State building expansion and conflict
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State-building, expansion and conflict. Political structures and forms of governance Empires Nations and nationalism Revolts and revolutions Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations.

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State-building, expansion and conflict

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State-building, expansion and conflict

  • Political structures and forms of governance

  • Empires

  • Nations and nationalism

  • Revolts and revolutions

  • Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations


With the development of farming and cities, political organization became much more complex.

Why?


FOUNDATIONS

Hunter-Gatherers and Pastoral nomads have limited political structure.


Egypt and the Shang in China were highly centralized. They developed bureaucracies, dynasties, and used religion to justify the position of the rulers.


Classical empires were much more complex because they were so large.

They had to invent new ways to keep their land together.

How did the classical empires accomplish this?


Rome: At first a republic ruled by aristocrats w/ some

shared power with the Senate and 2 consuls usually selected from the military. Later, an empire with focus on

military conquest, colonization, and law codes.

The ideal was to use principle of the rule of law; not the

rule by the whim of the emperor.

China:

Mandate of Heaven, the emperor was the Sun of Heaven housed in the Forbidden City.

Yellow Turban Revolt


INDIA

What causes regionalism?

Mauryan and Gupta gain power through the

military.

The greatest of the Mauryan kings

was? Why?


Africa is the anomaly

  • Meanwhile, in Africa, the Bantu-based

  • societies and others developed

  • stateless societies which were

  • centralized.

  • decentralized.

How do you know?


Post-Classical World600-1450


WEST AFRICA

  • Ghana and Mali

  • Became rich by taxing traders

  • Powerful military (see a pattern here?)

  • Mali first major leader Sundiata and later Mansa Musa


Islamic Empires

  • After Muhammad’s death, the government set up rule by a Caliph.

  • Abu Bakr was the first caliph supported by well-trained armies

  • Aided by the weaknesses of the Persian and Byzantine empires


Pastoral nomads which means they are a _________ ___________?

“Protect trade routes.” Sounds familiar doesn’t it?

Mongols

Organized into regional Khanates which were politically controlled by a relative

with one main ruler known as the Great Khan.


Equal–field system

Strong support for transportation and communication

Meritocracy

Religion played a role

Took tribute from their neighbors

Hegemony over neighbors

Expanded meritocracy

Didn’t emphasize the military as much so not as much hegemony

Trade, communication and transportation still important

TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES

TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES


YUAN Dynasty ruled by collecting tribute called

Tax Farming. This outsourcing of tax collection

led to corruption and rebellion and ultimately to

their downfall.


Who really had the power in Japan?

What do these names have in common?

Fujiwara, Minamoto, Tokugawa

The feudal system was less centralized than some areas, but more

powerful than a local government. Political values emphasized what?


European Feudalism established political and military relationships.


Eastern Europe

Byzantium

Justinian law codes the biggest legacy.

The ruler was absolute in power and controlled the

church as well.

Russia

Copied Justinian law codes and organized into a state

by the 10thc. in Kiev.


THE AMERICAS

  • Maya: city-states w/ no central govt.

  • Aztecs: central monarch in Tenochtitlan who didn’t have absolute power; a council of aristocrats made many decisions; no elaborate bureaucracy

  • Inca: highly powerful centralized govt. the Inca owned all of the land; elaborate bureaucracy; road system enforced Inca’s power; quipu kept records


1450-1750

Power of nomads decreased because of sea trade’s rising importance.

Major maritime powers were?

Major Gunpowder Empires were?


The Ming defeat the Yuan.

Establish trade and bureaucracy again!

Send out trade expeditions to start collecting tribute again!

Afraid of another invasion from the North and West…again!

Begin to isolate themselves, because Confucian bureaucrats

were xenophobic.

Suffered from inept rulers who were isolated from the empire in the

Forbidden City….again!

Invaded by outsiders…again!

Manchu take the name Qing…used Mandate of Heaven to justify…

again!


WESTERN EUROPE

The pope remained politically powerful. Treaty of Tordesillas!

Kings begin to shake off feudalism and become more centralized by

taking on absolutism.

In Spain and Portugal they support exploration. Name those kings!

Later, so do France and England.


Magna Carta 1215 listed the rights of the nobility and created Parliament.

King Henry VIII Church and takes over the monasteries separates from the Catholic church.

Elizabeth I defeats the Spanish Armada.

England

After the English Civil War the power of the king is

limited by the….of 1688

It greatly limited the power of the king AND allowed

wealthier merchants to participate in the government


Louis XIV said, “L’stat c’est moi!”

I AM THE STATE!

Absolutely!

Kings were not gods, but they were

His lieutenants on earth.

He greatly weakened the power of the

nobles and the feudal system.

FRANCE


Russia and Peter the Great

Wanted to westernize

Reformed military and created the navy

Reorganized bureaucracy/took titles away from nobles

Ottoman Empire under Suleyman the Magnificent (sultan)

Used captured Christian boys as skilled soldiers and bureaucrats-Janissaries

Grand Vizier

Absolutists


Spain and Portugal

Developed large bureaucracies in urban areas

Brought concepts of feudalism and absolutism with them

English colonies had no bureaucracies

Colonists et up their own structures like representative bodies and ran their own affairs…salutary neglect

Colonies in the New World


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