Valuing securities
Download
1 / 28

Valuing Securities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 115 Views
  • Uploaded on

Valuing Securities. Pricing in General. Investors value financial instruments based on discounting expected future cash flows Why? Financial markets provide an alternative to real investments Discounting the cash flows allows you to compare the alternatives Three types of securities: Bonds

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Valuing Securities' - toya


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Pricing in general
Pricing in General

  • Investors value financial instruments based on discounting expected future cash flows

  • Why?

    • Financial markets provide an alternative to real investments

    • Discounting the cash flows allows you to compare the alternatives

  • Three types of securities:

    • Bonds

    • Stocks

    • Derivatives.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Types of bonds
Types of Bonds

  • Pure discount or zero bonds

    • Single promised payments (face value) at a maturity date

      Examples: Treasury bills, corporate zeros, strips

  • Consols

    • Pay a fixed “coupon” each period forever

  • Coupon bonds

    • Pay regular (6 month) coupon payments + face value at maturity

    • Coupons = interest for tax purposes

      Examples: Most corporate and long-term government bonds.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Pricing zero bonds
Pricing Zero Bonds

  • Price is equal to PV

  • For a zero coupon bond with T years to maturity and a face value of F and a constant discount rate of r, price equals:

    F / (1 + r)T

  • Example:

    Face value = $1,000

    Discount rate r = 10%

    Years until maturity T = 8

    1000 / (1.10)8 = $466.51.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Another example pricing discount bonds
Another Example:Pricing Discount Bonds

Example:Suppose we have two discount (zero) bonds:

0 1 2

1-year PV = $93.46 $100 0

2-year PV = $84.17 0 $100

What can we infer about the 1- and 2-year spot interest rates at time 0?

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Pricing consol bonds
Pricing Consol Bonds

  • Receive coupon payments in perpetuity

  • Face amount is never paid

  • For a consol with T years to maturity and a face value of F and a constant discount rate of r, price equals:

    St=1 $C / (1 + r)t = $C / r

  • Example:

    $50 received monthly, in perpetuity

    Stated annual rate = 8%

    Monthly rate r = 8% / 12 = .6667%

    PV = $C / r = $50 / .6667% = $7500.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Pricing coupon bonds
Pricing Coupon Bonds

What is the PV of a two-year $100 par value bond paying 10% interest semi-annually if the required return is 8% compounded semiannually? $100

$5 $5 $5 $5

0 1 2 3 4

Note:

c = r Price = face Par

c < r Price < face Discount

c > r Price > face Premium

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Value of risky debt
Value of Risky Debt

I. Risky Debt = Assets – Equity (call option)

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Common stock valuation
Common Stock Valuation

  • Different valuation models exist

  • All follow time value of money concepts:

    • Discount all expected future cash flows at an appropriate market risk-adjusted rate

  • Future cash flows consist of:

    • Dividends

    • Future selling price.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Determining price
Determining Price

  • For a single holding period:

    P0 = (Div1 + P1) / (1 + r1)

  • But what determines P1?

    P1 = (Div2 + P2) / (1 + r2)

  • But what determines P2?

  • Well, doing this over and over again, we get

    P0 = S Divt / (1 + rt)t

  • Value of stock depends on the size, timing, and riskiness of expected future dividends.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Valuation of a non constant dividend stream
Valuation of a Non-constant Dividend Stream...

  • Value = PV dividends in period 1

    + PV dividends in period 2

    + ... + PV dividends in period n

    + PV expected price in period n

  • Example:

    A stock is expected to pay dividends of $4 in 1 year and $5 in 2 years. Expected price of the stock in 2 years is $90. The discount rate is 10%. How much is the stock worth today?

    Answer:

    $4 / 1.10 + $5 / (1.10)2 + $90 / (1.10)2

    = $3.64 + $4.13 + $74.38 = $82.15.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Valuation of constant no growth perpetual dividend stream
Valuation of Constant, No-Growth Perpetual Dividend Stream

  • All future dividends are expected to be constant in perpetuity

  • A simple model emerges:

    Price = Expected dividend next period

    Required market rate

  • Example: Dividend next period is forecasted to be $3. The market’s required return is 10%. How much is the stock worth today?

  • Answer: $3 / .10 = $30.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Valuation of constant growth dividend stream in perpetuity
Valuation of Constant Growth Dividend Stream in Perpetuity

  • All future dividends are expected to grow at a constant rate in perpetuity

  • A simple model emerges:

    Price = Expected dividend next period .

    Required market rate - growth rate

  • Example: Dividend next period is forecasted to be $3 and grow in perpetuity at 4%. The market required return is 10%. How much is the stock worth today?

  • Answer: $3 / (.10 - .04) = $50.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Valuation of a two stage dividend growth stream
Valuation of a Two-Stage Dividend Growth Stream

  • Combine the non-constant stream and perpetual stream models

  • Example:

    A stock is expected to pay dividends of $2 and $3 each of the next 2 years. The dividend in year 3 will be $4 and grow thereafter at 5%. The market rate is 8%. How much is the stock worth?

    Answer:

    $2 / 1.08 + $3 / (1.08)2 + $4 / (1.08)3

    + [$4 (1.05) / (.08 - .05)] / (1.08)3

    = $1.85 + $2.57 + $3.18 + $111.14 = $118.74.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Valuing a stock that pays no dividends for a period of time
Valuing a Stock that Pays No Dividends for a Period of Time

  • Example:

    A stock is expected to pay no dividends the next 2 years. The dividend in year 3 will be $4 and grow thereafter at 5%. The market rate is 8%. How much is the stock worth?

    Answer:

    $4 + $4 (1.05) / (.08 - .05)

    (1.08)3

    = $114.31.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Ex dividend behavior of price
Ex-Dividend Behavior of Price

  • Stock price should drop by the amount of the dividend on the ex-date

  • Evidence indicates that it declines by a lesser amount

    • Tax reasons?

    • Clientele effects?

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Valuation and dividend policy
Valuation and Dividend Policy

  • “Dividends do not matter” versus “dividends do matter” views.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Why dividends may matter
Why Dividends May Matter

  • Informational signaling

    • Change in dividends signals a corresponding change in management’s expectations for the firm

  • Agency considerations

    • Free cash flow argument and shirking by management

  • Other factors

    • Debt covenants; institutional constraints; IRS; state laws.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Some cautions about dividend growth models
Some Cautions AboutDividend Growth Models

  • Many firms have “life cycles”.

    • When young, they grow fast, then slow and grow at a “normal” rate

    • Finally, they may shrink or go out of business

    • These growth rates are difficult to predict

    • The chosen range has a large impact on value

  • Important to discount dividends and not earnings

    • Cash flows received by shareholders represent value

    • If you use earnings, you may double count some cash flows.

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Conceptual view of the firm
Conceptual View of the Firm

Balance Sheet

  • Value of firm = Value of debt + value of stock

  • Analyze from several perspectives:

    • Modigliani & Miller model

      • Free cash flow, APV model

        • Dividends not a factor

    • Economic value added

      • Dividends not a factor.

Assets Debt

Equity

FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


Outline of valuation models
Outline of Valuation Models

  • Free cash flow

    • Exhibit 5.5, page 77 in text

  • Economic value added (aka EVA)

    • i.e., economic profit or residual income

  • Market value added

    • Market value of firm – book value of firm

    • PV of EVA’s

      • Exhibits 4.2 – 4.4, pages 60 – 62.

  • Shareholder value added.

  • Reconciled:

    Exhibit 3.5,

    Page 50

    FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


    Free cash flow
    Free Cash Flow

    • Definition:

      • After-tax operating earnings + non-cash charges - investments in operating working capital, PP&E and other assets

      • It doesn’t incorporate financing related cash flows

    • Operating free cash flow

      • Represents cash flow available to service debt and equity.

    FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


    Economic value added
    Economic Value Added

    • Reorders cash flows to allow shareholders to relate company operating performance directly to shareholder value

    • Adjusts capital to eliminate distortions

      • Financing perspective

        Capital = Debt + equity

      • Operating perspective

        Capital = Fixed assets + working capital

    • EVA = Operating profits - capital charge.

    FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


    Calculating eva
    Calculating EVA

    • Two methods lead to the same answer

    • Method 1:

      • EVA = (ROIC% - WACC%) * Invested operating capital

        • Profitability captured by the spread: ROIC% - WACC%

        • Growth captured by the invested operating capital

    • Method 2:

      • EVA = (Operating profits after taxes) - WACC% * Invested operating capital

        • Similar to the economist’s definition of profit.

    FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


    Advantage of eva
    Advantage of EVA

    • Investment objective:

      • Maximize the NPV of all available projects

    • Issue is how to measure cash flow generating abilities?

      • Interpreting annual free cash flow is difficult

        • Negative free cash flow could be

          • Value depleting or value enhancing

          • Temporary

        • EVA aids the understanding

          • Will be examined in greater detail later.

    FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


    Eva market value
    EVA & Market Value

    • Market value of a company reflects:

      • Value of invested capital

      • Value of ongoing operations

      • Present value of expected future economic profits

        • Captures improvement in operating performance

    • EVA related to market value by:

      • Measuring all the capital

      • Seeing what the firm is going to do with the capital

      • Turn those free cash flow forecasts into EVA forecasts

      • Discount EVA to find market value added.

    FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


    Relationship between eva mva
    RelationshipBetween EVA & MVA

    EVA EVA EVA EVA

    Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 .... Year n

    MVA

    MVA

    Market

    Value

    Market

    value

    EVA + EVA + EVA + ... + EVA

    1 + r (1 + r)2 (1 + r)3 (1 + r)n

    =

    Capital

    Market value is based on establishing the

    economic investment made in the company

    (capital), making a best guess about what

    economic profits (EVA) will be in the future, and discounting those EVAs to the present.

    FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


    The end
    The End

    FIN 591: Financial Fundamentals/Valuation


    ad