Anti immigrant nativism as sons of the soil conflict
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Anti-Immigrant Nativism as Sons of the Soil Conflict. The role of immigration and ethnic change in stimulating ethno-nationalism in England Eric Kaufmann, Birkbeck College, U. London [email protected] ; @ epkaufm. Sons of the Soil.

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Anti-Immigrant Nativism as Sons of the Soil Conflict

The role of immigration and ethnic change in stimulating ethno-nationalism in England

Eric Kaufmann, Birkbeck College, U. London

[email protected]; @epkaufm


Sons of the Soil

Residence and Rebellion: Mean Maximum Rebellion Scores by Category of Residence

  • N.B. A score of 1 indicates no rebellion.

  • N refers to number of such groups in the MAR dataset. Source: Fearon and Laitin 2011


Sons of the Soil Conflicts

  • Indigenousness (Eriksen 1993)

  • Dominant ethnicity; dominant ethno-nationalism (Kaufmann 2004)

  • Ethno-nationalism includes a concern with individual migration/change

  • Autochthony: internal migration across ethnic boundaries, into ‘our’ land

  • West: international migration across ethnic/national boundaries, into ‘our’ land


Cultural Liberalism

Individualism

-

-

English Ethnic Nationalism

-

+

Integration/ Assimilation/

Boundary Shift

Immigration and Minority Growth


Source: Ipsos MORI, 'Attitudes to Immigration' (forthcoming). Issues Index question: “What do you see as the most/other important issues facing Britain today?”. Issues Index base: representative sample of c.1,000 British adults age 18+ each month, interviewed face-to-face in home. Home Office statistics based on ‘Year ending’.


Locality Matters

  • Nation could be the local writ large (Applegate 1990; Confino 1997; Zimmer 2013)

  • Local could be a passive space inscribed by national discourses

  • But then, why do opinions on national issues vary by locale, AND

  • Why are demographic changes to the nation experienced so differently by locale?


Local Realities Shape Perceptions of the Nation (Kaufmann 2008)

Nation

Local


Source: Home Office Citizenship Survey (Office for National Statistics and Home Office 2011)


Table 2. White British Discomfort Threshold for Minority Share, Ward-level, 2013

Source: Yougov 2013.

  • 'When do you think you would start to feel uncomfortable about the number of people from ethnic minorities…

  • A) ‘living in your neighbourhood’?

  • B) ‘living in Britain’?

  • .60 correlation


Individualism

  • Mobility: Renter or recent mover v. long-term resident

  • Living in a transient area

  • Living in an urban area

  • Higher Education/Student

  • Higher social class

  • Importance of occupation for identity vs. importance of ethnicity/nation

  • Young


Desire to reduce migration, by class and proportion of renters, among ward residents, white British only

Source: Home Office Citizenship Survey (Office for National Statistics and Home Office 2010, 2011)


Source: Harris 2012


Source: Harris 2012 (census and election statistics)


Source: Understanding Society survey, waves 1-3, 2009-12


Source: Election data from Plymouth Elections Centre Data; ONS 2013.

http://www1.plymouth.ac.uk/research/ceres/TEC/thecentre/Pages/default.aspx


White Flight in Britain?

Source: Yougov survey, August 2013 (Yougov 2013). N = 1638 white British adults. Note that number of cases is slightly different for different groups of variables depending on response rate


Conclusion

  • Ethnic Change associated with English ethnic nationalism

  • Local ethnic dynamics matter for perceptions of national issues

  • Assimilation of European immigrants has historically reduced English ethnic nationalism

  • Local contact with and habituation to minorities, rather than integration, reduces opposition to immigration


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