Last pre war days the final straw s
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Last pre-war days: The final straw(s). Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857). Had been slave in MO Moved with owner to IL & WI (free states) Lived there 4 years They returned to MO. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857). Owner died in MO Inherited? Sued to officially receive freedom.

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Last pre-war days: The final straw(s)

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Last pre-war days:The final straw(s)


Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

  • Had been slave in MO

  • Moved with owner to IL & WI (free states)

    • Lived there 4 years

  • They returned to MO


Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

  • Owner died in MO

  • Inherited?

  • Sued to officially receive freedom


Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

  • CJ/SC Roger Taney ruled:

    • Slaves didn’t have rights of citizens

    • Case couldn’t be heard in a slave state court


Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

  • CJ/SC Roger Taney ruled:

    • MO Comp (1820) unconstitutional

    • If owner moves to “free state”, can’t be forced to give up property


Reaction to Dred Scott

  • Taney thought he was settling slavery issue

  • President James Buchanan:

    • To their decision, in common with all good citizens, I shall cheerfully submit… (A)ll agree that under the Constitution slavery in the States is beyond the reach of any human power except that of the respective States themselves


1857 – Lecompton Const

  • Proslavery Kansans had won original vote to set up state gov

  • 1857 – state gov asked Congress to admit KS as a slave state


1857 – Lecompton Const

  • Abolitionists asked for a referendum on slavery

    • 90% of people in Kansas against slavery by then

  • State gov refused referendum (they knew they’d lose)


1857 – Lecompton Const

  • Pres Buchanan (D) backed Lecompton government

    • He owed the south for his election

  • Stephen Douglas (also D) disagreed – popular sovereignty

    • He didn’t care who won, just wanted them to vote


1858 – Lincoln vs. Douglas

  • Race for Senate from IL

  • Stephen Douglas (D)

    • Incumbent Senator

  • Abraham Lincoln (R)

    • Unknown lawyer


1858 – Lincoln vs. Douglas

  • Lincoln challenged Douglas to 7 debates all over IL

    • Many people came to watch them


Douglas’s argument

  • Popular sovereignty in territories was important

  • Slavery might die out on its own

  • Slavery not immoral, just backward and unnecessary in plains states


Lincoln’s argument

  • Slavery is immoral – based on greed

  • Popular sovereignty not enough –must pass laws to limit slavery


Freeport doctrine

  • Lincoln trying to say popular sovereignty wouldn’t work

    • Asked what if settlers of a territory vote down slavery

      • Dred Scott decision said you couldn’t ban slavery


Freeport doctrine

  • Douglas replied that if local cops didn’t enforce slave laws

  • It didn’t matter what the law was, b/c locals determine what laws would be enforced


1858 – Lincoln vs. Douglas

  • Douglas won Senate seat

  • BUT:

    • people began to notice Lincoln


1859 – Harper’s Ferry, VA

  • John Brown led 21 abolitionists

  • Raided US arsenal for weapons

  • Planning massive slave revolts


1859 – Harper’s Ferry, VA

  • Took 60 wealthy locals hostage

    • Hoped their slaves would revolt

    • They didn’t


1859 – Harper’s Ferry, VA

  • Finally captured by US Marines

  • Brown convicted of treason, sentenced to die by hanging


Reaction to John Brown

  • In north:

    • Martyr for freedom

  • In south:

    • Mobs attacked people suspected to be abolitionists

    • Secession talk increased


1860 Republican convention

  • William Seward expected to be the nominee

    • Strong abolitionist

    • Govof NY – very powerful

    • Made lots of political enemies


1860 Republican convention

  • Abraham Lincoln

    • More moderate about slavery

      • Said he didn’t intend to interfere with southern slavery

    • Unknown, so few enemies

  • Republicans selected Lincoln


1860 Democrats

  • North & south couldn’t agree on one candidate

  • North – Stephen Douglas (IL)

  • South – John Breckenridge (KY)


Constitutional Union Party

  • Minor party for this election

  • Moderates from across the country

  • Ignored the issue of slavery

  • Just wanted to keep US together


1860 election

Abraham Lincoln (R, IL) – Stephen Douglas (D, IL)

John Breckenridge (SD, KY) – John Bell (CU, TN)


1860 election


Secession

  • Lincoln’s election scared the south

    • Feared north would oppress them

  • South Carolina seceded first

    • December 20, 1860

      • 2½ months before Lincoln inaugurated


Secession

  • MS was next to secede

  • Then FL, AL, GA, LA & TX

  • Other southern states didn’t secede until after war started


The states of the CSA

  • Only 11 states ended up seceding

  • 4 slave states didn’t secede at all

    • MO, KY, MD, DE

    • All had very few slaves

    • Economic ties to northern states

    • Lincoln promised US wouldn’t free slaves in states that remained loyal


Legal issues

  • Secession decision based on:

    • USA compact between states, not government above the states

    • States can leave peacefully

    • States’ rights must be guaranteed


Previously threatened secessions

  • Northerners:

    • Hartford Convention (1814-15)

  • Southerners:

    • Debate over slavery (1790)

    • Missouri crisis (1820)

    • Nullification crisis (1832)

    • California crisis (1850)


Confederate States of America

  • Formed Feb 1861

  • Copied US Constitution, but:

    • Protected states’ rights

    • Guaranteed slavery

    • Referenced God

    • Prohibited protective tariffs


Jefferson Davis

  • President of the Confederate States of America

  • Was US Senator from Mississippi


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