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State-building, expansion and conflict. Political structures and forms of governance Empires Nations and nationalism Revolts and revolutions Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations.

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State-building, expansion and conflict

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State building expansion and conflict

State-building, expansion and conflict

  • Political structures and forms of governance

  • Empires

  • Nations and nationalism

  • Revolts and revolutions

  • Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations

State building expansion and conflict

With the development of farming and cities, political organization became much more complex.


State building expansion and conflict


Hunter-Gatherers and Pastoral nomads have limited political structure.

State building expansion and conflict

Egypt and the Shang in China were highly centralized. They developed bureaucracies, dynasties, and used religion to justify the position of the rulers.

State building expansion and conflict

Classical empires were much more complex because they were so large.

They had to invent new ways to keep their land together.

How did the classical empires accomplish this?

State building expansion and conflict

Rome: At first a republic ruled by aristocrats w/ some

shared power with the Senate and 2 consuls usually selected from the military. Later, an empire with focus on

military conquest, colonization, and law codes.

The ideal was to use principle of the rule of law; not the

rule by the whim of the emperor.


Mandate of Heaven, the emperor was the Sun of Heaven housed in the Forbidden City.

Yellow Turban Revolt

State building expansion and conflict


What causes regionalism?

Mauryan and Gupta gain power through the


The greatest of the Mauryan kings

was? Why?

State building expansion and conflict

Africa is the anomaly

  • Meanwhile, in Africa, the Bantu-based

  • societies and others developed

  • stateless societies which were

  • centralized.

  • decentralized.

How do you know?

Post classical world 600 1450

Post-Classical World600-1450

West africa


  • Ghana and Mali

  • Became rich by taxing traders

  • Powerful military (see a pattern here?)

  • Mali first major leader Sundiata and later Mansa Musa

Islamic empires

Islamic Empires

  • After Muhammad’s death, the government set up rule by a Caliph.

  • Abu Bakr was the first caliph supported by well-trained armies

  • Aided by the weaknesses of the Persian and Byzantine empires

State building expansion and conflict

Pastoral nomads which means they are a _________ ___________?

“Protect trade routes.” Sounds familiar doesn’t it?


Organized into regional Khanates which were politically controlled by a relative

with one main ruler known as the Great Khan.

Tang and song dynasties

Equal–field system

Strong support for transportation and communication


Religion played a role

Took tribute from their neighbors

Hegemony over neighbors

Expanded meritocracy

Didn’t emphasize the military as much so not as much hegemony

Trade, communication and transportation still important



State building expansion and conflict

YUAN Dynasty ruled by collecting tribute called

Tax Farming. This outsourcing of tax collection

led to corruption and rebellion and ultimately to

their downfall.

State building expansion and conflict

Who really had the power in Japan?

What do these names have in common?

Fujiwara, Minamoto, Tokugawa

The feudal system was less centralized than some areas, but more

powerful than a local government. Political values emphasized what?

State building expansion and conflict

European Feudalism established political and military relationships.

State building expansion and conflict

Eastern Europe


Justinian law codes the biggest legacy.

The ruler was absolute in power and controlled the

church as well.


Copied Justinian law codes and organized into a state

by the 10thc. in Kiev.

The americas


  • Maya: city-states w/ no central govt.

  • Aztecs: central monarch in Tenochtitlan who didn’t have absolute power; a council of aristocrats made many decisions; no elaborate bureaucracy

  • Inca: highly powerful centralized govt. the Inca owned all of the land; elaborate bureaucracy; road system enforced Inca’s power; quipu kept records

1450 1750


Power of nomads decreased because of sea trade’s rising importance.

Major maritime powers were?

Major Gunpowder Empires were?

State building expansion and conflict

The Ming defeat the Yuan.

Establish trade and bureaucracy again!

Send out trade expeditions to start collecting tribute again!

Afraid of another invasion from the North and West…again!

Begin to isolate themselves, because Confucian bureaucrats

were xenophobic.

Suffered from inept rulers who were isolated from the empire in the

Forbidden City….again!

Invaded by outsiders…again!

Manchu take the name Qing…used Mandate of Heaven to justify…


State building expansion and conflict


The pope remained politically powerful. Treaty of Tordesillas!

Kings begin to shake off feudalism and become more centralized by

taking on absolutism.

In Spain and Portugal they support exploration. Name those kings!

Later, so do France and England.

State building expansion and conflict

Magna Carta 1215 listed the rights of the nobility and created Parliament.

King Henry VIII Church and takes over the monasteries separates from the Catholic church.

Elizabeth I defeats the Spanish Armada.


After the English Civil War the power of the king is

limited by the….of 1688

It greatly limited the power of the king AND allowed

wealthier merchants to participate in the government

State building expansion and conflict

Louis XIV said, “L’stat c’est moi!”



Kings were not gods, but they were

His lieutenants on earth.

He greatly weakened the power of the

nobles and the feudal system.



Russia and Peter the Great

Wanted to westernize

Reformed military and created the navy

Reorganized bureaucracy/took titles away from nobles

Ottoman Empire under Suleyman the Magnificent (sultan)

Used captured Christian boys as skilled soldiers and bureaucrats-Janissaries

Grand Vizier


Colonies in the new world

Spain and Portugal

Developed large bureaucracies in urban areas

Brought concepts of feudalism and absolutism with them

English colonies had no bureaucracies

Colonists et up their own structures like representative bodies and ran their own affairs…salutary neglect

Colonies in the New World

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