European Nationalism 1800-1900. Events/Ideas to Remember. End of Napoleon/Napoleonic Europe Congress of Vienna Metternich Concert of Europe Conservatism vs. Liberalism Balance of Power Key Countries: GB, Ottoman Empire, France, Piedmont-Sardinia . . . . and soon, Russia.
"A feat of chivalry, fiery with consummate courage, and bright with flashing courage.”
-- Benjamin Disraeli, Member
"Theirs not to reason why
Theirs but to do and die"
Poem made the failed charge a symbol of warfare at both its most courageous and its most tragic.
Valley of the Shadow of Death
Giuseppe Mazzini: Writer and politician.
Believed revolution would lead to unification.
1830: member of Carbonari
1831: organized a new political society called Giovane Italia(Young Italy)
No King. Italy must be a democratic republic.
Count Emilio di Cavour
Hated the idea of a united Italy, but hated Austrian control more.
1859: Cavour persuaded Napoleon III to protect Sardinia “if” Austria were to attack
Austria does attack
France declares war against Austria.
Austrians surrender to France. Napoleon allows Sardinia to annex Lombardy.
1859/1860: all northern states voted to join the Kingdom of Sardinia.
After 1860, France controls only Rome (at the request of the Pope)
1833: Joined Mazzini's “Young Italy”
Fought for Sardinian independence in 1854.
Wanted independence for the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. Accepted help from Cavour.
Map of the 19th Century Unification of Italy
With the revolutionary climate of
Europe, Italy should be a constitutional monarchy.
Vittorio Emmanuel is the strongest ruler within Italy.
In Rome this monument is dedicated to Victor Emmanuel.
Close up, the writing says, “Patriae Unitate,”
The Right Leg in the Boot at Last!!
Garibaldi: “If it won't go on Sire, try a little powder . . as in GUNpowder”
Legacy of the ItalianRevolution
Mixing bowl at a bakery in Venice.
Every city has at least one Via Cavour, Via Mazzini, or Via Garibaldi.
Even lesser-known Revolutionary
Heroes are commemorated.
This is a monument in a small piazza in Venice.
The date says “1866.” The rest of it says that these men were martyrs for Italian independence.
This piazza in Florence is named to commemorate the Revolution. It’s named Piazza della Repubblica.
German UnificationThe era of Bismarck
Flag of Prussia. Otto von Bismarck, a prince of Prussia, led the movement to unite all Germans.
Boundaries within Europe after the Congress of Vienna (1815), featuring a strong (and large) Prussia. The Austrian Empire is also large.
Revolutions in Europe.
As dissatisfaction grew and liberals demanded more power, conservatives clung to the old ways.
Bismarck disorganization meant it was time for a strong German leader.
During the era of Romanticism, the idea of “Germany” was one proposed by many: Politicians, composers, poets, authors, statesmen.
However, only one man – Prince Otto von Bismarck –
had the skills to convince the other German states that it was to their benefit to join
Prussia to create a unified nation: Germany.
How Bismarck created
"By blood and Iron"
OTTO VON BISMARCK used this phrase to describe the method by which a unified German state would be created.
Compromise and discussion had failed.
Bismarck knew that Germany could be created only through war . . . and with a strong leader.
Bismarck formed an alliance with Austria in 1864. The purpose was to declare war with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein.
Agreement: Prussia and Austria would take one province on victory.
They called it “liberation” because these provinces were mostly occupied by German speaking people.
Bismarck creates tension with Austria over S-H, which leads to war between Austria and Prussia in 1866
“His Majesty the King (of Prussia) thereupon refused to receive the French envoy again and informed him through an adjutant that His Majesty has nothing further to say to the Ambassador.
France’s reaction to the outcome of the war with Prussia.
Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, January 1871.
1852: “The Empire means Peace”
1/3 of native pop. killed by French troops
2nd Opium War, 1860
French backed monarchy
Reaction to photography
Some events and scenes are not meant to live permanently – they have a “transitory” nature
“On the Terrace”
by Renoir (1871)
“Lunch with the Boating Party” by Renoir
“Sunrise” by Monet