Gender and the world development report on conflict sanam naraghi anderlini june 2010
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Gender and the World Development Report on Conflict Sanam Naraghi Anderlini June 2010. Gender Inequality as Indicator of State Violence (1954-94) : Higher GE inc. % of women in leadership less likely use of military force

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Gender and the World Development Report on Conflict Sanam Naraghi Anderlini June 2010

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Gender and the World Development Report on ConflictSanam Naraghi AnderliniJune 2010

Gender Inequality as Indicator of State Violence

(1954-94) : Higher GE inc. % of women in leadership less likely use of military force

M-F life expectancy ratios indicator of fragility (higher development/higher female life expectancy)

Deterioration of women’s security early sign of crisis

Theme 1: The Continuum of Violence

The Continuum From Domestic to Public Violence

  • Exposure to childhood violence – strong link to adult aggression

  • Learnt behavior in childhood correlated to violence in adulthood. Use of coercive and antisocial measures to resolve conflict increased antisocial aggression in children.

  • Youth (w/m) joining gangs/armed groups to flee abuse at home / seek revenge for death of loved ones.

  • Recruitment into armed groups often through social/ familial networks.

  • Armed groups / gangs tap into crisis of identity/masculinity.

The Continuum From Public to Domestic Violence

  • Post conflict – levels of public and private violence high (and higher in some cases e.g. El Salvador)

    • - PTSD/ Alcohol/drugs

    • - Better reporting / more evident as wider violence subsides.

  • Sexual Gender Based Violence (SGBV) very prominent:

    • Opportunistic

    • Socio-culturally condoned/tolerated

    • Linked to political and economic violence

    • Tactical weapon of war (men v. men across women)

    • Ideological – men targeting/subjugating women.

  • Perpetrators often known – state security/police/ armed opposition groups.

  • Long term impact of SGBV – health, education, social costs

Theme 2: Gender Issues in Conflict & Transition

Changes in:

Gender Roles – w/m every day jobs

Gender identity – expectations of behavior (masculine/feminine)

Gendered Institutions (e.g household, community, even state)

Gender Ideology (cultural, political changes – e.g. religious extremism/ growth in women’s movements

Implications & Paradoxes:

Women confidence & increased physical vulnerability

Men loss of identity/masculinity & militarized identities

Gaps between social expectations & economic reality

Gap between responsibility and power (e.g. FHH no property rights)

Theme 2: Gender Issues in Conflict - Transitions & Traditions

Stress & Capabilities:

Need to support women but not overburden or put at risk

Men’s crisis of identity also needs response – econ/pyscho-social /cultural

Transitions opportunity for change and support to new voices – e.g. women leaders in community/ change in education/security sector/ more inclusive processes

Tensions/backlash from political/armed elite to maintain exclusionary systems - weaken civil society

Increased gender balance & strong civil society in politics– indicator of good governance – but…

Focus on ‘military security’ overshadows/trumps focus on strengthening state/society foundations from ground up.

Theme 3: Doing Better

  • Policy level – significant progress

    • 2000-09 – 4 UN Security Council Resolutions (1325 first one)

      • Call for women/ civil society inclusion in peace making/recovery and conflict prevention

      • Recognition of sexual violence as war crime & a threat to peace /security

      • Scr 1888 (09) heavy emphasis on gender /education/health post conflict

  • Practice still lagging - Demand at sub & transnational – states and multilaterals poor response. Triple A syndrome:

    • Apathy, Adhockery, Amnesia

Theme 3: Doing Better

  • Better analysis of situation - General lack of awareness about conflict/gender/sector specific impact

  • Match funding to needs –

    • only 8% of budgets of PCNAs mention gender

    • Social protection/Hrights 50% budget is gendered but receives only 4% of p-conflict funds.

  • Need emphasis on conflict prevention & SGBV prevention

  • Use of existing national legislation/policies inc. CEDAW ratification

  • Acknowledge use of international norms at local level

  • Use of local cultural / religious contexts e.g. Justice key theme in Islam/ education & equal pay for w/m in Islam.

  • Consultations with women – inclusion of stakeholders

  • Outreach to men – partnerships

  • Cross – country learning/scaling up

  • Gender & conflict expertise/advisers

The Big Gaps


2. Much known about causes and impact of conflict

Limited documentation/evaluation of effective responses/coping strategies

Far less attention to ingredients/factors that contribute to resiliency against violence.

Without this always danger of doing harm to existing capacities & actors.

Thank You

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