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Last pre-war days: The final straw(s). Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857). Had been slave in MO Moved with owner to IL & WI (free states) Lived there 4 years They returned to MO. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857). Owner died in MO Inherited? Sued to officially receive freedom.

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Last pre war days the final straw s

Last pre-war days:The final straw(s)


Dred scott v sanford 1857
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

  • Had been slave in MO

  • Moved with owner to IL & WI (free states)

    • Lived there 4 years

  • They returned to MO


Dred scott v sanford 18571
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

  • Owner died in MO

  • Inherited?

  • Sued to officially receive freedom


Dred scott v sanford 18572
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

  • CJ/SC Roger Taney ruled:

    • Slaves didn’t have rights of citizens

    • Case couldn’t be heard in a slave state court


Dred scott v sanford 18573
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

  • CJ/SC Roger Taney ruled:

    • MO Comp (1820) unconstitutional

    • If owner moves to “free state”, can’t be forced to give up property


Reaction to dred scott
Reaction to Dred Scott

  • Taney thought he was settling slavery issue

  • President James Buchanan:

    • To their decision, in common with all good citizens, I shall cheerfully submit… (A)ll agree that under the Constitution slavery in the States is beyond the reach of any human power except that of the respective States themselves


1857 lecompton const
1857 – Lecompton Const

  • Proslavery Kansans had won original vote to set up state gov

  • 1857 – state gov asked Congress to admit KS as a slave state


1857 lecompton const1
1857 – Lecompton Const

  • Abolitionists asked for a referendum on slavery

    • 90% of people in Kansas against slavery by then

  • State gov refused referendum (they knew they’d lose)


1857 lecompton const2
1857 – Lecompton Const

  • Pres Buchanan (D) backed Lecompton government

    • He owed the south for his election

  • Stephen Douglas (also D) disagreed – popular sovereignty

    • He didn’t care who won, just wanted them to vote


1858 lincoln vs douglas
1858 – Lincoln vs. Douglas

  • Race for Senate from IL

  • Stephen Douglas (D)

    • Incumbent Senator

  • Abraham Lincoln (R)

    • Unknown lawyer


1858 lincoln vs douglas1
1858 – Lincoln vs. Douglas

  • Lincoln challenged Douglas to 7 debates all over IL

    • Many people came to watch them


Douglas s argument
Douglas’s argument

  • Popular sovereignty in territories was important

  • Slavery might die out on its own

  • Slavery not immoral, just backward and unnecessary in plains states


Lincoln s argument
Lincoln’s argument

  • Slavery is immoral – based on greed

  • Popular sovereignty not enough –must pass laws to limit slavery


Freeport doctrine
Freeport doctrine

  • Lincoln trying to say popular sovereignty wouldn’t work

    • Asked what if settlers of a territory vote down slavery

      • Dred Scott decision said you couldn’t ban slavery


Freeport doctrine1
Freeport doctrine

  • Douglas replied that if local cops didn’t enforce slave laws

  • It didn’t matter what the law was, b/c locals determine what laws would be enforced


1858 lincoln vs douglas2
1858 – Lincoln vs. Douglas

  • Douglas won Senate seat

  • BUT:

    • people began to notice Lincoln


1859 harper s ferry va
1859 – Harper’s Ferry, VA

  • John Brown led 21 abolitionists

  • Raided US arsenal for weapons

  • Planning massive slave revolts


1859 harper s ferry va1
1859 – Harper’s Ferry, VA

  • Took 60 wealthy locals hostage

    • Hoped their slaves would revolt

    • They didn’t


1859 harper s ferry va2
1859 – Harper’s Ferry, VA

  • Finally captured by US Marines

  • Brown convicted of treason, sentenced to die by hanging


Reaction to john brown
Reaction to John Brown

  • In north:

    • Martyr for freedom

  • In south:

    • Mobs attacked people suspected to be abolitionists

    • Secession talk increased


1860 republican convention
1860 Republican convention

  • William Seward expected to be the nominee

    • Strong abolitionist

    • Govof NY – very powerful

    • Made lots of political enemies


1860 republican convention1
1860 Republican convention

  • Abraham Lincoln

    • More moderate about slavery

      • Said he didn’t intend to interfere with southern slavery

    • Unknown, so few enemies

  • Republicans selected Lincoln


1860 democrats
1860 Democrats

  • North & south couldn’t agree on one candidate

  • North – Stephen Douglas (IL)

  • South – John Breckenridge (KY)


Constitutional union party
Constitutional Union Party

  • Minor party for this election

  • Moderates from across the country

  • Ignored the issue of slavery

  • Just wanted to keep US together


1860 election
1860 election

Abraham Lincoln (R, IL) – Stephen Douglas (D, IL)

John Breckenridge (SD, KY) – John Bell (CU, TN)



Secession
Secession

  • Lincoln’s election scared the south

    • Feared north would oppress them

  • South Carolina seceded first

    • December 20, 1860

      • 2½ months before Lincoln inaugurated


Secession1
Secession

  • MS was next to secede

  • Then FL, AL, GA, LA & TX

  • Other southern states didn’t secede until after war started


The states of the csa
The states of the CSA

  • Only 11 states ended up seceding

  • 4 slave states didn’t secede at all

    • MO, KY, MD, DE

    • All had very few slaves

    • Economic ties to northern states

    • Lincoln promised US wouldn’t free slaves in states that remained loyal


Legal issues
Legal issues

  • Secession decision based on:

    • USA compact between states, not government above the states

    • States can leave peacefully

    • States’ rights must be guaranteed


Previously threatened secessions
Previously threatened secessions

  • Northerners:

    • Hartford Convention (1814-15)

  • Southerners:

    • Debate over slavery (1790)

    • Missouri crisis (1820)

    • Nullification crisis (1832)

    • California crisis (1850)


Confederate states of america
Confederate States of America

  • Formed Feb 1861

  • Copied US Constitution, but:

    • Protected states’ rights

    • Guaranteed slavery

    • Referenced God

    • Prohibited protective tariffs


Jefferson davis
Jefferson Davis

  • President of the Confederate States of America

  • Was US Senator from Mississippi


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