State-building, expansion and conflict. Political structures and forms of governance Empires Nations and nationalism Revolts and revolutions Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations.
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With the development of farming and cities, political organization became much more complex.
Hunter-Gatherers and Pastoral nomads have limited political structure.
Egypt and the Shang in China were highly centralized. They developed bureaucracies, dynasties, and used religion to justify the position of the rulers.
Classical empires were much more complex because they were so large.
They had to invent new ways to keep their land together.
How did the classical empires accomplish this?
Rome: At first a republic ruled by aristocrats w/ some
shared power with the Senate and 2 consuls usually selected from the military. Later, an empire with focus on
military conquest, colonization, and law codes.
The ideal was to use principle of the rule of law; not the
rule by the whim of the emperor.
Mandate of Heaven, the emperor was the Sun of Heaven housed in the Forbidden City.
Yellow Turban Revolt
What causes regionalism?
Mauryan and Gupta gain power through the
The greatest of the Mauryan kings
Africa is the anomaly
How do you know?
Pastoral nomads which means they are a _________ ___________?
“Protect trade routes.” Sounds familiar doesn’t it?
Organized into regional Khanates which were politically controlled by a relative
with one main ruler known as the Great Khan.
Strong support for transportation and communication
Religion played a role
Took tribute from their neighbors
Hegemony over neighbors
Didn’t emphasize the military as much so not as much hegemony
Trade, communication and transportation still important
TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES
YUAN Dynasty ruled by collecting tribute called
Tax Farming. This outsourcing of tax collection
led to corruption and rebellion and ultimately to
Who really had the power in Japan?
What do these names have in common?
Fujiwara, Minamoto, Tokugawa
The feudal system was less centralized than some areas, but more
powerful than a local government. Political values emphasized what?
European Feudalism established political and military relationships.
Justinian law codes the biggest legacy.
The ruler was absolute in power and controlled the
church as well.
Copied Justinian law codes and organized into a state
by the 10thc. in Kiev.
Power of nomads decreased because of sea trade’s rising importance.
Major maritime powers were?
Major Gunpowder Empires were?
The Ming defeat the Yuan.
Establish trade and bureaucracy again!
Send out trade expeditions to start collecting tribute again!
Afraid of another invasion from the North and West…again!
Begin to isolate themselves, because Confucian bureaucrats
Suffered from inept rulers who were isolated from the empire in the
Invaded by outsiders…again!
Manchu take the name Qing…used Mandate of Heaven to justify…
The pope remained politically powerful. Treaty of Tordesillas!
Kings begin to shake off feudalism and become more centralized by
taking on absolutism.
In Spain and Portugal they support exploration. Name those kings!
Later, so do France and England.
Magna Carta 1215 listed the rights of the nobility and created Parliament.
King Henry VIII Church and takes over the monasteries separates from the Catholic church.
Elizabeth I defeats the Spanish Armada.
After the English Civil War the power of the king is
limited by the….of 1688
It greatly limited the power of the king AND allowed
wealthier merchants to participate in the government
Louis XIV said, “L’stat c’est moi!”
I AM THE STATE!
Kings were not gods, but they were
His lieutenants on earth.
He greatly weakened the power of the
nobles and the feudal system.
Russia and Peter the Great
Wanted to westernize
Reformed military and created the navy
Reorganized bureaucracy/took titles away from nobles
Ottoman Empire under Suleyman the Magnificent (sultan)
Used captured Christian boys as skilled soldiers and bureaucrats-Janissaries
Spain and Portugal
Developed large bureaucracies in urban areas
Brought concepts of feudalism and absolutism with them
English colonies had no bureaucracies
Colonists et up their own structures like representative bodies and ran their own affairs…salutary neglect