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Production of Networks & Networks of Production. Yuk Hui (Goldsmiths). Two examples of information extraction. Traditional way: 1. Hyperlink Yuk Hui -> Goetz Bachmann 2. Re-occurrence Goetz Bachmann Goetz Bachmann. Two Examples of information extraction.

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Production of networks networks of production

Production of Networks&Networks of Production

Yuk Hui (Goldsmiths)


Two examples of information extraction
Two examples of information extraction

Traditional way:

1. Hyperlink

Yuk Hui -> Goetz Bachmann

2. Re-occurrence

Goetz Bachmann Goetz Bachmann


Two examples of information extraction1
Two Examples of information extraction

  • <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"

  • xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"

  • xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/">

  • <foaf:Person>

  • <foaf:name>Yuk Hui</foaf:name>

  • <foaf:firstName>Yuk</foaf:firstName>

  • <foaf:surname>Hui</foaf:surname>

  • <foaf:mbox_sha1sum>71b88e951cb5f07518d69e5bb49a45100fbc3ca5</foaf:mbox_sha1sum>

  • <foaf:knows rdf:resource="#goetz">

  • </foaf:Person>

  • <foaf:Person rdf:ID="goetz">

  • <foaf:name>Goetz Bachmann</foaf:name>

  • <foaf:mbox_sha1sum>241021fb0e6289f92815fc210f9e9137262c252e</foaf:mbox_sha1sum>

  • <rdfs:seeAlso

  • rdf:resource="http://rdfweb.org/people/danbri/foaf.rdf"/>

  • </foaf:Person>

  • </rdf:RDF>


Content is king
Content is king!?

1. user doesn’t necessarily generate content

2. what generated is more than content


Relation
Relation?

“The idea of network based exchange is based on the sociological observation that social interaction creates similarity and vice versa, interaction creates similarity: friends are likely to have acquired or develop similar interests”

Peter Mika, Yahoo!Barcelona

Semantic Web and Social Network


Semantic web
Semantic Web

RDF (Resource Definition Framework)

OWL (Web Ontology Language)

Yuk – knows – Goetz

Subject Predicate Object


Concretization
concretization

Text based web -> Logic based web

Formal knowledge representation -> Ontology


Three questions
Three Questions

1.What kind of relations are we talking?

2.What is the complexity of these relations?

3.How does the understanding of relation help to understand the current technology and its social and cultural implications?



Aristotle s relative
Aristotle’s “relative”

“those things are called relative which, being either said to be of something else or related to something else, are explained by reference to the other thing”

6a36-39, Aristotle, categories, in Basic Works of Aristotle


Aristotle s relative revisited
Aristotle’s “relative” revisited

“indeed, in our definition of that which is relative was complete, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to prove that no substance is relative. If however, our definition was not complete, if those things are only properly called relative in the case of which relation to an external object is a necessary condition of existence, perhaps some explaination of the dilemma may be found.”

8a28-34, Aristotle, Categories


Two unresolved relations
Two unresolved relations

relation secumdum dici: relation according to the way it must be expressed in discourse.

relation secundum esse: relation to the way it has being.


Hume s response
Hume’s Response

  • Reject the idea of substance

  • Radicalize predicates as relations (Associationism)


Hume s relation
Hume’s relation

“either for that quality, by which two ideas are connected together in the imagination, and the one naturally introduces the other, after the manner above explained: or for that particular circumstance, in which, even upon the arbitrary union of two ideas in the fancy, we may think proper to compare them”

David Hume, A treatise of Human Nature


Hume s philosophical relations
Hume’s philosophical relations

Resemblance

Identity

Space and Time

Quantity/Number

Quality/Degree of Quality

Contrariety

Causality


Hume s philosophical relations1
Hume’s philosophical relations

External relations:

identity, temporal & spatial relations, causality

Internal Relations:

resemblance, contrariety, degrees of quality , and

propositions of quantity and number


Deleuze s hume
Deleuze’s Hume

All relations are external!

“…[L]et us consider, that since equality is a relation, it is not, strictly speaking, a property in the figures themselves, but arises merely from the comparison, which the mind makes betwixt them”

quoted by Deleuze, Empiricism and Subjectivity


Berners lee s web 3 0
Berners-Lee’s Web 3.0

Semantic web

+

AI agents


Critique of relation
Critique of relation

“either for that quality, by which two ideas are connected together in the imagination, and the one naturally introduces the other, after the manner above explained: or for that particular circumstance, in which, even upon the arbitrary union of two ideas in the fancy, we may think proper to compare them”

David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature


Our question
Our Question

What are the significances of saying that the web economy is constituted by the production of relations?


Design of information system
Design of Information System

what is relevance?

1.system or algorithmic relevance

2.topical or subject relevance

3.cognitive relevance or pertinence

4.situational relevance or utility

5.motivational or affective relevance

Saracevic, Information science, 1999


Inadequacy of 5ws
Inadequacy of 5Ws

When

Where

Why

Who

What


Thingification of media
Thingification of Media

Vitality is the key to understand the operation of the global culture industry. And in the web economy, we can see where this vitality is from, which is the production of relations, but not merely data.


Production
Production

X Karl Marx’s commodity

X Hardt/Negri/Lazzorato immaterial production



Production of subjectivity
Production of subjectivity

A perfect match with Hume’s theory of causality

The necessity of causal relation = habit/custom


Deleuze s empirical subjectivity
Deleuze’s empirical subjectivity

Subjectivity = Believe + Invention

The networks of relations can be established and shaped through different algorithms and comparisons of relations, modern subjectivity is moving to the side of engineering.


Network of production
Network of Production

Two visible facts:

1.objects and users of same importance

2 Machine processibility

One invisible facts:

the machines driven by algorithms are harvesting relations the users don’t intend to produce or don’t regard it as a relation


Networks of production
Networks of production

Networks are generating Networks


Recursion
Recursion

Google and its PageRank

Recursion: an algorithmic technique where a function, in order to accomplish a task, calls itself with some part of the task


Recursion1
Recursion

public int fib(int n) {

if(n <= 1) {

return n;

} else {

return fib(n - 1) + fib(n - 2);

}

}

n: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 … nth

Fibonacci: 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 …


Foucault on neo liberalism
Foucault on Neo-Liberalism

human capital can never be counted in terms of quantity like Ricardo and Adam Smiths did, instead human capital become recursive function consists of both “capital”(in terms of ability and skills) and “earnings stream” (not an income)


The end
The End?

Production of Networks

Production of Networks

Networks of Production

Production of Networks

Networks of Production

Networks of Production

Production of Networks

Networks of Production

Production of Networks

Networks of Production

Production of Networks

Production of Networks

Networks of Production

Networks of Production

Production of Networks

Production of Networks

Networks of Production

Networks of Production

Production of Networks

Networks of Production


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