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European Nationalism 1800-1900. Events/Ideas to Remember. End of Napoleon/Napoleonic Europe Congress of Vienna Metternich Concert of Europe Conservatism vs. Liberalism Balance of Power Key Countries: GB, Ottoman Empire, France, Piedmont-Sardinia . . . . and soon, Russia.

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events ideas to remember
Events/Ideas to Remember
  • End of Napoleon/Napoleonic Europe
  • Congress of Vienna
    • Metternich
  • Concert of Europe
  • Conservatism vs. Liberalism
  • Balance of Power
    • Key Countries: GB, Ottoman Empire, France, Piedmont-Sardinia . . . . and soon, Russia
crimean war 1854 56
Crimean War 1854-56
  • “Eastern Question”
    • England supports the Turks (Ottoman Empire) in hopes of securing Palestine before Russia does
  • Balance of Power threatened
    • Russia gaining control of Black Sea region and Persia
    • Why? Warm water port
    • Why? Orthodox Christians should be united
intrigue and rumors
Intrigue and Rumors
  • Some say . . . . Russia wants to destroy Ottoman Empire and claim all land
  • Some say . . . Russia wants to ally with England
  • Some say . . . Russia wants a secret alliance with the Ottomans to “protect” them against French interests
  • Russia is a growing concern for Europe
    • expansion must be contained
    • Conflict emerges: The Crimean Peninsula
key events 1853 54
Key Events: 1853-54
  • War Begins
    • Russia defeated Turkish fleet (fall 1853)
    • Russia occupies Ottoman territories of Moldavia and Walachia
key events
Key Events
  • Britain, France, Sardinia (Allies) declare war on Russia
  • Austria neutral (but may enter war with Allies)
    • Russia must retreat from M and W
  • September 1854: Allies attack Sevastopol. Takes one year to capture.
  • 1856: Treaty of Paris
    • Allies: Victory
treaty of paris 1856
Treaty of Paris 1856
  • Made Black Sea neutral territory
    • No more warships or forts allowed
  • Reduced Russian influence in region
  • Moldavia and Wallachia returned to Ottoman rule, but given limited independence (monitored by Allies)
  • Russian claim to protectorship in Palestine was rejected. Russia retreats from Holy Land.
  • Russia loses influence over Serbia
the charge of the light brigade
The Charge of the Light Brigade

"A feat of chivalry, fiery with consummate courage, and bright with flashing courage.”

-- Benjamin Disraeli, Member

of Parliament

charge of the light brigade
Charge of the Light Brigade
  • 1854
  • Public – but not tactical -- disaster
    • 673 men involved, 100+ men killed out of 20,000 British war dead
    • British troops retreat
alfred lord tennyson
Alfred, Lord Tennyson

"Theirs not to reason why

Theirs but to do and die"

Poem made the failed charge a symbol of warfare at both its most courageous and its most tragic.

Valley of the Shadow of Death

characteristics of the crimean war
Characteristics of the Crimean War
  • First well publicized war
  • Railroads and telegraph to aid war effort
  • Photographed
  • Battlefield nurses, ambulances
florence nightingale
Florence Nightingale
  • Divine calling
  • Criticized Victorian ideal of an educated, but helpless, woman
  • Created a profession out of a un-respected occupation
    • Nurses were typically cooks and even prostitutes who followed armies
    • No training
  • "Resurgence”
  • Political and social protest
  • Active between 1815 and Unification in 1860
obstacles to italian unity
Obstacles to Italian Unity
  • Historically, battleground for foreign and local princes
    • France (1494 – Charles VII)
    • Austria (Peace of Utrecht 1713)
    • Napoleon (1799-1815)
  • Frequent warfare emphasized local allegiances
  • Age of Napoleon, romanticism create desire for national unity and security against foreigners
  • But . . . Congress of Vienna
    • Gives Austria N. Italy
    • French prince given Napoli and Sicily
secret societies
Secret Societies
  • Young Italy:“One Italy, free and independent”
    • Organized by Mazzini
  • Carbonari formed about 1820
    • Patriotic and liberal
    • Key figures in early years of nationalism
  • Organization
    • Scattered cells
    • Initiation rituals
key figures
Key Figures
  • Count Emilio Cavour: “the brain of unification”
        • Mazzini: the “soul”
  • Garibaldi the "sword"

Giuseppe Mazzini: Writer and politician.

Believed revolution would lead to unification.

1830: member of Carbonari

1831: organized a new political society called Giovane Italia(Young Italy)

No King. Italy must be a democratic republic.

kingdom of sardinia piedmont
Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont
  • “Buffer state”
  • Industrialization by 1830
  • But . . .Political instability
  • Vittorio Emmanuel = King in 1850
  • Liberal prime minister, Emilio Cavour
  • S-P enters Crimean War to gain status

Count Emilio di Cavour

Hated the idea of a united Italy, but hated Austrian control more.

1859: Cavour persuaded Napoleon III to protect Sardinia “if” Austria were to attack

Austria does attack

France declares war against Austria.

Austrians surrender to France.  Napoleon allows Sardinia to annex Lombardy.

1859/1860: all northern states voted to join the Kingdom of Sardinia.

After 1860, France controls only Rome (at the request of the Pope)


kingdom of the two sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
  • Kingdom of Naples and Kingdom of Sicily

Giuseppe Garibaldi

1833: Joined Mazzini\'s “Young Italy”

Fought for Sardinian independence in 1854.

Wanted independence for the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. Accepted help from Cavour.

garibaldi s red shirts
Garibaldi’s Red Shirts
  • 1860: defeated the Bourbon king of Sicily
garibaldi s gift to italy
Garibaldi’s Gift to Italy
  • Defeated king in Sicily in 1860.
  • “Dictator of Sicily”
    • Died in 1861
    • Willed Sicily to VE
  • Only Venetia and Rome remain independent
who should rule italy
Who Should Rule “Italy”?

With the revolutionary climate of

Europe, Italy should be a constitutional monarchy.

Vittorio Emmanuel is the strongest ruler within Italy.


In Rome this monument is dedicated to Victor Emmanuel.

Close up, the writing says, “Patriae Unitate,”

benefits for italy of the austro prussian war 1866
Benefits for Italy of the Austro-Prussian War 1866
  • Austria loses control of Venetia
  • Venetia annexed to Italy
  • Rome remained independent.
  • When France loses the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, France must withdraw troops (protecting the Pope in Rome)
  • Rome is ceded to Italy.

The Right Leg in the Boot at Last!!

Garibaldi: “If it won\'t go on Sire, try a little powder . . as in GUNpowder”


Even lesser-known Revolutionary

Heroes are commemorated.

This is a monument in a small piazza in Venice.

The date says “1866.” The rest of it says that these men were martyrs for Italian independence.


This piazza in Florence is named to commemorate the Revolution. It’s named Piazza della Repubblica.

problems facing italy
Problems Facing Italy
  • Legacy of independent states
  • Regional differences
    • North: cultural heritage, economic prospects, more cities, educated
    • South: agricultural, rural, illiterate peasants
  • Italy vs Catholic Church
    • Church governs Vatican
    • Non-cooperation with new leaders of Italy
modern italy
“Modern” Italy
  • Constitutional monarchy, two house system
    • Limited voters
  • Industrialization continues
  • Population increases, unemployment rises
    • Emigration to US
  • Socialists/Anarchists
    • Push government to expand vote
    • Distraction = Imperialism

Flag of Prussia. Otto von Bismarck, a prince of Prussia, led the movement to unite all Germans.


Boundaries within Europe after the Congress of Vienna (1815), featuring a strong (and large) Prussia. The Austrian Empire is also large.


Revolutions in Europe.

As dissatisfaction grew and liberals demanded more power, conservatives clung to the old ways.

Bismarck disorganization meant it was time for a strong German leader.

key people
Key People
  • Kaiser Wilhelm I
  • Otto von Bismarck
    • Iron Chancellor
    • “Blood and Iron”
    • Realpolitik
early nationalists
Early Nationalists
  • Grimm Brothers
  • Leopold Ranke
    • The Germans have a “mission from God” to develop a new system and culture different from the French
  • Georg Freidrich Hegel
    • The state IS reason AND Liberty
      • There are no unchangeable rights or wrongs, just CHANGE
      • Change = dialectic
        • Thesis vs. Antithesis = Synthesis
        • Example: the disunity of German states could create unity (and a German State)
  • 1830s: Trade union (Ended after unification)
  • Removed tariff barriers between German states
  • Austria purposefully excluded from beginning
    • Bismarck continued penalties against Austria
rivalry between prussia and austria
Rivalry between Prussia and Austria
  • Rivals for German leadership
  • Much in common:
    • German language
    • Traditions, customs similar
    • But . . . Some differences
    • Prussia: mostly Protestant, militaristic, economically strong
    • Austria: Catholic, weaker leadership, weakened economy from fighting wars
frankfurt assembly 1848
Frankfurt Assembly: 1848
  • Discussed German unification
  • Too many factions
  • Crown offered to Prussian King, he rejects
  • Prussia and Austria leave, Assembly disbanded
  • Two provinces chose not to attend: Schleswig and Holstein
    • Mostly Danish
    • Controlled by Danish king, but part of German Confederation
    • Felt threatened by German unification

During the era of Romanticism, the idea of “Germany” was one proposed by many: Politicians, composers, poets, authors, statesmen.

However, only one man – Prince Otto von Bismarck –

had the skills to convince the other German states that it was to their benefit to join

Prussia to create a unified nation: Germany.

bismarck as chancellor
Bismarck as Chancellor
  • Appointed by King Wilhelm I in 1862
    • Not a Nationalist
    • First loyalty was to ruling family
    • Unification would bring more power to Hohenzollerns
  • Collected unfair taxes
  • Enlarged the army to support his plan
    • Support of Junkers, industrialists, landowners

Bismarck’s Philosophy: Realpolitik

  • Politics based on practical (realistic) needs, not moral issues.
  • In other words, the ideals of the Enlightenment would be ignored.
  • Instead, Bismarck felt that people needed a strong government.
  • The government will use whatever economic or military methods necessary to increase its power.

"By blood and Iron"

OTTO VON BISMARCK used this phrase to describe the method by which a unified German state would be created.

Compromise and discussion had failed.

Bismarck knew that Germany could be created only through war . . . and with a strong leader.

Bismarck orchestrated the unification of Germany through three carefully planned warsDenmarkAustriaFrance
1 war with denmark 1864
1. War with Denmark -- 1864

Bismarck formed an alliance with Austria in 1864. The purpose was to declare war with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein.

Agreement: Prussia and Austria would take one province on victory.

They called it “liberation” because these provinces were mostly occupied by German speaking people.

Bismarck creates tension with Austria over S-H, which leads to war between Austria and Prussia in 1866

2 war with austria 1866
2. War with Austria -- 1866
  • Austria is Prussia’s strongest competitor for control of the German states.
  • Austria leads the “German Confederation” (created after the Congress of Vienna)
  • Bismarck dissolved confederation, creates the North German Confederation
    • Prussia gains control over northern states
  • Invents an excuse to attack Austria. “7-Weeks War”
  • After victory, Prussia “allows” Austria and 4 southern states to remain independent
peace of prague another treaty
Peace of Prague(another treaty)
  • Ended Austro-Prussian War
  • Lenient toward Austria
    • Bismarck did not want to completely alienate Austria
  • But, Habsburgs were permanently excluded from German affairs.
  • Prussia thus established itself as the only major power among the German states.
3 franco prussian war 1870
3. Franco-Prussian War – 1870
  • Victories of Prussia worry Napoleon III
  • Rumors begin that France will invade Prussia
    • Probably started by Bismarck – he wants war
  • Napoleon III is losing power to the liberal government at home
    • Resources are getting stretched too thin
    • Willing to let France go to war to reclaim his authority
ems telegram
Ems Telegram
  • Manipulated by Bismarck
    • Wants France to declare war against Prussia
    • Telegram suggests that the French insulted the Prussians (raises Prussian ire)
    • Also suggests the Prussians insulted the French (assuring retaliation, leading to war)

“His Majesty the King (of Prussia) thereupon refused to receive the French envoy again and informed him through an adjutant that His Majesty has nothing further to say to the Ambassador.

battle of sedan
Battle of Sedan
  • Napoleon III surrendered, captured
  • French losses over 5x that of Prussia
    • Second Republic overthrown
treaty of frankfurt
Treaty of Frankfurt
  • May 1871
  • Alsace, Lorraine and Strasburg  
  • Napoleon III no match for Bismarck
birth of the german empire
Birth of the German Empire
  • 1871
  • Southern states (except Austria) join the new German Empire
  • Prussian king is Kaiser of Germany
the german empire
The German Empire
  • 1871
  • Second Reich
  • Two House legislature
    • Bundesrat: appointed by rulers of German states
      • Veto any decision made by the Reichstag
    • Reichstag: elected by universal male suffrage
    • Real power held by Emperor and Chancellor
quotes by bismarck
Quotes by Bismarck
  • “The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they\'ll sleep at night”
  • “The great questions of the day will not be settled by means of speeches and majority decisions but by iron and blood.”
  • “When you want to fool the world, tell the truth.”
  • “When you say you agree to a thing in principle you mean that you have not the slightest intention of carrying it out in practice.”
  • “If there is ever another war in Europe, it will come out of some damned silly thing in the Balkans”
policy against socialists
Policy Against Socialists
  • His party: Social Democratic Party
  • Bismarck feared socialists would undermine loyalty of workers – possible revolution
  • Laws forbid socialist meetings, newspapers
  • Failed: workers unified in demands
  • Bismarck adapts
    • Entice workers away from Socialism by
      • passing laws to protect them
      • Health insurance, pensions, accident insurance
    • But . . . Socialism never disappears
  • “Battle for Civilization”
  • Catholics must be loyal to state before church
    • State supervises church education
    • State approves appointment of priests
    • Some Catholic orders closed
    • Jesuits expelled from Germany
    • Civil Marriages
  • Too rigid, must work with Church
kaiser wilhelm ii
Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • 1888
  • 1890: end of Bismarck
  • “There is only one master and that is I”
  • Divine Right ruler
  • “Those who oppose me, I shall crush”
  • Continued social welfare programs
  • Continued support of military
  • Imperialistic
napoleon iii and imperialism
1852: “The Empire means Peace”



1/3 of native pop. killed by French troops


2nd Opium War, 1860





French backed monarchy

Napoleon III and Imperialism
the third republic
The Third Republic
  • 1870-1940
  • Napoleon III
    • Abolished 2nd Republic in 1852
  • 3rd Republic dominated by radical socialists
hapsburg empire
Hapsburg Empire
  • Challenges
    • Conservative ruler in liberal age
    • Philosophy: “Rule and Change nothing”
    • Originally limited industrialization because it threatened tradition
    • Industrialization brings social problems, unrest, socialism
      • Emigration to US begins about 1870
        • Mostly Jews and Slavs (non German-speaking)
hapsburgs ethnic diversity
Hapsburgs: Ethnic Diversity


  • Less than 25% speak German
  • 50% belong to Slavic groups
  • Hungarians, Italians want independence
  • “Peoples! What does that mean? I know only subjects!” – Emperor Francis I (1830)
  • Nationalist revolts crushed
hapsburgs franz joseph
Hapsburgs: Franz Joseph
  • Franz Joseph: 1848-1916
  • “Reform” after loss to Italy in 1860
    • Constitution with legislature
    • Dominated by German speaking Austrians
    • Hungary in rebellion
compromise with hungary
Compromise with Hungary
  • 1866: Hungary wants Reform
  • Dual Monarchy?
  • Austria and Hungary remain separate states
    • Each has constitution and parliament
    • Franz Joseph emperor of both
    • Shared ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs
  • Resentment by Slavic groups (especially Czechs)
  • Slavic unity, political and social unrest = nationalism
the balkans
The Balkans
  • Multi-ethnic
  • Serbia and Greece
  • Other nations get involved to further their own interests
    • Russia pushes toward Istanbul (1850s)
    • A-H interested in Bosnia
    • Britain and France want Ottoman land in the Middle East and N. Africa
    • Stage is set for a war in the Balkans
      • “If there is ever another war in Europe, it will come out of some damned silly thing in the Balkans” -- Bismarck
nicholas i
Nicholas I
  • 1825-1855
  • Limited power of landowners
    • Feared angering nobles
  • Orthodoxy
  • Autocracy (l’etat c’est moi . . )
  • Nationalism
alexander ii
Alexander II
  • Defeated in Crimean War
    • Reveals lack of progress in Russia
    • Lack of railroads, inefficient bureaucracy
alexander ii reforms
Alexander II: Reforms
  • Emancipation of serfs
    • Must buy land
    • Moved to cities, aiding industrialization
  • Other Reform
    • Trial by jury
    • Eased censorship
    • Soldier term of service reduced from 25 years to 15
    • Encouraged industry
  • Zemstvos
    • Local elected assemblies
    • Responsible for local repair, schools, agricultural decisions
revolutionary currents
Revolutionary Currents
  • Reform satisfied few Russians
  • Peasants: freedom, but no land
  • Liberals: want constitution, elected legislature
  • Radicals: want socialism
    • Lived amongst peasants, preaching rebellion
    • Radicals turn to violence to get their message heard
    • People’s Will: plot to assassinate the Tsar
  • Tsar becomes more conservative
  • 1881: Assassination of Tsar Alexander II
alexander iii
Alexander III
  • Reactionary
    • Increased secret police, censorship
    • Exiled critics
    • Democracy is nothing but “lies of hollow people”
  • Promoted Slavic Culture
  • Russification: One language, one church
persecution of russian jews
Persecution of Russian Jews
  • Limited education
  • Limited professions (few in law, medicine)
  • “The Pale”
  • Pogroms: mob attacks on Jews
  • Emigration to US
      • 1880-1924
russian industrialization
Russian Industrialization
  • 1890s
  • Foreign capital
  • Loans built Trans-Siberian Railroad
  • Radicals saw industrial workers as allies
    • Pamphlets preached revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx
nicholas ii
Nicholas II
  • 1894-1917
  • Last Tsar
  • Ineffective
  • Autocrat?
war between russia and japan
War between Russia and Japan
  • 1904
  • “Fight for Faith, the Czar, the Fatherland”
  • Russia loses
  • Discontent
    • Workers strike
    • Starts fatal chain of events
      • 1905, 1917

Reaction to photography

Some events and scenes are not meant to live permanently – they have a “transitory” nature

“Personal Impression”

August Renoir

Claude Monet

“On the Terrace”

by Renoir (1871)

  • Literary Movement
  • Nature and Destiny are the result of heredity
      • No Free Will
      • We are governed by natural laws
  • Replaces Romanticism
  • Realistic depiction of everyday life
    • Zola, Balzac, Flaubert Deals with Cities, slums, factories
science and philosophy
Science and Philosophy
  • Charles Darwin
    • Social Darwinism
  • Nietzsche
    • Christianity = “slave morality”
    • Hinders creativity
    • Ubermensch must become free from convention, redefine his life