Gender and the World Development Report on Conflict Sanam Naraghi Anderlini June 2010. Gender Inequality as Indicator of State Violence (1954-94) : Higher GE inc. % of women in leadership less likely use of military force
(1954-94) : Higher GE inc. % of women in leadership less likely use of military force
M-F life expectancy ratios indicator of fragility (higher development/higher female life expectancy)
Deterioration of women’s security early sign of crisisTheme 1: The Continuum of Violence
Gender Roles – w/m every day jobs
Gender identity – expectations of behavior (masculine/feminine)
Gendered Institutions (e.g household, community, even state)
Gender Ideology (cultural, political changes – e.g. religious extremism/ growth in women’s movements
Implications & Paradoxes:
Women confidence & increased physical vulnerability
Men loss of identity/masculinity & militarized identities
Gaps between social expectations & economic reality
Gap between responsibility and power (e.g. FHH no property rights)
Stress & Capabilities:
Need to support women but not overburden or put at risk
Men’s crisis of identity also needs response – econ/pyscho-social /cultural
Transitions opportunity for change and support to new voices – e.g. women leaders in community/ change in education/security sector/ more inclusive processes
Tensions/backlash from political/armed elite to maintain exclusionary systems - weaken civil society
Increased gender balance & strong civil society in politics– indicator of good governance – but…
Focus on ‘military security’ overshadows/trumps focus on strengthening state/society foundations from ground up.
2. Much known about causes and impact of conflict
Limited documentation/evaluation of effective responses/coping strategies
Far less attention to ingredients/factors that contribute to resiliency against violence.
Without this always danger of doing harm to existing capacities & actors.