Modeling simulation of combined pem fuel cell and microturbine distributed generation plant
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MODELING/SIMULATION OF COMBINED PEM FUEL CELL AND MICROTURBINE DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PLANT PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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MODELING/SIMULATION OF COMBINED PEM FUEL CELL AND MICROTURBINE DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PLANT. Rekha .T. Jagaduri Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Tennessee Technological University. OUTLINE. Overview of Distributed Generation Plant. Micro turbine as a DG.

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MODELING/SIMULATION OF COMBINED PEM FUEL CELL AND MICROTURBINE DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PLANT

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Modeling simulation of combined pem fuel cell and microturbine distributed generation plant

MODELING/SIMULATION OF COMBINED PEM FUEL CELL AND MICROTURBINE DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PLANT

Rekha .T. Jagaduri

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Tennessee Technological University

Tennesse Technological University


Outline

OUTLINE

  • Overview of Distributed Generation Plant.

  • Micro turbine as a DG.

  • PEM Fuel Cell as a DG.

  • Modeling of micro turbine.

  • Modeling of fuel cell.

  • Control Systems of micro turbine and fuel cell.

  • Grid connected micro turbine and fuel cell.

  • Simulation results.

  • Conclusion.

  • Future work.

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Overview of a distributed generation

OVERVIEW OF A DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

  • Distributed Generation (DG) is the use of small-scale power generation technologies located close to the load being served.

  • It includes, for example, photovoltaic systems, fuel cells, natural gas engines, industrial turbines, micro turbines, energy-storage devices, wind turbines, and concentrating solar power collectors.

  • These technologies can meet a variety of consumer energy needs including continuous power, backup power, remote power, and peak shaving.

  • They can be installed directly on the consumer’s premise or located nearby in district energy systems, power parks, and mini-grids.

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Economic advantages of dg

ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES OF DG

Economic advantages include one or more of the following:

  • Load management

  • Reliability

  • Power quality

  • Fuel flexibility

  • Cogeneration

  • Deferred or reduced T&D investment or charge

  • Increased distribution grid reliability/stability

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Micro turbine as a dg

MICRO TURBINE AS A DG

  • Micro turbine made its commercial debut in 1998.

  • Micro turbines belongs to an emerging class of small-scale distributed power generation

  • Basic components: compressor, combustor, turbine, and generator.

  • Typically in the 30-400 kW size.

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Micro turbine

MICRO TURBINE

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Modeling of micro turbine

MODELING OF MICRO TURBINE

Mechanical Equations:

Electrical Equations:

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Two axis model of a micro turbine

TWO AXIS MODEL OF A MICRO TURBINE

Phasor diagram of Micro turbine

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Micro turbine controls

MICRO TURBINE CONTROLS

Overall block diagram of Micro turbine control

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Frequency control of micro turbine

FREQUENCY CONTROL OF MICRO TURBINE

Frequency control block

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Voltage control of micro turbine

VOLTAGE CONTROL OF MICRO TURBINE

Voltage control block

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Fuel cell as a dg

FUEL CELL AS A DG

  • First fuel cell was developed in 1839 by Sir William Grove.

  • Practical use started in 1960’s when NASA installed this technology to generate electricity on Gemini and Apollo spacecraft.

  • Types of fuel cells: phosphoric acid, proton exchange membrane, molten carbonate, solid oxide, alkaline, and direct methanol.

  • Typically 5-1000+ kW in size,

  • A number of companies are close to commercializing proton exchange membrane fuel cells, with marketplace introductions expected soon.

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Basic principle of a fuel cell

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF A FUEL CELL

  • A fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte.

  • Hydrogen fuel is fed into the anode of the fuel cell. Oxygen (or air) enters the fuel cell through the cathode.

  • With the aid of a catalyst, the hydrogen atom splits into a proton (H+) and an electron. The proton passes through the electrolyte to the cathode and the electrons travel in an external circuit.

  • As the electrons flow through an external circuit connected as a load they create a DC current. At the cathode, protons combine with hydrogen and oxygen, producing water and heat.

  • Fuel cells have very low levels of NOx and CO emissions because the power conversion is an electrochemical process.

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Pem fuel cell

PEM FUEL CELL

Anode side reaction: H2 2H+ + 2e-

Cathode side reaction: 0.5O2+2H++2e-H20 +Heat

------------------------------------

Overall reaction: H2 + 0.5O2  H20 +Heat

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Overall chemical reaction of pemfc

OVERALL CHEMICAL REACTION OF PEMFC

Component balance Equation

Energy balance Equation

Nernst Equation

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Power conditioning unit

POWER CONDITIONING UNIT

AC Voltage of the fuel cell: Vac = m . VFC

where m is the modulation index,  is the firing angle

Block diagram of fuel cell with PCU

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Fuel cell controls

FUEL CELL CONTROLS

Power Control scheme

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Fuel cell controls1

FUEL CELL CONTROLS

Voltage Control Scheme

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Interfacing dg with power grid

INTERFACING DG WITH POWER GRID

The machine side characteristics of micro turbine are transformed to the system side frame of reference using the transformation matrix

The current injected into the system

I = Y. V

Which could be further written as

Ire+ jIim = (G + jB). Vre + jVim

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Numerical analysis

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

Test System

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Case study

CASE STUDY

  • Case 1: Assuming 10% increase in input power of the micro turbine

  • Case 2: Assuming 20% increase in input power of the fuel cell

  • Case 3: Assuming a 10% increase in micro turbine power (with and without governor)

  • Case 4: Assuming a 1% increase in micro turbine voltage reference ( with and without voltage regulator)

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Simulation results case 1

SIMULATION RESULTS – CASE 1

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Simulation results case 2

SIMULATION RESULTS – CASE 2

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Simulation results case 3

SIMULATION RESULTS – CASE 3

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Simulation results case 4

SIMULATION RESULTS – CASE 4

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Conclusion

CONCLUSION

  • A combined micro turbine and PEM fuel cell plant connected to a power system was modeled and simulated.

  • Both the fuel cell and micro-turbine were assumed to be equipped with power and voltage control loops.

  • The micro-turbine was modeled using the d-q frame of reference and it was interfaced with the power system using transformation between this frame of reference and the system frame of reference.

  • A test system with typical numerical values was used to determine the accuracy of the model.

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Future work

FUTURE WORK

  • The same procedure may be extended to the case of several DG’s connected to a power system.

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Thank you

THANK YOU

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