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Relativity. Einstein versus Newton (what is the difference). Einstein and Newton. Newtonian gravitational theory is based on forces acting on one another. In Newtonian universal gravitation, gravitational effects propagate from place to place instantaneously.

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Relativity

Relativity

Einstein versus Newton (what is the difference)


Einstein and newton
Einstein and Newton

  • Newtonian gravitational theory is based on forces acting on one another.

  • In Newtonian universal gravitation, gravitational effects propagate from place to place instantaneously.

    • This appears true to us due to the (short distances within our solar system – ex. The sun and its effect on Earth).


Einstein and newton1
Einstein and Newton

  • Einstein, in 1905, pointed out that nothing is instantaneous.

  • He stated in special relativity that the fastest speed possible is the speed of light.

    • A photon travels at 186,000 mi / s

  • Therefore, the constraint of the speed of light indicates that instantaneous propagation is an impossibility.

    • This contradicts Newton’s law of universal gravitation and laws of motion.


Einstein and newton2
Einstein and Newton

  • For Einstein, gravity wasn’t a question of force but of geometry.

    • In other words, one’s reference point has to be taken into account (on observer’s perspective is not going to be shared by another’s with a different reference point).

    • Einstein concluded that time is not linear and differs based on one’s reference point.


Gravitational lensing
Gravitational Lensing

  • This is the eclipse experiment. Gravitational lensing is a prediction of relativity.

Einstein's theory predicts that the direction of light propagation should be changed in a gravitational field.


Einstein and newton3
Einstein and Newton

  • General relativity indicates that time and space are not linear and that instead of talking about time or space, the two are combined into space-time.

  • Space-time is a fabric and the manifestation of gravity is in the curvature of space-time.


Einstein and newton4
Einstein and Newton

  • Relativity states that space and time are dependent on velocity.

  • So, at speeds near that of light, the fabric of space-time becomes contracted (warped) in the direction of motion and the passage of time slows. 

    • This is we talk hypothetically of wormholes.


Einstein and newton5
Einstein and Newton

  • E=MC2 is at the heart of Relativity.

    • This equation heralded the arrival of the atomic age.

    • It demonstrated that energy and mass are related and that a little mass can produce A LOT OF ENERGY.

    • In order for this equation to be true, then light has to be particles, photons, that travel at the speed of light – not waves.


Einstein and newton6
Einstein and Newton

  • Despite the contrast between General Relativity and Newtonian theory, Newton’s predictions for systems in which velocities are small compared to care accurate.

    • This is why we can discuss the structure of the Earth, planets, and other inhabitants our solar system using Newtonian theory.


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