction of Bills (1 – 60)

140 Day Session

Odd Numbered Years (only 4 states have biennial sessions)

limited session1

If a disputed bill passes at all,

when will it pass?

Role of Lobbyists

Early January

Early June

Filing Deadline is 90 days

80% of the votes come in the last two weeks

140 Day Session

Odd Numbered Years


limited session2

Rep. Bob Bullock described the thoughtful process by which he came to vote Yea or Nay on many a bill.

“I’d be settin’ there of a mornin’, hung over as hell, probably been to some lobby party the night before, and a friend would stop by my desk and ask, ‘Ya heard about of’ Joe’s bill?”

“I never wanted to let on that I knew no more about ol’ Joe’s bill than I do about quantum physics, so I’d nod, lookin’ as wise as a treefuol of owls, and he’d say, ‘Bad bill, bad bill.’ and I’d nod some more.

“Two minutes later, some freshman’d come by and ask me what I thought of ol’ Joe’s bill. I’d say ‘Bad bill, bad bill.’ And the two of us would vote against it without ever knowin’ what was in it.”


If you ask the question, “Whose bill is it?” what you mean is, which lobby wrote it. If you want to know which legislator is sponsoring the bill, you ask, “Who’s carrying the bill?

Shows the influence of Lobbyists


“If you meet only occasionally, get paid little, and have weak staffs, you are at the disposal of the lobby because you have to go to them for information.”

Cal Jillson,

political scientist

speaker of the house
Speaker of the House
  • The Speaker is elected by a majority vote of the members of the House
    • generally we know months before the session begins as to who will become speaker (chits)
    • for many years the election was on a bipartisan basis
  • Appoints the chairs of all committees and one half of the members of the committees
  • Appoint all house members of conference committees
  • Recognize (or not) members who wish to speak on the floor
  • Break a tie vote
speaker of the house1
Speaker of the House
  • The Speaker’s role has changed over the years.
  • Through the 1940s, Speakers served a single two-year term and then retired or sought higher office.
  • From 1951 to 1975, most Speakers served one of two terms, but no more than two.
  • Since 1975, Speakers have served multiple terms.
    • The position has changed from a rotating, largely honorary position charged mainly with presiding over House debates to an office in which individual Speakers have wielded tremendous power and even control state policy.
lieutenant governor
Lieutenant Governor
  • Elected by the voters of the state and serves a four year term
  • Powers are assigned by the rules of the senate which are adopted at the start of the session
    • appoints all chairs of all committees
    • selects all of the members of all substantive committees
    • appoints senate members of conference committees
    • recognize (or not) members who wish to speak on the floor
    • break a tie vote

Note: while the powers of the Lieutenant Governor are similar to those of the Speaker, they can be modified which means that the Lieutenant Governor must appease powerful senators

the team
The Team
  • Supporters and close associates of the presiding officers are commonly known as “the team.”
  • Legislators who support the winning candidate for Speaker, particularly if they signed on early and worked to build support, are usually rewarded with important committee assignments.
  • Historically, “the team” has not been a strictly partisan group. Loyalty to the presiding officer is more important than your particular political party.
  • The first step in the process is the drafting of a bill. Who drafts most bills?
      • Lobbyists
      • Executive Branch (Governor’s Office)
      • Members
      • Constituents

The Legislative Process

  • The Texas Constitution requires three readings of a bill on the floor of each house.
  • The first reading occurs when the bill is introduced when the clerk reads the bills caption, a short summary and the committee to which it is assigned.
  • The bill is introduced, numbered, printed and then sent to a committee by the Speaker
    • the committee assignment may determine whether the bill is passed or killed
    • there are approximately 40 standing committees in the Texas House
    • the committee chair determines whether the bill will be discussed or not
      • if discussed, then the committee may amend the bill and will either issue a favorable or an unfavorable report

Committee Stage

Bill From

House Floor

Business and

Economic Development


28 Members

General Government

Criminal Justice

Health and Human Services


getting bills to the floor
  • Local and Consent Calendar
    • legislation impacting only a limited number of jurisdictions, consent bills and non-controversial resolutions.
  • House Calendar Committee
    • controlled by the speaker
    • this is how the speaker controls the flow of legislation
house calendar committee
House Calendar Committee
  • The Calendar Committee has 30 days after receiving a bill to vote on placing the bill on the calendar for floor consideration.
    • After this period any member can place a bill on a calendar by a majority vote (rarely done)

The Calendar Committee

house action
House Action
  • When the bill comes up for consideration on the floor, it is given the second reading (usually just the caption).
  • After the debate and amendment, a vote is taken for tentative approval. If passed, then the bill is given its third reading.

Committees to Floor








Controlled by the Speaker

House Floor

To The Senate

informal rules
Informal Rules
  • Don’t:
    • conceal the real purpose of a bill
    • deal in personalities in floor debate
    • be a thorn in the side of the majority by refusing unanimous consent
    • speak on issues you know nothing about
    • seek publicity from the press to look good to the people back home
    • talk to the press about decisions reached in private
  • The bill is referred to a committee by the Lieutenant Governor
    • the committee assignment may determine whether the bill is passed or killed
    • there are approximately 20 standing committees in the Texas Senate
    • the committee chair determines whether the bill will be discussed or not
      • if discussed, then the committee may amend the bill and will either issue a favorable or an unfavorable report
getting bills to the floor1
  • Senate, Suspension of the Rules
    • A dummy bill (not intended for floor action) is introduced and numbered
    • To bypass the dummy bill, requires a 2/3’s vote to be considered on the floor
      • A vote to suspend the rules
      • Once the rules have been suspended, Senators may talk as long as they want to (filibuster)
        • Bill Meier (1977) – 43 hours (state and national record)
getting bills to the floor2

“The two-thirds rule protects the conservatives from wacky liberal bills, and it protects the liberals from wacky conservative bills.”

“It imposes adult behavior on people who might be otherwise inclined.”

Jeff Wentworth, State Senator R., San Antonio

Kel Seliger, State Senator, R., Amarillo

how do you vote
How Do You Vote?
  • Delegate
    • a representative who votes the way their constituents would vote regardless of their own personal opinions
  • Trustee
    • a representative who listens to constituents opinions and then uses their best judgment in making a final decision

Conference Committee

House Bill

Senate Bill




A New Bill





(New Bill)



No Amendments

bills and resolutions
Bills and Resolutions
  • Bills:
    • Special: makes an exception to laws for the benefit of a specific individual, class or corporation
    • General: apply to all people or property in all parts of Texas
    • Local: affects a single unit of local government
  • Simple Resolution: (H.R. or S.R.)
    • Involves one chamber and is not sent to the governor
    • Requires a simple majority vote of members present
    • Affect only the chamber that is voting on the resolution
    • Includes rules for the house, invitations extended to non-members to speak, etc.
bills and resolutions1
Bills and Resolutions
  • Concurrent Resolution: (H.C.R or S.C.R.)
    • Adopted by a simple majority in each house and sent to the governor for signature or veto
    • Demand information from a government agency, establish a joint study committee, or grant permission to sue the state
  • Joint Resolution: (H.J.R. or S.J.R.)
    • Requires approval by both houses but no action by the governor
    • Used to propose constitutional amendments
texas major state and local taxes as a percentage of household income

Texas State Comptroller, 2007

a state income tax
A State Income Tax?
  • Texas is one of only seven states that does not have a state income tax.
  • Because Texas relies very heavily on the sales tax and the property tax for revenue, during periods of economic recession state revenues take a tumble.
    • This is when some politicians talk (very softly) about a state income tax
who would run
Who Would Run??
  • Someone who is independently wealthy
    • per diem pushes the compensation to approximately $30,000/yr
  • Someone who is self-employed
  • Someone who would benefit from added name recognition
    • such as a lawyer or a realtor
  • Someone who wants to use this office as a stepping-stone to another office
  • Someone who wants to become a lobbyist
turnover 1971 2012
TURNOVER (1971-2012)

Texas House ranged from 7% to 51%

(29% in 2012)

Texas Senate ranged from 3% to 45%

(16% in 2012)

Compare to Congress

average years of experience




With high turnover the new members are learning the rules and finding their way. The allows the few “old timers” to control the legislative process.


“For state government to work, three people have to work together, and they have to work well together—the governor, the lieutenant governor and the speaker.”

Pete Gallego, state representative, D., Alpine

Power of Lt. Governor


“A speaker who uses the office fully can virtually determine what does and what does not become law in Texas.”

Ben Barnes, former speaker of the Texas House


“No man’s life, liberty, or property is safe while the legislature is in session.”

Texas proverb