European nationalism 1800 1900
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European Nationalism 1800-1900. Events/Ideas to Remember. End of Napoleon/Napoleonic Europe Congress of Vienna Metternich Concert of Europe Conservatism vs. Liberalism Balance of Power Key Countries: GB, Ottoman Empire, France, Piedmont-Sardinia . . . . and soon, Russia.

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European Nationalism 1800-1900

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European nationalism 1800 1900

European Nationalism1800-1900

Events ideas to remember

Events/Ideas to Remember

  • End of Napoleon/Napoleonic Europe

  • Congress of Vienna

    • Metternich

  • Concert of Europe

  • Conservatism vs. Liberalism

  • Balance of Power

    • Key Countries: GB, Ottoman Empire, France, Piedmont-Sardinia . . . . and soon, Russia

Crimean war 1854 56

Crimean War 1854-56

  • “Eastern Question”

    • England supports the Turks (Ottoman Empire) in hopes of securing Palestine before Russia does

  • Balance of Power threatened

    • Russia gaining control of Black Sea region and Persia

    • Why? Warm water port

    • Why? Orthodox Christians should be united

Intrigue and rumors

Intrigue and Rumors

  • Some say . . . . Russia wants to destroy Ottoman Empire and claim all land

  • Some say . . . Russia wants to ally with England

  • Some say . . . Russia wants a secret alliance with the Ottomans to “protect” them against French interests

  • Russia is a growing concern for Europe

    • expansion must be contained

    • Conflict emerges: The Crimean Peninsula

Key events 1853 54

Key Events: 1853-54

  • War Begins

    • Russia defeated Turkish fleet (fall 1853)

    • Russia occupies Ottoman territories of Moldavia and Walachia

Key events

Key Events

  • Britain, France, Sardinia (Allies) declare war on Russia

  • Austria neutral (but may enter war with Allies)

    • Russia must retreat from M and W

  • September 1854: Allies attack Sevastopol. Takes one year to capture.



  • 1856: Treaty of Paris

    • Allies: Victory

Treaty of paris 1856

Treaty of Paris 1856

  • Made Black Sea neutral territory

    • No more warships or forts allowed

  • Reduced Russian influence in region

  • Moldavia and Wallachia returned to Ottoman rule, but given limited independence (monitored by Allies)

  • Russian claim to protectorship in Palestine was rejected. Russia retreats from Holy Land.

  • Russia loses influence over Serbia

The charge of the light brigade

The Charge of the Light Brigade

"A feat of chivalry, fiery with consummate courage, and bright with flashing courage.”

-- Benjamin Disraeli, Member

of Parliament

Charge of the light brigade

Charge of the Light Brigade

  • 1854

  • Public – but not tactical -- disaster

    • 673 men involved, 100+ men killed out of 20,000 British war dead

    • British troops retreat

Alfred lord tennyson

Alfred, Lord Tennyson

"Theirs not to reason why

Theirs but to do and die"

Poem made the failed charge a symbol of warfare at both its most courageous and its most tragic.

Valley of the Shadow of Death

Characteristics of the crimean war

Characteristics of the Crimean War

  • First well publicized war

  • Railroads and telegraph to aid war effort

  • Photographed

  • Battlefield nurses, ambulances

Florence nightingale

Florence Nightingale

  • Divine calling

  • Criticized Victorian ideal of an educated, but helpless, woman

  • Created a profession out of a un-respected occupation

    • Nurses were typically cooks and even prostitutes who followed armies

    • No training

Italian unification

Italian Unification



  • "Resurgence”

  • Political and social protest

  • Active between 1815 and Unification in 1860

Obstacles to italian unity

Obstacles to Italian Unity

  • Historically, battleground for foreign and local princes

    • France (1494 – Charles VII)

    • Austria (Peace of Utrecht 1713)

    • Napoleon (1799-1815)

  • Frequent warfare emphasized local allegiances

  • Age of Napoleon, romanticism create desire for national unity and security against foreigners

  • But . . . Congress of Vienna

    • Gives Austria N. Italy

    • French prince given Napoli and Sicily

Secret societies

Secret Societies

  • Young Italy:“One Italy, free and independent”

    • Organized by Mazzini

  • Carbonari formed about 1820

    • Patriotic and liberal

    • Key figures in early years of nationalism

  • Organization

    • Scattered cells

    • Initiation rituals

Key figures

Key Figures

  • Count Emilio Cavour: “the brain of unification”

    • Mazzini: the “soul”

  • Garibaldi the "sword"

  • European nationalism 1800 1900

    Giuseppe Mazzini: Writer and politician.

    Believed revolution would lead to unification.

    1830: member of Carbonari

    1831: organized a new political society called Giovane Italia(Young Italy)

    No King. Italy must be a democratic republic.

    Kingdom of sardinia piedmont

    Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont

    • “Buffer state”

    • Industrialization by 1830

    • But . . .Political instability

    • Vittorio Emmanuel = King in 1850

    • Liberal prime minister, Emilio Cavour

    • S-P enters Crimean War to gain status

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Count Emilio di Cavour

    Hated the idea of a united Italy, but hated Austrian control more.

    1859: Cavour persuaded Napoleon III to protect Sardinia “if” Austria were to attack

    Austria does attack

    France declares war against Austria.

    Austrians surrender to France.  Napoleon allows Sardinia to annex Lombardy.

    1859/1860: all northern states voted to join the Kingdom of Sardinia.

    After 1860, France controls only Rome (at the request of the Pope)


    Kingdom of the two sicilies

    Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

    • Kingdom of Naples and Kingdom of Sicily

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Giuseppe Garibaldi

    1833: Joined Mazzini's “Young Italy”

    Fought for Sardinian independence in 1854.

    Wanted independence for the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. Accepted help from Cavour.

    Garibaldi s red shirts

    Garibaldi’s Red Shirts

    • 1860: defeated the Bourbon king of Sicily

    Garibaldi s gift to italy

    Garibaldi’s Gift to Italy

    • Defeated king in Sicily in 1860.

    • “Dictator of Sicily”

      • Died in 1861

      • Willed Sicily to VE

    • Only Venetia and Rome remain independent

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Map of the 19th Century Unification of Italy

    Who should rule italy

    Who Should Rule “Italy”?

    With the revolutionary climate of

    Europe, Italy should be a constitutional monarchy.

    Vittorio Emmanuel is the strongest ruler within Italy.

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    In Rome this monument is dedicated to Victor Emmanuel.

    Close up, the writing says, “Patriae Unitate,”

    Benefits for italy of the austro prussian war 1866

    Benefits for Italy of the Austro-Prussian War 1866

    • Austria loses control of Venetia

    • Venetia annexed to Italy

    European nationalism 1800 1900


    • Rome remained independent.

    • When France loses the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, France must withdraw troops (protecting the Pope in Rome)

    • Rome is ceded to Italy.

    The Right Leg in the Boot at Last!!

    Garibaldi: “If it won't go on Sire, try a little powder . . as in GUNpowder”

    Legacy of the italian revolution

    Legacy of the ItalianRevolution

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Mixing bowl at a bakery in Venice.

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Every city has at least one Via Cavour, Via Mazzini, or Via Garibaldi.

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Even lesser-known Revolutionary

    Heroes are commemorated.

    This is a monument in a small piazza in Venice.

    The date says “1866.” The rest of it says that these men were martyrs for Italian independence.

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    This piazza in Florence is named to commemorate the Revolution. It’s named Piazza della Repubblica.

    Problems facing italy

    Problems Facing Italy

    • Legacy of independent states

    • Regional differences

      • North: cultural heritage, economic prospects, more cities, educated

      • South: agricultural, rural, illiterate peasants

    • Italy vs Catholic Church

      • Church governs Vatican

      • Non-cooperation with new leaders of Italy

    Modern italy

    “Modern” Italy

    • Constitutional monarchy, two house system

      • Limited voters

    • Industrialization continues

    • Population increases, unemployment rises

      • Emigration to US

    • Socialists/Anarchists

      • Push government to expand vote

      • Distraction = Imperialism

    German unification the era of bismarck

    German UnificationThe era of Bismarck

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Flag of Prussia. Otto von Bismarck, a prince of Prussia, led the movement to unite all Germans.

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Boundaries within Europe after the Congress of Vienna (1815), featuring a strong (and large) Prussia. The Austrian Empire is also large.

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Revolutions in Europe.

    As dissatisfaction grew and liberals demanded more power, conservatives clung to the old ways.

    Bismarck disorganization meant it was time for a strong German leader.

    Key people

    Key People

    • Kaiser Wilhelm I

    • Otto von Bismarck

      • Iron Chancellor

      • “Blood and Iron”

      • Realpolitik

    Early nationalists

    Early Nationalists

    • Grimm Brothers

    • Leopold Ranke

      • The Germans have a “mission from God” to develop a new system and culture different from the French

    • Georg Freidrich Hegel

      • The state IS reason AND Liberty

        • There are no unchangeable rights or wrongs, just CHANGE

        • Change = dialectic

          • Thesis vs. Antithesis = Synthesis

          • Example: the disunity of German states could create unity (and a German State)



    • 1830s: Trade union (Ended after unification)

    • Removed tariff barriers between German states

    • Austria purposefully excluded from beginning

      • Bismarck continued penalties against Austria

    Rivalry between prussia and austria

    Rivalry between Prussia and Austria

    • Rivals for German leadership

    • Much in common:

      • German language

      • Traditions, customs similar

      • But . . . Some differences

      • Prussia: mostly Protestant, militaristic, economically strong

      • Austria: Catholic, weaker leadership, weakened economy from fighting wars

    Frankfurt assembly 1848

    Frankfurt Assembly: 1848

    • Discussed German unification

    • Too many factions

    • Crown offered to Prussian King, he rejects

    • Prussia and Austria leave, Assembly disbanded

    • Two provinces chose not to attend: Schleswig and Holstein

      • Mostly Danish

      • Controlled by Danish king, but part of German Confederation

      • Felt threatened by German unification

    Location of schleswig holstein

    Location of Schleswig-Holstein

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    During the era of Romanticism, the idea of “Germany” was one proposed by many: Politicians, composers, poets, authors, statesmen.

    However, only one man – Prince Otto von Bismarck –

    had the skills to convince the other German states that it was to their benefit to join

    Prussia to create a unified nation: Germany.

    Bismarck as chancellor

    Bismarck as Chancellor

    • Appointed by King Wilhelm I in 1862

      • Not a Nationalist

      • First loyalty was to ruling family

      • Unification would bring more power to Hohenzollerns

    • Collected unfair taxes

    • Enlarged the army to support his plan

      • Support of Junkers, industrialists, landowners

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    • Bismarck’s Philosophy: Realpolitik

    • Politics based on practical (realistic) needs, not moral issues.

    • In other words, the ideals of the Enlightenment would be ignored.

    • Instead, Bismarck felt that people needed a strong government.

    • The government will use whatever economic or military methods necessary to increase its power.

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    How Bismarck created


    European nationalism 1800 1900

    "By blood and Iron"

    OTTO VON BISMARCK used this phrase to describe the method by which a unified German state would be created.

    Compromise and discussion had failed.

    Bismarck knew that Germany could be created only through war . . . and with a strong leader.

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Bismarck orchestrated the unification of Germany through three carefully planned warsDenmarkAustriaFrance

    1 war with denmark 1864

    1. War with Denmark -- 1864

    Bismarck formed an alliance with Austria in 1864. The purpose was to declare war with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein.

    Agreement: Prussia and Austria would take one province on victory.

    They called it “liberation” because these provinces were mostly occupied by German speaking people.

    Bismarck creates tension with Austria over S-H, which leads to war between Austria and Prussia in 1866

    2 war with austria 1866

    2. War with Austria -- 1866

    • Austria is Prussia’s strongest competitor for control of the German states.

    • Austria leads the “German Confederation” (created after the Congress of Vienna)

    • Bismarck dissolved confederation, creates the North German Confederation

      • Prussia gains control over northern states

    • Invents an excuse to attack Austria. “7-Weeks War”

    • After victory, Prussia “allows” Austria and 4 southern states to remain independent

    Peace of prague another treaty

    Peace of Prague(another treaty)

    • Ended Austro-Prussian War

    • Lenient toward Austria

      • Bismarck did not want to completely alienate Austria

    • But, Habsburgs were permanently excluded from German affairs.

    • Prussia thus established itself as the only major power among the German states.

    3 franco prussian war 1870

    3. Franco-Prussian War – 1870

    • Victories of Prussia worry Napoleon III

    • Rumors begin that France will invade Prussia

      • Probably started by Bismarck – he wants war

    • Napoleon III is losing power to the liberal government at home

      • Resources are getting stretched too thin

      • Willing to let France go to war to reclaim his authority

    Ems telegram

    Ems Telegram

    • Manipulated by Bismarck

      • Wants France to declare war against Prussia

      • Telegram suggests that the French insulted the Prussians (raises Prussian ire)

      • Also suggests the Prussians insulted the French (assuring retaliation, leading to war)

    “His Majesty the King (of Prussia) thereupon refused to receive the French envoy again and informed him through an adjutant that His Majesty has nothing further to say to the Ambassador.

    Battle of sedan

    Battle of Sedan

    • Napoleon III surrendered, captured

    • French losses over 5x that of Prussia

      • Second Republic overthrown

    Treaty of frankfurt

    Treaty of Frankfurt

    • May 1871

    • Alsace, Lorraine and Strasburg  

    • Napoleon III no match for Bismarck

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    France’s reaction to the outcome of the war with Prussia.

    Birth of the german empire

    Birth of the German Empire

    • 1871

    • Southern states (except Austria) join the new German Empire

    • Prussian king is Kaiser of Germany

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, January 1871.

    The german empire

    The German Empire

    • 1871

    • Second Reich

    • Two House legislature

      • Bundesrat: appointed by rulers of German states

        • Veto any decision made by the Reichstag

      • Reichstag: elected by universal male suffrage

      • Real power held by Emperor and Chancellor

    Coronation of kaiser wilhelm i

    Coronation of Kaiser Wilhelm I

    Quotes by bismarck

    Quotes by Bismarck

    • “The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they'll sleep at night”

    • “The great questions of the day will not be settled by means of speeches and majority decisions but by iron and blood.”

    • “When you want to fool the world, tell the truth.”

    • “When you say you agree to a thing in principle you mean that you have not the slightest intention of carrying it out in practice.”

    • “If there is ever another war in Europe, it will come out of some damned silly thing in the Balkans”

    Bismarck s policies

    Bismarck’s Policies

    Policy against socialists

    Policy Against Socialists

    • His party: Social Democratic Party

    • Bismarck feared socialists would undermine loyalty of workers – possible revolution

    • Laws forbid socialist meetings, newspapers

    • Failed: workers unified in demands

    • Bismarck adapts

      • Entice workers away from Socialism by

        • passing laws to protect them

        • Health insurance, pensions, accident insurance

      • But . . . Socialism never disappears



    • “Battle for Civilization”

    • Catholics must be loyal to state before church

      • State supervises church education

      • State approves appointment of priests

      • Some Catholic orders closed

      • Jesuits expelled from Germany

      • Civil Marriages

    • Too rigid, must work with Church

    Kaiser wilhelm ii

    Kaiser Wilhelm II

    • 1888

    • 1890: end of Bismarck

    • “There is only one master and that is I”

    • Divine Right ruler

    • “Those who oppose me, I shall crush”

    • Continued social welfare programs

    • Continued support of military

    • Imperialistic

    Bismarck fired

    Bismarck Fired

    France and napoleon iii

    France and Napoleon III

    Napoleon iii and imperialism

    1852: “The Empire means Peace”



    1/3 of native pop. killed by French troops


    2nd Opium War, 1860





    French backed monarchy

    Napoleon III and Imperialism

    The third republic

    The Third Republic

    • 1870-1940

    • Napoleon III

      • Abolished 2nd Republic in 1852

    • 3rd Republic dominated by radical socialists

    Eastern europe after 1850

    Eastern Europe (after 1850)

    Hapsburg empire

    Hapsburg Empire

    • Challenges

      • Conservative ruler in liberal age

      • Philosophy: “Rule and Change nothing”

      • Originally limited industrialization because it threatened tradition

      • Industrialization brings social problems, unrest, socialism

        • Emigration to US begins about 1870

          • Mostly Jews and Slavs (non German-speaking)

    Hapsburgs ethnic diversity

    Hapsburgs: Ethnic Diversity


    • Less than 25% speak German

    • 50% belong to Slavic groups

    • Hungarians, Italians want independence

    • “Peoples! What does that mean? I know only subjects!” – Emperor Francis I (1830)

    • Nationalist revolts crushed

    Hapsburgs franz joseph

    Hapsburgs: Franz Joseph

    • Franz Joseph: 1848-1916

    • “Reform” after loss to Italy in 1860

      • Constitution with legislature

      • Dominated by German speaking Austrians

      • Hungary in rebellion

    Compromise with hungary

    Compromise with Hungary

    • 1866: Hungary wants Reform

    • Dual Monarchy?

    • Austria and Hungary remain separate states

      • Each has constitution and parliament

      • Franz Joseph emperor of both

      • Shared ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs

    • Resentment by Slavic groups (especially Czechs)

    • Slavic unity, political and social unrest = nationalism

    The balkans

    The Balkans

    • Multi-ethnic

    • Serbia and Greece

    • Other nations get involved to further their own interests

      • Russia pushes toward Istanbul (1850s)

      • A-H interested in Bosnia

      • Britain and France want Ottoman land in the Middle East and N. Africa

      • Stage is set for a war in the Balkans

        • “If there is ever another war in Europe, it will come out of some damned silly thing in the Balkans” -- Bismarck

    Russian expansion

    Russian Expansion

    Nicholas i

    Nicholas I

    • 1825-1855

    • Limited power of landowners

      • Feared angering nobles

    • Orthodoxy

    • Autocracy (l’etat c’est moi . . )

    • Nationalism

    Alexander ii

    Alexander II

    • Defeated in Crimean War

      • Reveals lack of progress in Russia

      • Lack of railroads, inefficient bureaucracy

    Alexander ii reforms

    Alexander II: Reforms

    • Emancipation of serfs

      • Must buy land

      • Moved to cities, aiding industrialization

    • Other Reform

      • Trial by jury

      • Eased censorship

      • Soldier term of service reduced from 25 years to 15

      • Encouraged industry

    • Zemstvos

      • Local elected assemblies

      • Responsible for local repair, schools, agricultural decisions

    Revolutionary currents

    Revolutionary Currents

    • Reform satisfied few Russians

    • Peasants: freedom, but no land

    • Liberals: want constitution, elected legislature

    • Radicals: want socialism

      • Lived amongst peasants, preaching rebellion

      • Radicals turn to violence to get their message heard

      • People’s Will: plot to assassinate the Tsar

    • Tsar becomes more conservative

    • 1881: Assassination of Tsar Alexander II

    Alexander iii

    Alexander III

    • Reactionary

      • Increased secret police, censorship

      • Exiled critics

      • Democracy is nothing but “lies of hollow people”

    • Promoted Slavic Culture

    • Russification: One language, one church

    Persecution of russian jews

    Persecution of Russian Jews

    • Limited education

    • Limited professions (few in law, medicine)

    • “The Pale”

    • Pogroms: mob attacks on Jews

    • Emigration to US

      • 1880-1924

    Russian industrialization

    Russian Industrialization

    • 1890s

    • Foreign capital

    • Loans built Trans-Siberian Railroad

    • Radicals saw industrial workers as allies

      • Pamphlets preached revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx

    Nicholas ii

    Nicholas II

    • 1894-1917

    • Last Tsar

    • Ineffective

    • Autocrat?

    War between russia and japan

    War between Russia and Japan

    • 1904

    • “Fight for Faith, the Czar, the Fatherland”

    • Russia loses

    • Discontent

      • Workers strike

      • Starts fatal chain of events

        • 1905, 1917



    Reaction to photography

    Some events and scenes are not meant to live permanently – they have a “transitory” nature

    “Personal Impression”

    August Renoir

    Claude Monet

    “On the Terrace”

    by Renoir (1871)

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    “Lunch with the Boating Party” by Renoir

    Paris 1878 by monet

    “Paris, 1878” by Monet

    On the banks of the seine by monet

    “On the Banks of the Seine” by Monet

    European nationalism 1800 1900

    “Sunrise” by Monet



    • Literary Movement

    • Nature and Destiny are the result of heredity

      • No Free Will

      • We are governed by natural laws

  • Replaces Romanticism

  • Realistic depiction of everyday life

    • Zola, Balzac, Flaubert Deals with Cities, slums, factories

  • Science and philosophy

    Science and Philosophy

    • Charles Darwin

      • Social Darwinism

    • Nietzsche

      • Christianity = “slave morality”

      • Hinders creativity

      • Ubermensch must become free from convention, redefine his life

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