Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict
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Anti-Immigrant Nativism as Sons of the Soil Conflict. The role of immigration and ethnic change in stimulating ethno-nationalism in England Eric Kaufmann, Birkbeck College, U. London [email protected] ; @ epkaufm. Sons of the Soil.

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Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Anti-Immigrant Nativism as Sons of the Soil Conflict

The role of immigration and ethnic change in stimulating ethno-nationalism in England

Eric Kaufmann, Birkbeck College, U. London

[email protected]; @epkaufm


Sons of the soil

Sons of the Soil

Residence and Rebellion: Mean Maximum Rebellion Scores by Category of Residence

  • N.B. A score of 1 indicates no rebellion.

  • N refers to number of such groups in the MAR dataset. Source: Fearon and Laitin 2011


Sons of the soil conflicts

Sons of the Soil Conflicts

  • Indigenousness (Eriksen 1993)

  • Dominant ethnicity; dominant ethno-nationalism (Kaufmann 2004)

  • Ethno-nationalism includes a concern with individual migration/change

  • Autochthony: internal migration across ethnic boundaries, into ‘our’ land

  • West: international migration across ethnic/national boundaries, into ‘our’ land


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Cultural Liberalism

Individualism

-

-

English Ethnic Nationalism

-

+

Integration/ Assimilation/

Boundary Shift

Immigration and Minority Growth


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Source: Ipsos MORI, 'Attitudes to Immigration' (forthcoming). Issues Index question: “What do you see as the most/other important issues facing Britain today?”. Issues Index base: representative sample of c.1,000 British adults age 18+ each month, interviewed face-to-face in home. Home Office statistics based on ‘Year ending’.


Locality matters

Locality Matters

  • Nation could be the local writ large (Applegate 1990; Confino 1997; Zimmer 2013)

  • Local could be a passive space inscribed by national discourses

  • But then, why do opinions on national issues vary by locale, AND

  • Why are demographic changes to the nation experienced so differently by locale?


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Local Realities Shape Perceptions of the Nation (Kaufmann 2008)

Nation

Local


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Source: Home Office Citizenship Survey (Office for National Statistics and Home Office 2011)


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Table 2. White British Discomfort Threshold for Minority Share, Ward-level, 2013

Source: Yougov 2013.

  • 'When do you think you would start to feel uncomfortable about the number of people from ethnic minorities…

  • A) ‘living in your neighbourhood’?

  • B) ‘living in Britain’?

  • .60 correlation


Individualism

Individualism

  • Mobility: Renter or recent mover v. long-term resident

  • Living in a transient area

  • Living in an urban area

  • Higher Education/Student

  • Higher social class

  • Importance of occupation for identity vs. importance of ethnicity/nation

  • Young


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Desire to reduce migration, by class and proportion of renters, among ward residents, white British only

Source: Home Office Citizenship Survey (Office for National Statistics and Home Office 2010, 2011)


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Source: Harris 2012


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Source: Harris 2012 (census and election statistics)


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Source: Understanding Society survey, waves 1-3, 2009-12


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

Source: Election data from Plymouth Elections Centre Data; ONS 2013.

http://www1.plymouth.ac.uk/research/ceres/TEC/thecentre/Pages/default.aspx


Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict

White Flight in Britain?

Source: Yougov survey, August 2013 (Yougov 2013). N = 1638 white British adults. Note that number of cases is slightly different for different groups of variables depending on response rate


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Ethnic Change associated with English ethnic nationalism

  • Local ethnic dynamics matter for perceptions of national issues

  • Assimilation of European immigrants has historically reduced English ethnic nationalism

  • Local contact with and habituation to minorities, rather than integration, reduces opposition to immigration


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