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### Relativity

Einstein versus Newton (what is the difference)

Einstein and Newton

- Newtonian gravitational theory is based on forces acting on one another.
- In Newtonian universal gravitation, gravitational effects propagate from place to place instantaneously.
- This appears true to us due to the (short distances within our solar system – ex. The sun and its effect on Earth).

Einstein and Newton

- Einstein, in 1905, pointed out that nothing is instantaneous.
- He stated in special relativity that the fastest speed possible is the speed of light.
- A photon travels at 186,000 mi / s

- Therefore, the constraint of the speed of light indicates that instantaneous propagation is an impossibility.
- This contradicts Newton’s law of universal gravitation and laws of motion.

Einstein and Newton

- For Einstein, gravity wasn’t a question of force but of geometry.
- In other words, one’s reference point has to be taken into account (on observer’s perspective is not going to be shared by another’s with a different reference point).
- Einstein concluded that time is not linear and differs based on one’s reference point.

Gravitational Lensing

- This is the eclipse experiment. Gravitational lensing is a prediction of relativity.

Einstein's theory predicts that the direction of light propagation should be changed in a gravitational field.

Einstein and Newton

- General relativity indicates that time and space are not linear and that instead of talking about time or space, the two are combined into space-time.
- Space-time is a fabric and the manifestation of gravity is in the curvature of space-time.

Einstein and Newton

- Relativity states that space and time are dependent on velocity.
- So, at speeds near that of light, the fabric of space-time becomes contracted (warped) in the direction of motion and the passage of time slows.
- This is we talk hypothetically of wormholes.

Einstein and Newton

- E=MC2 is at the heart of Relativity.
- This equation heralded the arrival of the atomic age.
- It demonstrated that energy and mass are related and that a little mass can produce A LOT OF ENERGY.
- In order for this equation to be true, then light has to be particles, photons, that travel at the speed of light – not waves.

Einstein and Newton

- Despite the contrast between General Relativity and Newtonian theory, Newton’s predictions for systems in which velocities are small compared to care accurate.
- This is why we can discuss the structure of the Earth, planets, and other inhabitants our solar system using Newtonian theory.

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