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M B A R I. SM. Real-time Over-the-horizon Communications for MBARI's Ocean Observing System. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. MBARI Ocean Observing System (MOOS) Buoy AUV Dock Benthic Instrument Node (BIN)

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Real time over the horizon communications for mbari s ocean observing system

M B A R I

SM

Real-time Over-the-horizon Communications for MBARI's Ocean Observing System




Introduction2
Introduction

  • MBARI Ocean Observing System (MOOS)

    • Buoy

    • AUV Dock

    • Benthic Instrument Node (BIN)

  • Stand-alone remotely deployable cabled observatory

  • Delivers OEM cable to seafloor

    • (Optical, Electrical, Mechanical)

    • Good to 4km depth

  • Targets low/mid-latitude deployments



Relevent moos system requirements
Relevent MOOS System Requirements

  • Readily configurable / expandable

    • Compatible with MARS/other cabled observatories

  • Portable

  • Large data storage capacity

  • Real-time interaction

  • Event response

    • Signal to shore

    • Initiate predefined actions

  • Affordable


Targeted mbari science
Targeted MBARI Science

  • Meteorological

  • Upper Water Column (UWC)

    • Nutrient supply impact on community structure

    • Carbon export from euphotic zone to deep sea

    • Ocean fertilization processes

  • Benthic

    • Microbial processes

    • Fluid fluxes

    • Geologic activity


Target deployment locations

Juan de Fuca

Benthic Secondary Site

Outer Monterey Bay

Benthic Primary Site

California Coast

Upper WC Primary Site

NE Pacific Rise

Benthic Secondary Site

Target Deployment Locations


Mse 2005 uwc science instruments
MSE 2005 UWC Science Instruments

  • WHOI ASIMET Suite

    • WND, HRH, SWR, LWR

  • MBARI Delta pCO2

  • 7x HOBILabs HydroRad & HydroScat

  • 11x Seabird CTD

  • RDI ADCP

  • MBARI Environmental Sample Processor (ESP)

  • MBARI Bathyphotometer

  • MBARI OSMO



Mse 2005 benthic science instruments
MSE 2005 Benthic Science Instruments

  • Seabird CTD

  • Wetlabs ECO BBD & FLD

  • RDI ADCP

  • MBARI ISUS

  • MBARI OSMO

  • MBARI SEISMO

  • Prime Focus Sediment Trap

  • MBARI Respirometer

  • Vertical Profiler

  • MBARI Seafloor Cam


Instrument sample schedule
Instrument Sample Schedule

  • Instruments powered/sampled periodically

    • Most every 10 minutes

    • Some every hour

    • Few continuously


Data requirements as planned
Data Requirements – As Planned

  • Multi-scale Oceanographic Processes: 3.3MB/day

  • Canyon Processes – Normal: 257kB/day

  • Canyon Processes – Event: 1.3MB/day

  • Active Mid-Ocean Ridge: 71.3MB/day

  • Benthic Carbon Cycles: 3.3MB/day

  • Standardized Baseline: 1MB/day


Moos mooring controller mmc
MOOS Mooring Controller (MMC)

  • CPU based on Intel StrongARM

    • Embedded Linux RTOS running Java application

      • Java RMI

  • Provides telemetry services:

    • Retrieval

    • Archival

    • Transmission control

    • Bi-directional shore/instrument interface

    • Up to 12A per channel power switching/isolation

  • Multinode support via copper/fiber Ethernet


Radio integration
Radio Integration

  • RF Interface Card (RFIO)

    • Two ‘9-pin’ RS-232 ports

      • 1 Primary radio

        • buoy  shore

      • 1 Secondary radio

        • buoy  buoy

        • buoy  AUV

        • buoy  ship

    • Isolated 10W power supply

    • Separate ground-fault detector


Buoy seafloor network
Buoy / Seafloor Network

Primarily Star Topology



Telemetry data publishing
Telemetry - Data Publishing

  • Buoy dials shore modem periodically

  • Buoy establishes PPP link to portal computer

    • Portal publishes buoy DNS information

  • Buoy publishes recently archived data on portal

  • Buoy disconnects

  • Portal publishes data to shore-side data system (SSDS) through firewall


Telemetry instrument services
Telemetry – Instrument Services

  • Buoy dials shore modem periodically

    • Or RF reset initiated

  • Buoy establishes PPP link to portal computer

    • Portal publishes buoy DNS information

  • Shore computer opens remote console on buoy via ssh

  • Shore computer establishes console to instrument

    • Remote instrument configuration

    • Remote instrument diagnostics

    • Remote driver updates

    • Add instrument and remotely start instrument service

    • Etc.


Systems considered
Systems Considered

  • Iridium

  • Globalstar



Data transmission price planned
Data Transmission Price - Planned

  • Iridium @ 2.4kbps

  • Globalstar @ 7.4kbps


Globalstar testing integration
Globalstar Testing & Integration

  • Qualcomm GSP-1620

  • Prevco housing

    • PVC case

    • Acrylic window

  • Data port to MMC RFIO

  • Testing results

    • Reliable 7.6kbps for IP traffic over PPP link

    • No significant impact seenfrom buoy motion simulation


Globalstar integration emc

Transmitters

BT Console: 2.4GHz

Globalstar: 1.6GHz

Freewave: 900MHz

ARGOS: 401MHz

Receivers

Globalstar: 2.4GHz

BT Console: 2.4GHz

GPS: 1.575GHz

RF Reset: 929MHz

Freewave: 900MHz

Globalstar Integration - EMC

  • Separated Globalstar & GPS by 1.2m

    • Requires >0.76m separation

  • Console & RF Reset separated by 2m

  • Removed Bluetooth Console Repeater


Iridium testing
Iridium Testing

  • NAL Research

    • 9500 Iridium Modem

      • Model CDM9500I35-I

  • Fixed Mast Antenna

    • Model SAF5350

      • +0.5dB 0° to 40°

      • +1.5dB 40° to 70°

      • +0.5dB 70° to 80°

      • +0.0dB 80° to 90°

      • -2.0dB 90° to 110°

  • Buoy spends most time between 0° and 20°

    • ASIMET WND data from MTM2


Iridium testing results
Iridium Testing Results

  • FTP’d multiple small files of varying formats

    • .zip, .jpg, .gif, .pdf, .txt, .rtf, .c, .tar, .gzip

    • Filesizes from 1.5kB to 15.0kB

  • Tilted antenna to predefined heading and angle to simulate buoy motion

    • Dial-up only

  • Transferred large text files

    • 100kB to 1MB


Iridium testing results small files
Iridium Testing Results – Small Files

  • “Dial-up data” service (tested in Linux)

    • AVE: 2.04kbps, MAX: 6.00kbps, MIN: 1.28kbps

  • “Direct Internet” service (tested in Windows)

    • Compression from Brand Communications

    • AVE: 6.76kbps, MAX: 26.24kbps, MIN: 1.36kbps

Plain Text


Iridium testing results filesize tilt
Iridium Testing Results – Filesize & Tilt

  • Noticed lower bandwidth at low angles than at high angles

    • Suspected antenna gain pattern


Iridium testing large files
Iridium Testing – Large Files

  • ‘Direct Internet’

    • MAX: 15.0kbps

    • AVE: 13.9kbps

    • MIN: 13.1kbps

  • ‘Dial-Up’

    • MAX: 2.6kbps

    • AVE: 2.5kbps

    • MIN: 2.2kbps

  • Dropped link 4 times out of 16 at around 600kB


Iridium testing compression
Iridium Testing – Compression

  • Large files compressed down with WinZip

    • 100kB to 1.24kB

    • 500kB to 3.391kB

    • 1.023MB to 6.055kB

  • “Direct Internet” really

    • MAX: 182bps

    • AVE: 116bps

    • MIN: 79bps

    • Due to online time lost during data compression

      • Better to compress data then send

  • “Dial-Up” should be

    • MAX: 3.3kbps

    • AVE: 2.8kbps

    • MIN: 1.8kbps


Iridium testing conclusions
Iridium Testing - Conclusions

  • Use optimized antenna for application

  • Transfer small files

  • Transfer precompressed files


Iridium integration
Iridium Integration

  • Changed components based on previous testing

  • Motorola 9505 Phone

    • Antenna adapter

    • Data Kit

      • “Auto-on” Modification

        • Michael Ashley

    • Auto Adapter

      • Compatible with buoy power

    • Mobile Antenna

      • +1.0dB 0° to 40°

      • +0.5dB 40° to 70°

      • -0.5dB 70° to 80°


Iridium integration emc

Transmitters

Iridium: 1.6GHz

Console: 900MHz

ARGOS: 401MHz

Receivers

Iridium: 1.6GHz

GPS: 1.575GHz

RF Reset: 929MHz

Console: 900MHz

Iridium Integration - EMC

  • Separated Iridium & GPS by 1.2m

    • Untested

  • Console & RF Reset separated by 2m


New pricing plans
New Pricing Plans

  • Iridium

  • Globalstar


Data requirements as deployed
Data Requirements – As Deployed

  • CIMT in Monterey Bay: 4.1MBdata/day

  • MTM2 in Monterey Bay: 1.1MBdata/day

  • With link overhead:

    • Link overhead ~6 to 1

    • On MTM2 really using 120minutes/day

      • 3650 min/month

      • Upgraded to 3000min/month plan

    • $7325/year with Globalstar


Future plans
Future Plans

  • Reduce link overhead

  • Implement shore initiated link establishment

  • Deploy Iridium on buoy in region outside Globalstar service area


Moos buoy team primary
MOOS Buoy Team - Primary

  • Keith Raybould – Program Manager

  • Mark Chaffey – Systems/Project Engineer

  • Mechanical Engineering

    • Jon Erickson

    • Andy Hamilton

  • Electrical Engineering

    • Scott Jensen

    • Lance McBride

    • Ed Mellinger

  • Software Engineering

    • Kent Headley

    • Bob Herlein

    • Tim Meese

    • Tom O’Reilly

    • Wayne Radochonski

    • Mike Risi


Thanks to
Thanks to

  • Sanjeev Uruppattur

  • Duane Thompson

  • Mark Chaffey

  • Tim Meese

  • Russ Light, APL


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