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KARAKTERISTIK BUAH DAN SAYUR. UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA 2013. Tujuan Matakuliah :. Mahasiswa mengetahui dan memahami karakteristik BUAH DAN SAYUR serta mengetahui efek pengolahan terhadap karakteristiknya. . KARAKTERISTIK BUAH & SAYURAN. Tanaman Sebagai bhn pangan

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KARAKTERISTIK BUAH DAN SAYUR

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Karakteristik buah dan sayur

KARAKTERISTIKBUAH DAN SAYUR

UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA

2013


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

TujuanMatakuliah:

Mahasiswa mengetahui dan memahami karakteristik BUAH DAN SAYUR serta mengetahui efek pengolahan terhadap karakteristiknya.


Karakteristik buah sayuran

KARAKTERISTIK BUAH & SAYURAN


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

TanamanSebagaibhnpangan

AkarBatangDaunBungaBuahBiji

SayurdanBuah

  • Sayurdanbuah secaraanatomitdkdptdibedakan

  • Dibedakanberdasarkanpenggunaannya :

    - Sayur biasadimakanbersamamakananutama(nasi)

    -Buah  sebagaidessert ( dimakansegar )


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • BUAH =bagiantanamanhasilperkawinanputikdanbenangsari

    mrpktempatbiji

     mempunyai rasa manisasam, warnadan aroma yang khas

  • SAYURAN= bagiantanaman (akar, daun, buah, biji, batang ) umumnyatanaman yang umurnyarelatifpendek

  • tdkberasamanis, warnadantekstur yang beragam


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • Kenampakan visual

  • Indikatorfisik

  • Analisakimia

  • Indikatorfisiologis

INDIKATOR PANEN


Buah sayur

BUAH & SAYUR

  • Kadar air tinggi > 70% - 85%

  • Kadar protein : tidaklebih 3,5%

  • Kadar lemak : tidaklebih 0,5%

    (kecualialpokat)

  • Sumberkarbohidrat, 2 jenis :

    dapatdicerna (gula, pati)

    tidakdapatdicerna : dietary fiber (seratmakanan)

  • Sumber mineral dan vitamin

  • Zatwarna (pigmen)


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

BUAH


Penggolongan buah buahan

PENGGOLONGAN BUAH-BUAHAN


Komposisi buah

KomposisiBuah

Dipengaruhibeberapafaktor :

  • Perbedaanvaritas

  • Keadaaniklimtempattumbuh

  • Pemeliharaantanaman

  • Cara pemanenan

  • Tingkat kematanganwaktudipanen

  • Kondisiselamapemeraman

  • Kondisipenyimpanan


Sayur

SAYUR

  • Tanamanhortikultura

  • Umurtanamanrelatifpendekdibandingbuah-buahan (< 1 th)

  • Bukantanamanmusiman

  • Setiapjenis/varitas :

    warna, rasa, aroma dankekerasanberbeda

  • Sumber mineral dan vitamin


Penggolongan sayuran

PENGGOLONGAN SAYURAN


Tekstur buah dan sayuran

TEKSTUR BUAH DAN SAYURAN

  • Dipengaruhiturgordarisel-sel yang masihhidup

  • Turgor : tekanandariisiselterhadapdindingsel

  • Dindingselmempunyaisifatelastis

  • Isikandunganselberkurang : sayuranlemas

  • Isikandunganselbertambahmelebihikapasitasdindingsel, selpecah, isiselkeluar, keteguhanselhilang


Faktor faktor mempengaruhi turgor

FAKTOR-FAKTOR MEMPENGARUHI TURGOR

  • Konsentrasibahan-bahandidalamsel yang akanmenentukantekanan osmosis

  • Permeabilitasprotoplasma

  • Elastisitasdindingsel


Komposisi buah dan sayur

Komposisi Buah dan Sayur

Carbohydrates

Represent more than 90 % of dry matter

  • Sugar

    such as glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose, all share the following characteristics :

    - supply energy for nutrition

    - readily fermented by ……

    - may used as a preservative

    - on heating they darken colour ..

    - combine with … to give dark colour as …


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • Starches

    - supply energy in nutrition

    - firming of plant tissues


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • Pectin and carbohydrates gums

    - in colloidal solution contribute to viscosity

    - in solution with sugar and acid are thebasis of jelly


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • Cellulose and hemicellulose

    - act primarily as supporting structures

    - insoluble in cold and hot water

    - not digested, not yield energy


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • Mineral Substances

  • 0,6 – 1,80 % ( K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Al, P, Cl, S)

  • salt of organic acid

  • complex organic combination (chlorophyll, lecithin, etc)

  • Ca and P essential for calcium fixation (Ca/P) : 0,7 for adults and 1,0 for children

  • vegetable rich in P and Ca : green bean, cabbage and onion

  • fruit rich in P and Ca : pears, lemon, oranges


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • Vitamins

  • function as enzyme systems which facilitate the metabolism

  • Divided into two major groups (fat soluble and wet soluble)

  • Examples :

  • Vitamin A/ Retinol found in the orange and yellow vegetables and green leafy vegetables

  • Vit C / ascorbic acid and Vit E favours the absorption of iron and easily destroyed by oxidation at high temp.


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • Organic acids

  • such as citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, etc

  • these acids gives some function :

    1. Fruit tartness and flavour

    2. Slow down bacterial spoilage

    3. Influence the colour of food


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • Pigment

    sources of colour

    classified into four major groups :

Chlorophylls

- oil soluble, bound to protein molecules

- C alone is highly unstable (acid pH)

- C changes becoming pheophytin (on heating), can be protected by addition alkali to the cooking or canning water


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

Carotenoids

- fat soluble

- fairly resistant to heat, change in pH and water leaching

- very sensitive to oxidation


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • Flavonoids

    - water soluble

    1. Anthocyanin

  • shifting of color with pH

  • violet/blue in alkaline or metal ions

  • red in acid media

    2. Anthoxanthin

  • pH sensitives

  • deeper yellow (in pH >8) and

  • whiter yellow (in pH <6)


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

  • Enzymes

    biological catalyst promote biochamical reaction

    Hidrolase (lipase, invertase, tannase, etc)

    oxidoreductase (peroxide, catalase, etc)

Some properties :

  • control the reaction associated of ripening

  • responsible for changing of flavor, color, texture and nutritional properties

  • activity of enzyme is characterized by an optimal temp and pH


Major factors of fruit and vegetables deterioration

Major factorsof fruit and vegetables deterioration

  • Growth and activities of microorganism

  • Activities of natural food enzymes

  • Temperature, both heat and cold

  • Moisture and dryness

  • Air and in particular O2

  • Light


Methods of reducing deterioration

Methods of reducing deterioration

Thetechnical methodscan be summarizedas follow :

  • Physical method

  • Chemical method

  • Biochemical method

FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY


Fruit and vegetable handling

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE HANDLING


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

Fresh fruit and vegetables

- Possibilities of damage?

- How to prevent?


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

Minimally processes

  • Factors causing deterioration?

  • How to prevent?


Karakteristik buah dan sayur

Fully processed food

- Factors influencing the quality?

- How to maintain the quality and retard the deterioration?


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