Chapter 8 notes part i
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Chapter 8 Notes, Part I. Parts of an equation Types of reactions. What is a chemical reaction?. A chemical reaction is the act of changing substances into new substances with new and different chemical and physical properties. A Chemical Equation.

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Chapter 8 Notes, Part I

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Chapter 8 Notes, Part I

Parts of an equation

Types of reactions


What is a chemical reaction?

  • A chemical reaction is the act of changing substances into new substances with new and different chemical and physical properties.


A Chemical Equation

  • A chemical equation shows what is going on in a chemical reaction.

  • Instead of writing down the entire sentence “hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form dihydrogen monoxide (water)”, you could write…


reactants

The substances you have before a chemical reaction occurs

(found on the left side of the equation)

products

The substances you have after a chemical reaction occurs

(found on the right side of the equation)

2H2 + O2a2H2O


subscripts

How many elements are in a compound

coefficients

How many substances are in the reaction

2H2 + O2a2H2O


2H2 + O2a2H2O

The arrow reads as “produces”, “yields” or “reacts to form”


Iron reacts with oxygen gas to produce iron (III) oxide

4Fe + 3O2a2Fe2O3


Other symbols in an Equation

  • (s) = substance is solid

  • (l) = substance is liquid

  • (g) = substance is a gas

  • (aq) = substance is dissolved in water

  • D = heat


Other symbols in an Equation

  • (A formula written above or below an arrow means it is a catalyst (a substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up by it.)


What is:

  • The name of something that speeds a reaction, but is not used up?

  • The name of what you have before a reaction takes place?

  • The symbol for heat?

  • The number that shows there are more than one of the entire compound?


Types of reactions

  • There are five types of reactions

    • Combination

    • Decomposition

    • Single replacement

    • Double replacement

    • Combustion


Combination Reaction

  • A combination reaction occurs when two or more elements or compounds combine to form a single substance.

  • It will follow the form A + B a AB

  • Example: Fe + S aFeS


Decomposition Reaction

  • A decomposition reaction occurs when one substance breaks down into two or more substances.

  • It will follow the pattern

    AB a A + B

  • Example: CaCO3aCaO+CO2


Single Replacement Reaction

  • One element replaces another element in a compound.

  • Generally follows the formula:

    AB + C a A + BC

  • Example:

    Mg+Zn(NO3)2aZn+Mg(NO3)2


Double Replacement Reaction

  • The exchange of two positive ions between two reacting compounds, forming two new compounds as a product.

  • Generally follows the formula:

    AB + CD a AD + CB

  • Example:

    Na2S+Cd(NO3)2aCdS+2NaNO3


Combustion Reaction

  • A compound reacts with oxygen to producing energy as heat and light.

  • Most of the time, it is a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen, and the outcome is always carbon dioxide and water

  • Follows the form: A + O2a CO2 + H2O

  • Example: CH4 + O2a CO2 + 2H2O


What type of reaction is:

  • NaCN + H2SO4a 2HCN + Na2SO4

  • Zn + 2HCl a ZnCl2 + H2

  • 2C2H6 + 7O2a 4CO2 + 6H2O

  • 2H2 + O2a 2H2O


ON THE WHITEBOARDS:

  • Tell which of the five types of reactions the following are:


2Na + 2H2O a 2NaOH + H2

Single replacement


Fe + S a FeS

combination


Al(OH)3 + 3NaCl aAlCl3 + 3NaOH

Double replacement


CH4 + 2O2a CO2 + 2H2O

combustion


KClO2a KCl + O2

decomposition


NaOH + HCl a NaCl + H2O

Double replacement


4Fe + 3O2a 2Fe2O3

combination


2C2H2 + 5O2a 4CO2 + 2H2O

combustion


H2 + Cl2a 2HCl

combination


MgO + 2KF a MgF2 + K2O

Double replacement


Na + Al(NO3)3aNaNO3 + Al

Single replacement


2PbO2a 2PbO + 3O2

decomposition


Ba(CN)2 + H2SO4a BaSO4 + HCN

Double replacement


C3H8 + 5O2a 3CO2 + 4H2O

combustion


4Li + O2a 2Li2O

combination


2Ag + 2HCl a 2AgCl + H2

Single replacement


2H2O2a 2H2O + O2

decomposition


C2H2 + O2a CO2 + H2O

combustion


2HBr a H2 + Br2

decomposition


CrSO4 + 2AgNO3a Cr(NO3)2 + Ag2SO4

Double replacement


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