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Integration of Earth Observing Systems and the U.S. Geological Survey. Integration of environmental monitoring networks:. Comprehensive, multi-dimensional study of environmental problems and their linkages Broader dissemination of monitoring technologies Greater operational efficiency.

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Integration of Earth Observing Systems and the U.S. Geological Survey

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Integration of earth observing systems and the u s geological survey

Integration of Earth Observing Systems and the U.S. Geological Survey


Integration of environmental monitoring networks

Integration of environmental monitoring networks:

  • Comprehensive, multi-dimensional study of environmental problems and their linkages

  • Broader dissemination of monitoring technologies

  • Greater operational efficiency


Elements of a back bone network

Elements of a “back-bone” network:

  • Consistent core variables

  • Standard sampling and calibration protocols

  • Integrated data management driven by internet distribution and GPS systems


Elements of a back bone network1

Elements of a “back-bone” network:

  • EPA Estuarine Reserves

  • NOAA Estuarine Status and Trends network

  • NOAA ocean current and weather buoys

  • USGS Streamgaging stations


Integration of earth observing systems and the u s geological survey

Streamgaging

  • Gage Network

  • 7,100 gages

  • 85 % real-time

  • Network Costs

  • $120M per year

  • About $12,500/gage

Network Funding

State / Local agencies 35%

USGS Coop program 25%

OFA 18%

Mixed 15%

USGS NSIP 7%


Integration of earth observing systems and the u s geological survey

Traditional Methods

Q=VA

Discharge (Q)=

Ave Velocity*Area

Area=Depth*Width


Measurement methods vary

Measurement Methods Vary


Integration of earth observing systems and the u s geological survey

USGS

Stream

Gage


Integration of earth observing systems and the u s geological survey

Gages

Monitor

River

Stage

1997 Flood

New 100-year flood

Old 100-year flood

Peak Flow, CFS

1900

2000


Integration of earth observing systems and the u s geological survey

Water.usgs.gov/waterwatch


Waterwatch

WaterWatch

  • Real-time streamflow

  • Flood and High flow

  • Monthly Conditions (and historic)

  • Comparison of today and POR

  • Comparison of 7-Day Average and POR

  • Below normal

  • Drought Watch


Modernizing flow measurement

Modernizing Flow Measurement

Radars

HydroAcoustics


Hydroacoustics

HydroAcoustics

  • Doppler principle

  • Fast and accurate

  • Not effective in shallow water

  • Used with boats or tethered from bridges

  • Can be used as side-looking, velocity index meters


Integration of earth observing systems and the u s geological survey

Mississippi River at St. Louis


Side looking doppler index velocity discharge vs traditional discharge

Side-Looking Doppler, Index-Velocity Discharge vs Traditional Discharge


Radars

Radars

Q=V A

  • Microwave radar for surface velocity only

  • Ground-penetrating radar for channel area

  • GPR doesn’t work well in high conductivity or great depth


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