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Sex and Reproduction. Chapter 50. Outline. Sexual and Asexual Reproduction Fertilization and Development Fish and Amphibians Reptiles and Birds Mammals Male Reproductive System (Information Only. Do not take notes!) Female Reproductive System (Information Only. Do not take notes!).

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Outline
Outline

  • Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

  • Fertilization and Development

  • Fish and Amphibians

  • Reptiles and Birds

  • Mammals

  • Male Reproductive System (Information Only. Do not take notes!)

  • Female Reproductive System (Information Only. Do not take notes!)


Sexual and asexual reproduction
Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

  • Sexual reproduction occurs when a new individual is formed through the union of two sex cells (gametes).

    • produce zygote

    • Haploid gametes formed by meiosis in sex organs (gonads).

  • Asexual reproduction occurs when genetically identical cells are produced from a single parent cell by mitosis.

    • fission or budding


Asexual and sexual reproduction
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

  • Different approaches to sex

    • parthogenesis - virgin birth

      • exclusive

      • switching

    • hermaphroditism - both sex organs

      • sequential


Asexual and sexual reproduction1
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

  • Sex determination

    • In some organisms, environmental conditions can determine sex of offspring.

      • In mammals, sex is determined early in embryonic development.

        • Embryonic gonads are indifferent.

          • Y chromosome produces males.



Fertilization and development
Fertilization and Development

  • Vertebrate sexual reproduction evolved in the ocean before vertebrates colonized land.

    • External fertilization - Males generally release sperm into water where the union of the free gametes occurs.


Fertilization and development1
Fertilization and Development

  • Three strategies of internal fertilization:

    • oviparity - Eggs are fertilized internally and deposited outside mother’s body to complete development.

    • ovoviviparity - Fertilized eggs are retained within mother to complete development, but all nourishment gained from yolk sac.

    • viviparity - Young develop within mother and obtain nourishment directly from mother’s blood.


Fish and amphibians
Fish and Amphibians

  • Fish

    • Eggs of most bony fish fertilized externally, and eggs contain small yolk sac.

    • Fertilization in most cartilaginous fish is internal.

  • Amphibians

    • Fertilization is usually external.

    • Eggs of most species develop in water.

    • Development divided into stages.


Reptiles and birds
Reptiles and Birds

  • Reptiles

    • Most reptiles are oviparous, and lay amniotic eggs.

      • other species are ovoviviparous, or viviparous

    • Most males use penis to inject sperm into females.


Reptiles and birds1
Reptiles and Birds

  • Birds

    • All birds practice internal fertilization.

      • As eggs pass along oviduct, glands secrete albumin proteins and hard calcareous shell.

    • homeothermic - must keep eggs warm

    • Young cared for and nurtured by parents.


Mammals
Mammals

  • Mammals

    • Females generally undergo reproductive cycles (estrous cycles).

      • periodic release of mature ovum

      • Changes in secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by pituitary gland drive cycle.

    • induced ovulators - Females ovulate only after copulation as a result of LH secretion.

      • cats and rabbits


Mammals1
Mammals

  • Monotremes are oviparous.

    • most primitive mammals

  • Marsupials give birth to incompletely developed fetuses.

  • Placental mammals retain young for a long period of development within the mother’s uterus.


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