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ORLEANS CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE. ORLEANS CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE. FIRST OF A SERIES OF WASTEWATER PUBLIC EDUCATION PRESENTATIONS LEADING TO A COMPREHENSIVE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN. ORLEANS CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE. AGENDA August 17, 2006

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Orleans citizens advisory committee

ORLEANS CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE


Orleans citizens advisory committee1

ORLEANS CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE

  • FIRST OF A SERIES OF WASTEWATER PUBLIC EDUCATION PRESENTATIONS

  • LEADING TO A COMPREHENSIVE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN


Orleans citizens advisory committee2

ORLEANS CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE

AGENDA

August 17, 2006

1. How Orleans Waters Become Polluted

2. Septic Systems – Title 5 Shortcomings & Alternatives


Agenda continued

AGENDA (continued)

3. Massachusetts Estuaries Project

4. Technical Evaluation Report and TMDLs

5. Cape Cod Water Protection Collaborative

6. DEP Regulatory Role

7. Zoning timed with Wastewater Planning

8. Funding Wastewater Infrastructure

9. Next Educational Steps

10. Questions and Answers


The waters of orleans

THE WATERS OF ORLEANS

PART I

  • How are the ponds and estuaries of Orleans becoming polluted?

    PART II

  • Why are current Title 5 Septic Systems not doing enough to preserve our water quality?

  • What alternative systems are currently available?


We have too much of a good thing

WE HAVE TOO MUCH OF A GOOD THING

  • Nitrogen and Phosphorus are essential nutrients of all life; but at higher than normal levels these nutrients become pollutants

  • Too much nitrogen contaminates our salt waters

  • Too much phosphorus pollutes our fresh water


What are symptoms of too much nitrogen and phosphorus

WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS OF TOO MUCH NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS?

  • Greener & murkier water

  • Algae blooms

  • Declining numbers of fish and shellfish

  • Loss of desirable aquatic plant life


Algae in pleasant bay estuary

ALGAE IN PLEASANT BAY ESTUARY


Sources of nitrogen

SOURCES OF NITROGEN

  • ~ 60% of nitrogen comes from natural resources

  • From the atmosphere as acid rain and other air pollutants

  • Not controllable by man


Sources of nitrogen continued

SOURCES OF NITROGEN (continued)

  • ~ 40% of nitrogen comes from man-made sources

    • Of this, 70% is from septic systems

    • Of this, 30% is from overuse of fertilizers and road runoff

  • This portion is controllable

  • Emphasis is on wastewater


  • Orleans citizens advisory committee

    IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND MORE CLEARLY HOW THIS POLLUTION IS HAPPENING, IT IS HELPFUL TO TAKE A QUICK LOOK AT THE WATER CYCLE


    Helpful water flow terminology

    HELPFUL WATER FLOW TERMINOLOGY


    Orleans drinking water comes from municipal wells that tap into one aquifer

    ORLEANS’ DRINKING WATER COMES FROM MUNICIPAL WELLS THAT TAP INTO ONE AQUIFER

    • Orleans is on the Monomoy lens

    • Good news – Orleans watershed for its wells is currently fully protected


    Watersheds pathways to our ponds wetlands and estuaries

    WATERSHEDS: PATHWAYS TO OUR PONDS, WETLANDS AND ESTUARIES

    • Runoff reaches its discharge point relatively quickly

    • Groundwater moves slowly – maybe 1-2 feet a day. This means that it could take 5-10 months for groundwater to travel the length of a football field.


    Orleans citizens advisory committee

    Map of Orleans


    Septic systems

    SEPTIC SYSTEMS

    Part II

    • Why are current Title 5 septic systems not doing enough to preserve our water quality?

    • What alternative systems are currently available?


    How backyard septic systems work

    HOW BACKYARD SEPTIC SYSTEMS WORK

    Each septic system consists of

    • A tank – a cement or fiberglass container with a T-shaped outlet pipe that keeps the floating grease layer in the tank and lets the solids settle to the bottom

    • A soil absorption system that infiltrates the liquid portion of the wastes into the ground

    • The Board of Health oversees this process and enforces the state sanitary regulations with Title 5

    • Outflow generally 30-35 ppm (parts per million) of nitrogen


    Orleans citizens advisory committee

    Typical Backyard Septic System


    Performance of septic systems

    PERFORMANCE OF SEPTIC SYSTEMS

    • Septic systems effectively eliminate almost all unsanitary bacteria and any viruses, but not nitrogen

    • Nutrients like nitrogen are not removed during their transit through the soil absorption system, so they proceed into the groundwater, and eventually into the estuaries


    Alternatives to title 5 systems

    ALTERNATIVES TO TITLE 5 SYSTEMS

    1. CENTRALIZED WASTEWATER SYSTEM

    The provision of public sewerage through a conventional collection system leading to a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant with effluent disposal

    2. ENHANCED ON-SITE SYSTEMS

    Individually owned system which provides some nitrogen removal from the wastewater


    Alternatives continued

    ALTERNATIVES (continued)

    3. CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Systems for wastewater collection, treatment and disposal that involve multiple wastewater generators. Typically clusters systems have capacities between 1,000 and 5,000 gallons

    per day.

    4. SATELLITE SYSTEMS

    Wastewater treatment facilities serve a closely defined area and have flows exceeding 10,000 gallons per day. These systems require a groundwater discharge permit. Many of the satellite facilities on Cape Cod have been built to serve condominium projects, schools, nursing homes, and shopping centers.


    Example of on site enhanced system

    EXAMPLE OF ON-SITE ENHANCED SYSTEM

    Hearth ‘n Kettle Restaurant, Orleans

    • Designed to handle 7,000 gallons per day

    • Treatment technology: above grade Bioclere trickling filters

    • Reduces total nitrogen levels to less than 25 ppm

    • Equal to 16 four-bedroom homes


    Bioclere facility

    BIOCLERE FACILITY


    Example of cluster systems

    EXAMPLE OF CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Wise Living, Orleans

    • Designed to handle 6,400 gallons per day

    • Treatment technology: Aerobic trickling filters and anoxic denitrification tank

    • Reduces total nitrogen levels to less than 15 ppm (parts per million)

    • Goal is to reduce total nitrogen to 10 ppm

    • Nitrogen limit resulted from town involvement

    • Equal to 15 four-bedroom homes


    Example of cluster systems continued

    EXAMPLE OF CLUSTER SYSTEMS (continued)

    Bailey’s Path, Chatham

    • 20 home subdivision

    • Designed to handle 6,600 gallons per day

    • Treatment technology: biological trickling filters

    • Reduces total nitrogen levels to less than 19 ppm

    • Once the subdivision is completed, the treatment facilities will be run by the homeowners’ association.

    • One lot in the subdivision serves the site as the wastewater treatment facility and a tennis court and access to bike trail.

    • Equal to 15 four-bedroom homes


    Example of satellite systems

    EXAMPLE OF SATELLITE SYSTEMS

    Chatham Bars Inn, Chatham

    • Restaurant and 205 bedrooms

    • Designed to handle 35,000 gallons per day

    • Treatment technology: Amphidrome system (sequencing batch reactor)

    • Groundwater discharge permit by DEP

    • Nitrogen levels 10 ppm or lower

    • Equal to 80 four-bedroom homes


    Example of satellite systems continued

    EXAMPLE OF SATELLITE SYSTEMS (continued)

    Community of Jesus, Orleans

    • Designed to handle 21,000 gallons per day

    • Treatment technology: rotating biological contactor and denitrification filters

    • Reduces total nitrogen levels to less than 10 ppm

    • Groundwater discharge permit by DEP

    • Equal to 48 four-bedroom homes


    Community of jesus plant

    COMMUNITY OF JESUS PLANT


    Agenda continued1

    AGENDA (continued)

    Massachusetts Estuaries Project

    Technical Evaluation Report and TMDLs

    Cape Cod Water Protection Collaborative

    DEP Regulatory Role

    Zoning timed with Wastewater Planning

    Funding Wastewater Infrastructure

    Next Educational Steps


    Massachusetts estuaries project mep

    MASSACHUSETTS ESTUARIES PROJECT(MEP)

    • Examining water quality degradation from too much nitrogen in 89 southeastern MA estuaries

    • Multi-year $12M collaboration of DEP and SMAST (County annual matching funds)

    • From water sampling, determines nitrogen sources, amount (lbs); predicts loading threshold to restore water quality


    Mep continued

    MEP (continued)

    • Goal: restore shellfish habitats and eel grass beds by keeping nitrogen concentration below loading threshold (TMDL)

    • Achieve goal by wastewater treatment/disposal systems, storm-water runoff management, fertilizer limitation, improved tidal flushing


    Technical evaluation reports and tmdls

    Technical Evaluation Reports and TMDLs

    • SMAST Report provides estuary water quality evaluation data; TMDL establishes nitrogen threshold amount

    • TMDL: maximum concentration (lbs) of nitrogen allowable for water quality goal maintenance

    • TMDL components = atmospheric deposition, septic systems, stormwater runoff, margin of safety

    • For shared estuary/watershed, DEP allocates percentage of nitrogen removal responsibility to each town to comply with TMDL


    Cape cod water protection collaborative

    CAPE COD WATER PROTECTION COLLABORATIVE

    • New regional entity, to assist towns in planning, financing wastewater infrastructure and services

    • Governing Board/Steering Committee, made up of town and regional representatives, establishes policies and oversees operations/activities

    • Executive Director/staff provides daily management

    • Technical Advisory Committee offers engineering, planning coordination support


    Collaborative continued

    COLLABORATIVE (continued)

    • Collaborative gives regional focus/clout in getting federal and state funding for town facilities development

    • Collaborative educates the public on economic value of maintaining Cape estuaries water quality by cooperative regional action


    Mass dep s regulatory role

    MASS DEP'S REGULATORY ROLE

    • The Federal government enacted Clean Water Act

    • Massachusetts DEP accepts the role and sets criteria for implementation

    • Southeast Regional Office (DEP/SERO) is assigned the responsibility

    • DEP/SERO organizes Massachusetts Estuaries Program (MEP)


    Dep role continued

    DEP ROLE (continued)

    • As part of the MEP program, UMASS Dartmouth (SMAST) is engaged to develop modeling procedures on quantifying pollutant discharges

    • As part of the MEP program Orleans volunteers collect data from nutrient sampling and submit it to SMAST

    • U.S. Geological Survey and DEP identify local and regional watersheds


    Dep role continued1

    DEP ROLE (continued)

    • DEP, based on SMAST calculations assigns Total Maximum Daily Load/Limits (TMDLs) to each watershed

    • Orleans engages Consultant to recommend actual means, methods, and sites for TMDL management

    • DEP reviews and approves Consultant’s recommendations, designs, and program

    • DEP ultimately issues permits for nutrient reduction within each watershed


    Dep role continued2

    In summary, DEP becomes the oversight body for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for the overall process of assuring that a proper program is researched, established and implemented for the communities involved

    DEP ROLE (continued)


    Town plan vision statement

    TOWN PLAN VISION STATEMENT

    "It is the policy of this Town to ensure that future growth is at a level and in such a manner that it will have no or minimal adverse effect upon the semi-rural character and environmental integrity of the Town."


    Buildout zoning with wastewater planning

    BUILDOUT & ZONING WITH WASTEWATER PLANNING

    POPULATION (Year round)

    • 2004 POPULATION = 6,700 RESIDENTS

      • 400% increase since 1958

        BUILDOUT (Total development possible under existing regulations)

    • In 40 years under current growth rates

      Now= 6,700 residents

      + Potential= 4,600

      Buildout= 11,300, a 67% increase


    Consequences of orleans growth

    CONSEQUENCES OF ORLEANS GROWTH

    Estimated Wastewater Flows

    • CURRENT:779,000 gallons per day

    • BUILDOUT: 1,301,000 gallons per day

    • 67% increase


    Consequences continued

    CONSEQUENCES (continued)

    NITROGEN LOADING

    • 1958:

      • 1,682 residents = 9,755 pounds per year released

    • 2004:

      • 6,700 residents = 38,860 pounds per year released

    • 2044:

      • 11,300 residents = 65,540 pounds per year released

        SEASONAL POPULATION PROJECTS AN ADDITIONAL 70% TO THESE TOTALS

        (Estimate is that each resident contributes 5.8 pounds of nitrogen/year)


    Zoning changes that might be addressed

    ZONING CHANGES THAT MIGHT BE ADDRESSED

    • Wastewater plan (CWMP) is to be “growth neutral”

    • Any increased density (e.g., in Village Center) would need to be offset by zoning changes (decreases) elsewhere


    Wastewater planning to date

    WASTEWATER PLANNING TO DATE

    • 5 full years of Town-wide testing of fresh and salt water completed

    • Consultant hired to complete plan by 2008

    • Coordination with adjacent towns has begun

    • Investigating funding mechanisms


    Village center master plan

    VILLAGE CENTER MASTER PLAN

    • Planning now to anticipate future growth and activity

    • Buildout projections indicate ample room for growth

    • Considering allowing 3rd story for residential use

    • Desirable uses such as theatre, restaurants, public halls will be more likely with central sewer available


    Funding for the wastewater infrastucture

    FUNDING FOR THE WASTEWATER INFRASTUCTURE

    Overview

    • Implementing a Comprehensive Wastewater Management Plan (CWMP) will involve significant capital costs

    • Funding for capital costs will come from several areas, over 20 to 25 years

    • Ongoing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs will probably be funded by the users

    • Debate about options for capital and O&M costs will precede CWMP approval


    Funding continued

    FUNDING (continued)

    Capital Costs for Implementing CWMP

    • Solutions to wastewater challenges could be several - central, satellites, clusters, etc.

    • Costs of installation (capital) are expected to be large


    Funding continued1

    FUNDING (continued)

    Potential Sources of Funds for Capital Costs

    • External

      • Federal government

      • Massachusetts Clean Water State Revolving Fund (SRF) – low cost loans

      • Cape Cod Water Protection Collaborative – grants to towns


    Funding continued2

    FUNDING (continued)

    TOWN OF ORLEANS

    • Property tax revenues - spreads cost over entire tax base (like schools)

    • Betterment payments – assesses current and future users, various methods

    • Issuing bonds – paid over time from tax revenues or betterment fees


    Funding continued3

    FUNDING (continued)

    TOWN OF ORLEANS

    • New taxes – e.g., Chatham & M.V. 1% real estate sales tax (MA approval required)

    • Escrow accounts – owners set aside funds in advance

    • Public/private partnerships – provides needed land or infrastructure

    • Likely outcome will be some combination of these sources


    Funding continued4

    FUNDING (continued)

    Operating and Maintenance Costs

    • Usually paid for by users, at rates determined by a Water or Sewer Commission


    Next educational steps

    NEXT EDUCATIONAL STEPS

    Goals of the CWMP

    • Protect surface waters from nutrient enrichment

    • Avoid unsanitary conditions from improper wastewater disposal

    • Protect public and private water supplies

    • Preserve community character

    • Provide for sustainable economic and community development


    Next steps continued

    NEXT STEPS (continued)

    Needs Assessment

    • Known water quality problems and environmental issues

    • Wastewater problem areas and where to put facilities

    • Economic, institutional and regulatory issues

      Identify and Screen Alternatives

      Recommended Infrastructure Alternatives


    Next steps continued1

    NEXT STEPS (continued)

    • There will be other public briefings

    • Leading up to 2008 Town Meeting approval of CWMP

    • Implementing the CWMP will occur over 20 to 25 years


    Orleans citizens advisory committee3

    ORLEANS CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE


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