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NETWORKING FROM A TO Z • Your LAN • Your WAN • Your Wiring Plan. Adapted for EPA HS from Presentation to Silicon Valley Conference on Nonprofits and Technology May 9, 2001 Mark L. Miller, Ph.D. The Miller Institute for Learning with Technology

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NETWORKING FROM A TO Z • Your LAN • Your WAN • Your Wiring Plan

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Networking from a to z your lan your wan your wiring plan

NETWORKING FROM A TO Z• Your LAN• Your WAN• Your Wiring Plan

Adapted for EPA HS from Presentation to

Silicon Valley Conference


Nonprofits and Technology

May 9, 2001

Mark L. Miller, Ph.D.

The Miller Institute for Learning with Technology

The alphabet soup of networking

The Alphabet Soup of Networking

  • NIC, Network Diagram, Netmask, NAT

  • OSF, OC3, OEM, OSI, Octet

  • Packet, Port, Protocol, Plenum, POP

  • QoS, Quantization, Queue

  • Router, RAS, Rack, RJ45, RFC822

  • Server, Switch, SDSL, Static IP, SSH

  • T1, Tunnel, Topology, TCP/IP, Trojan


  • VPN, Virus, VLAN, VAR, V.90

  • WAN, Wiring Plan, Wireless, WWW

  • X.25, XML, X11R6, X.400, X.500

  • YP, Y Modem, Yellow Wire, YMMV

  • Z Modem, Zone, Zero Delay Lockout

  • Architecture, ADSL, Analog

  • Bastion Host, Bandwidth, Bridge

  • Cat5, Cable Modem, Copper, Coax


  • Extranet, Ethernet, Encryption

  • Facility, Firewall, FDDI, FE, Filter

  • Gigabit, Gateway, Gopher

  • HTTP, Hub, Hacker, Hosting, Hop

  • IDF, ISDN, intranet, ISP, IETF

  • Java, Jabber, Jitter, JPEG

  • Kbps, K56Flex, Kerberos, Kermit

  • LAN, Leased Line, Layer, LSB

  • MDF, Modem, Multimode, MPOE

… and so on ...




  • What is a LAN? What is a WAN?

  • What is The Internet? What is an intranet?

  • What are Hubs? Switches? Routers?

  • Facilities Considerations

  • Network Drawings

  • Wiring Standards

  • Connection Types, Speeds,

    and Protocols

  • Internet Service Providers

  • Network Security

  • For More Information


What is a local area network

What is a Local Area Network?

  • Wires Within and Between Buildings on Same Campus

  • Connects Workstation Computers to Servers, Printers

  • Enables Resource Sharing (Files, Printers, Databases)

  • Facilitates Technical Support (e.g., Cloning, Backups)

  • Necessary for Wide Area Net and Shared Internet Access

  • The SERVER is the conceptual center of your network.

Network Printer

Desktop PC

Desktop PC

Desktop PC



Why not just use floppies

Why Not Just Use Floppies?

  • Floppies Are Notoriously Unreliable

  • Floppies Don’t Hold Nearly Enough Information

  • Floppies Don’t Facilitate Collaborative Work

  • Replication Costs More for Protons Than for Electrons

  • Floppies Don’t Help You Share Resources (Printers, Scanners, Databases, Internet Access)

Frisbee Net

Sneaker Net


What is a wide area network

Links Different Locations within Your Own Organization

Similar to LAN but slower and over greater distances

Can be Virtual (use Internet to create VPN)

Bridge between two or more LANs

What is a Wide Area Network?












What is the internet what is an intranet what is an extranet

What is The Internet? What is an intranet? What is an extranet?

  • An internet is any network of computer networks

  • The Internet is the global, public network of networks

  • An intranet is a private internet within an organization, typically hidden behind a firewall

  • An extranet is a semi-private internet allowing data exchange across organizations (e.g., customer-vendor)

  • See:


What are hubs

What are Hubs?

  • A hub is the active element which turns a collection of wires into a network. It is the “hub” of a network. Most common for modern networks is a “Star Topology”


What are switches

What are Switches?

  • A switch is an active element muchlike a hub. However, the entire “bandwidth” is available on every port, rather than being shared among the ports. Think of a hub as a “party-line” phone, whereas a switch represents Direct-inbound-dial.

A 24-port 10/100 Mbs switch is nominally

24 x 10 x 2 faster than a 24-port 10BaseT hub


Network drawings

Network Drawings

  • LAN Diagram

  • WAN Diagram (may combine with LAN if simple)

  • Logical Versus Physical:

    • Logical Diagram Indicates Topology/Connectivity

    • Physical Diagram Indicates Scale, Layout

  • Legends Should Indicate Type of Run, Speed

  • Do not rely on color to convey critical information


Wiring standards

Wiring Standards

  • Copper (within a building)

    • Cat3 (telephone quality, 10 Mbs at 300 feet)

    • Cat5 (data quality, 100 Mbs at 300 feet)

    • Cat5e, Cat6 (for gigabit speeds)

  • Fiber (between buildings)

    • Multimode (Most common, least expensive)

    • Single mode (Higher speeds per length)

    • Hybrid (Possible future-proofing approach)

  • Wireless (mainly for laptops)

    • 802.11 (11 Mbs, typically within a few hundred feet)

    • Can help in situations where wiring is infeasible


A typical equipment rack mdf plan for mission hospice of san mateo

A TypicalEquipmentRackMDF Plan for Mission Hospice of San Mateo




Facilities considerations

Facilities Considerations

  • Locked closet for equipment rack(s)

  • Accessibility of Equipment on Racks

    • Access from front and back

    • Main Distribution Frame (MDF)

    • Intermediate Distribution Frame (IDF)

  • Adequate power

  • Ambient temperature

  • Length of cable runs (affects type of cabling)

  • Cable runs must not violate fire breaks

  • Plenum cable required if hot air returns


What are routers

What are Routers?

  • A router is a specialized, dedicated computer for connecting local area networks together into internets (e.g., from Ethernet LAN to T1 WAN). It sends each packet of data to the right location.

To Accounting

To The Internet

To Sales




  • The “language” spoken between computers on a network

  • Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is most popular and important

  • Others include:

    • IPX/SPX (Novell)

    • NetBEUI (Microsoft)

    • AppleTalk (Apple)

  • Most can co-exist on same wire

  • Others (e.g., Token Ring) require different “topology”


Internet service providers

Internet Service Providers

  • Getting on the Internet involves 2 distinct services:

    • An Internet Service Provider, who provides:

      • IP Address(es)

      • Domain Name Service (optional)

      • Web Hosting or Co-Location (optional)

      • Access to Major Internet Trunks, Centers (MAE-WEST)

      • Peering Arrangements

    • A Data Communications Provider, who provides

      • A wire from you to the ISP

  • Both services are often provided by a single vendor.

  • See:


Connection types and speeds

Connection Types and Speeds

  • Analog Modem (up to 56 Kbs)

  • Leased Lines (up to 64 Kbs, no dial delay)

  • ISDN (up to 128 Kbs)

  • DSL (up to 1.5 Mbs)

  • Cable (typically up to 1.5 Mbs)

  • T-1 (1.5 Mbs)

    • Point to Point

    • Frame Relay

  • T-3

  • (and so on)


Network security

Network Security

  • Physical Security of Servers

  • Desktop Security

  • Password Security

  • Virus Protection

  • Security Advisories and Updates

    • Recent Example:


  • Firewall

    • Public versus Private Addresses (NAT)

    • Static Versus Dynamic Addresses (DHCP)

    • Port Filtering, Forwarding/Mapping


Network address translation

Private IP Addresses

Public IP Addresses

(Invisible to Outside World)

Hub or Switch




NAT Gateway




A typical logical diagram combining lan and wan plan for mission hospice of san mateo

Remote Laptops


A Typical Logical DiagramCombiningLAN and WANPlan forMission Hospiceof San Mateo


1.1 Mbs

SDSL Router

Gateway Server

100 Mbs FE

Main Server


Physical wiring diagram

Physical Wiring Diagram


For more information

For More Information

A useful glossary of networking terms can be found on 3CoM’s web site:

Another useful glossary can be found at:

Mark L. Miller, Ph.D.

The Miller Institute for Learning with Technology



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