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A New English Course. Student’s Book 5 Produced by Du Juan. Unit One Hit the Nail on the Head Alan Warner. Hit the Nail on the Head. Meaning: say or do exactly the right thing Example:

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A new english course

A New English Course

Student’s Book 5

Produced by Du Juan


Unit one hit the nail on the head alan warner

Unit OneHit the Nail on the HeadAlan Warner


Hit the nail on the head

Hit the Nail on the Head

  • Meaning: say or do exactly the right thing

  • Example:

  • You really hit the nail on the head when you said that there needs to more direct communication between the office staff and the executive management.


Reading exercise

Reading exercise

  • In the body of Warner’s article, various aspects concerning the issues of word choice and the mastery of vocabulary have been addressed. Now try to identify the paragraph(s) that is (are) devoted each of the following points:

  • 1. stylistic differences between synonyms

  • 2. semantic differences between words having the same root.

  • 3. the significance of finding the right words.

  • 4. wrong choice of words caused by failure to recognize their connotations

  • 5. the abundance of specific words in English for general notions.


Structure of the text

Structure of the Text

Significance of finding the right words

Part 1

Para. 1,2,3

Para. 4 - 7

Para. 8

Various aspects concerning word choice

Part 2

Para. 4 - 10

Para. 9

Para. 10

Advice for EFL students

Part 3

Para. 11


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  • Words and phrases in Paragraph 1

  • knock over: hit … to fall 打翻,撞倒,捶翻

  • Their resemblance completely knocked me over. (Astonish, overcome )

  • They knocked over one bank and headed for another. (Steal or rob)


A new english course

  • Words and phrases in Paragraph 1

  • drive something home: force (sth.) into the right place把……钉/敲/推进去;

  • He slammed the door and drove the bolt home. 他砰地关上门,把门闩插好。

  • drive homeone’s point / argument / idea …:

  • to say something very clearly and with a lot of force, so that you are sure that people understand it

  • 讲清楚自己的观点

  • To drive home his policy, the president wrote his second letter. 为了阐明他的政策,总统又写了第二封信。


A new english course

Words and phrases in Paragraph 1

  • hit it squarely on the head: hitting it directly on the head. Also hit the (right) nail on the head: (informal) be exactly right in words or action 正中要害;猜中;说得好,做得好

  • E.g. : (1). Your criticism really hit the nail squarely on the head. 你的批评确是一针见血。

  • (2). In so saying, you hit the right nail on the head. 你这样说真是太对了。


A new english course

  • Words and phrases in Paragraph 1

  • squarely: meaning “directly”, may be used both literally and figuratively. E.g. :

  • (1) The boxer hit his opponent squarely on the jaw.

  • (2) We must face the difficulty squarely.

  • a word that is more or less right: a word that is almost right, but not completely right 差不多恰当的词语

  • clean English: English that is exact (precise) and clear精简的英语


Para one

Para. One

Question:

  • How does the author introduce the topic?


Para one1

Para. One

  • Analogy

  • an analogy between the hammering of nails & the use of language to express oneself.

A man poor at language

A man clumsy with a hammer

A man good at language

A skilful carpenter


Analogy

Analogy

Read Page 7 with the following questions in mind:

  • WHAT is the purpose of drawing an analogy?

  • WHEN is it often used?

  • HOW is it different from “comparison”?

  • How to draw an effective analogy?


Examples of analogy

Examples of Analogy

  • "Put your hand on a hot stove for a minute and it seems like an hour. Sit with a pretty girl for an hour and it seems like a minute. THAT's relativity."

    -- Albert Einstein explains the Theory of Relativity

  • systems engineer is like the conductor of an orchestra who gets everybody to play at the right intensity at the right time.


Paras 2 3

Paras. 2 & 3

Questions:

  • How is paragraph 2 linked to the previous one? What does the word “this” refer to?

  • Is it easy to find the word that expresses precisely what a writer wants to express? Why?

  • Does a big vocabulary guarantee the ability of using the right word? Why?

  • Do you agree with the author that there is a great deal of truth in the seemingly stupid question “How can I know what I think till I see what I say?”


Para 2 3 significance of right words

Para. 2 & 3Significance of right words

  • Para. 2: choosing right words

Good command of language

A fairly wide vocabulary

Think hard & observe accurately

  • Para. 3: reward for right words

Mastery over the material we are dealing with


Para 2

Para.2

  • le mot juste = the exact word

    a French expression;

    a prevailing English proverb


Le mot juste

Le mot juste

  • Almost everyone would attribute this phrase

    “le mot juste” to Gustava Flaubert.


Le mot juste1

Le Mot Juste

  • He weighed every word, examining not only the sense, but the structure. Avoiding repetitions, rhymes, roughness – that was just the coarse part of the job.

  • - -- Emile Zola “ Les Romanciers naturalistes”

  • “Like many would-be writers, I had been deeply influenced by stories of Flauberts grail-quest for le mot juste, the exact word, which of course translated into the idea of the perfect sentence, paragraph, chapter…book.”

  • -- Sven Birkerts in American Scholar


Homework

homework

Find out what’s about Gustave Flaubert and his masterpiece Madame Bovery?

  • Wikipedia Gustave Flaubert

  • Plot Summary, Characters, Themes, Style, Historical Context, Critical Overview Criticism Sources.

  • Download and watch the movie


A new english course

炼字 ──

  • 为人性僻耽佳句,语不惊人死不休(杜甫 )

  • 为求一字安,捻断数茎须(卢延让)

  • 吟成五字句,用破一生心(方干)

  • 两句三年得,一吟双泪流(贾岛)

  • 诗赋以一字见工拙(苏东坡)


Para 4 7

Para. 4 – 7:

  • Illustrating how words with common roots have different meanings (Semantic aspect)

  • Examples:

  • Para. 4: human  humane

  • Para. 5: anxiety  eagerness

  • Para. 6 - 7: singularity  singleness

Malapropism!


Malapropism

Malapropism

  • In his 1775 Restoration comedy, The Rivals, Richard Sheridan introduced a humorous character by the name of Mrs. Malaprop. The name is derived from the French mal à propos, which means inappropriate (we also have the word malapropos in English), and describes the manner in which she used many words in her speech.


Malapropism1

Malapropism

  • The self-educated Mrs. Malaprop was always substituting a similar-sounding word for the word that she actually intended, often with the consequence of a hilariously nonsensical sentence.

  • "I am sure I have done everything in my power since I exploded the affair;"   [exposed]"I am sorry to say, she seems resolved to decline every particle that I enjoin her."   [article]


Malapropism2

Malapropism

  • The name Malaprop has been immortalised in the form of the malapropism, the unintentional misuse of a word by confusing it with one that resembles it.


Malapropism3

Malapropism

  • Famous people are far from immune to making mistakes. Unfortunately for them, unlike us "nobodies", when they come out with a hilarious slip of the tongue it is often recorded for posterity on pages like this! Below is a selection of celebrity malapropisms. Can you spot the inappropriately used word in each quotation?

  • "The police are not here to create disorder, they're here to preserve disorder."

  • Richard Daley, former Chicago mayor"He was a man of great statue."

  • Thomas Menino, Boston mayor"We cannot let terrorists and rogue nations hold this nation hostile or hold our allies hostile."

  • George W. Bush


Para 8 connotational aspect

Para. 8 (Connotational aspect)

  • Illustrating how words with similar meanings may have different connotations.

  • Denotation is the specific, direct, and literal meaning of a word.

  • Connotation is the associative or suggestive meaning of a word.

  • Denotation is the strict dictionary meaning of a word.

  • Connotation is the emotional and imaginative association surrounding a word.


Para 8 connotational aspect1

Para. 8 (Connotational aspect)

  • For example: Hollywood

  • The name ‘Hollywood’ denotesan area of Los Angeles, worldwide known as the center of the American movie industry.

  • In the same time, the name ‘Hollywood’ connotessuch things as glitz, glamour, tinsel, celebrity, and dreams of stardom.


Para 8 connotational aspect2

Para. 8 (Connotational aspect)

  • Illustrating how words with similar meanings may have different connotations.

  • Example in para. 8:

  • imprison (×)

  • contain or sum up(?) 

  • epitomize (?) 

  • distill (√)


Para 9 grammatical stylistic situational aspec t

Para. 9 (Grammatical &Stylistic/situational aspect)

  • Illustrating how words / phrases with similar meanings may have different grammatical forms / wording.

    • In my childhood I loved to watch trains go by.

    • When I was a childI loved watching trains go by.

  • More example:

  • The passive voice VS. the active voice


Para 9 grammatical stylistic situational aspect

Para. 9(Grammatical & Stylistic/situational aspect)

  • Illustrating how words with similar meanings may have stylistic differences.

    • He diedpoor.

    • He expiredin indigent circumstances

  • More examples: which one is more formal?

  • participate in tale part in

  • offspring children

  • encounter come across


Para 9

Para. 9

  • About Style语体(文体;风格)

  • 1. variation in a person’s speech or writing. Style usually varies from casual to formal according to the type of situation, the person or persons addressed, the location, the topic discussed, etc. a particular style, e.g. a formal style or a colloquial style, is sometimes referred to as a stylistic variety (语体类型)。Some linguists use the term “register” for a stylistic variety whilst others differentiate between the two.

  • 2. Style can also refer to a particular person’s use of speech or writing at all times or to a way of speaking or writing at a particular period of time, e.g. Dickens’s style, the style of Shakespeare, an 18th –century style of writing.


Degree of formality

Degree of formality

  • Martin Joos, an American linguist, distinguishes five stages of formality, namely:

  • frozen>formal>consultative>casual>intimate.

  • Different styles of the same language at the syntactic level. Example:

  • Frozen: Visitors would make their way at once to the upper floor by way of the staircase.

  • Formal: Visitors should go up the stairs at once.

  • Consultative: Would you mind going upstairs right away, please?

  • Casual: Time you all went upstairs now.

  • Intimate: Up you go, chaps!


Degree of formality1

Degree of formality

  • Different styles of the same language at lexical level.

  • Example:

  • male parent – father – Dad – Daddy – old man

  • Decease – pass away – die – pop off – kick the bucket

  • According to Joos, it is routine to alternate, within a single discourse, between two styles which neighbour on this scale.


Synonyms words that are very similar in meaning have fine shades of difference l 57

Synonyms – words that are very similar in meaning have fine shades of difference (l.57)

emotive or evaluative

Dialectal

synonyms

Collocational

Stylistic

semantic


Para 10 variation in expression generic vs specific

Para. 10 (Variation in expression:generic vs. specific)

  • Pointing out that a general notion may be expressed by a variety of specific words

  • various words describing walking

  • (Refer to the exercise on Workbook P8-9)


Summary about choosing the right word

Summary: about choosing the right word

Semantic

Grammatical

WORD

Situational

(Stylistic)

Connotational

Variation


Para 11 conclusion

Para. 11: Conclusion

  • Author’s encouragement:

  • A vocabulary of about 10,000 words is enough.

  • To have a good control and command over the words you do know.


Para 11 conclusion1

Para. 11: Conclusion

  • Question 1: What conclusion is drawn by the author in this paragraph?

  • A good writer is not measured by the extent of his vocabulary, but by his skill in finding the “mot juste”, the word that will hit the nail cleanly on the head.


Para 11 conclusion2

Para. 11: Conclusion

  • Question 2:

  • The writer begins his article with an analogy between the unskilled use of the hammer and the improper choice of words. Identify the places where the analogy is referred to in the rest of the article.


Vocabulary exercise

Vocabulary exercise

  • 1. very far away

    • far afield

      2. pressure, compulsion

      coercion

      3. die, pass away; come to an end

      expire

      4. Poverty-stricken, penniless

      indigent


A new english course

  • 5. force into the right place; make something unmistakably clear

    • drive something home

  • 6.widespread, common

    • rife

  • 7. be typical of; serve as the typical example of

    • epitomize

  • 8. painstaking, meticulous

    • scrupulous


A new english course

  • 9. British English for newspaper editorial

  • leader

  • 10. prove to be contrary; refute

  • disprove


Exercise

Exercise

  • strut: walk proudly or stiffly, especially with the chest pushed forward and trying to look important 趾高气扬地走,大摇大摆地走

  • stalk:

  • 1. walk with slow, stiff strides, esp. in a proud, self-important way高视阔步地走

  • 2. move quietly and cautiously towards (wild animals, etc.)偷偷接近


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  • ramble:walk for pleasure especially in the countryside, with no particular plan 漫游;散步

  • saunter: walk in an unhurried way, and especially in a confident manner闲逛;漫步

  • roam: walk without any definite aim or destination 闲逛

  • lounge: move in a lazy, relaxed way, move in leisurely, indolent manner 懒洋洋地闲逛

  • Stroll: walk a short distance, in a slow or relaxed manner, especially for pleasure漫步;闲荡

  • Meander: (of people) wander in a slow, easy way

  • (of river) flow slowly, turning here and there


A new english course

  • creep: move slowly and quietly with the body close to the ground

  • 匍匐前进,爬行; 蹑手蹑脚地走

  • sidle: move uncertainly or secretively, as if really to turn and go the other way

  • 偷偷地侧身而行


Paragraph 10

Paragraph 10

  • trudge: to walk slowly with a lot of effort, especially over a difficult surface or while carrying something heavy步履艰难地走, 跋涉

  • shuffle: walk by dragging one’s feet slowly along 曳足而行,拖着步子走

  • plod: continue walking slowly, heavily and wearily but without resting 沉重缓慢疲倦地继续步行

  • tramp:to walk with heavy steps, 脚步沉重地走

  • walk through or over, especially long distances 徒步穿越


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  • pace: walk with slow, steady steps, especially backwards and forwards 踱方步

  • patrol: go at regular times round (an area, building, etc.) to see that there is no trouble, that no one is trying to get in or out illegally, etc. 巡逻,巡查

  • stride: walk with long steps or cross with one long step 大踏步地走,跨


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  • tread (on):walk; put the foot or feet down on, step on 踩, 践踏

  • E.g. She trod lightly so as not to wake the baby. (from Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary)

  • 她轻轻地走,以免惊醒孩子。


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  • step out: (AmE) go outside or go somewhere (美口) 暂时走开

  • prance: move quickly, happily or proudly with a springing or dancing step 欢跃地走

  • march: walk with firm regular steps like a soldier 齐步前进, 行军


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  • prowl: (of an animal looking for food, or of a thief) move about (an area) quietly, trying not to be seen or heard 悄悄潜行侍机……,暗中徘徊

  • E.g.: beasts prowling after their prey 四处觅食的野兽

  • Loiter: walk slowly, stopping often

  • 走走停停


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  • stagger: walk or move unsteadily and with great difficulty, almost falling 蹒跚,摇晃,踉跄

  • E.g.: He was staggering along as if drunk. 他摇摇晃晃地向前走,好像喝醉了酒一样。

  • toddle: walk with short unsteady steps, as a small child does 蹒跚行步,东倒西歪地走


A new english course

  • The End of Unit One

  • Thanks!


Unit two beware the dirty seas

Unit TwoBeware the Dirty Seas

By Geoffrey Lean


Background information the mediterranean sea

Background information:the Mediterranean sea

  • Question:

  • What do you know about the Mediterranean sea?

  • Location?

  • What is it famous for?


The mediterranean sea

the Mediterranean sea

  • The Mediterranean Sea is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar on the west and to the Sea of Marmara and Black Sea, by the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus respectively, on the east.

  • The man-made Suez Canal in the south-east connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea.


Mediterranean countries

Mediterranean Countries


The mediterranean civilization

the Mediterranean civilization

  • Please refer to Note 3 on page19.


The mediterranean civilization1

the Mediterranean civilization

  • After-class reading 1:

  • The ancient Egyptian civilization

  • The Hellenic civilization

  • The ancient Roman civilization

  • After-class reading 2:

  • The Mediterranean: Cradle of European Culture (By Michael Streeter)


The mediterranean sea world famous resort

The Mediterranean sea – world-famous resort

  • Coastal view in Turkey


The mediterranean scenery

The Mediterranean scenery

  • Rocky coast of Libya


The mediterranean scenery1

The Mediterranean scenery


The mediterranean scenery2

The Mediterranean scenery


Pollution in the mediterranean

Pollution inthe Mediterranean

  • Pollution in this region has been extremely high in recent years. The United Nations Environment Programme has estimated that 650 million tons of sewage, 129,000 tons of mineral oil, 60,000 tons of mercury, 3,800 tons of lead and 36,000 tons of phosphates are dumped into the Mediterranean each year.

  • -- From wikipedia


Pollution in the mediterranean1

Pollution inthe Mediterranean

  • The Mediterranean is also plagued by marine debris(海洋垃圾). A 1994 study of the seabed using trawl nets around the coasts of Spain, France and Italy reported a particularly high mean concentration of debris; an average of 1,935 items per square kilometer. Plastic debris accounted for 77%, of which 93% was plastic bags.

  • -- From wikipedia


Pollution in the mediterranean2

Pollution inthe Mediterranean

  • Many marine species have been almost wiped out because of the sea's pollution. The Mediterranean Monk Seal is considered to be among the world's most endangered marine mammals.

  • -- From wikipedia


The barcelona convention

The Barcelona Convention

  • The 1976 Barcelona Convention for Protection against Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea is a regional convention to prevent and abate pollution from ships, aircraft and land based sources in the Mediterranean Sea. Signers agreed to cooperate and assist in dealing with pollution emergencies, monitoring and scientific research. The convention was last amended in 1995.

  • The Barcelona Convention aims to reduce pollution in the Mediterranean Sea and protect and improve the marine environment in the area, thereby contributing to its sustainable development.


General reading exercise

General reading exercise

  • 1. Where can we find the thesis statement?

  • 2. What are the causes of the pollution?


I introduction

I. Introduction

Thesis statement:

the Mediterranean is the most polluted sea in the world (Para. 1)


Ii body

II. Body

  • 1. Causes and consequences of the pollution in general (Paras. 2 – 4)

  • 2. Causes and consequences of the pollution in detail (Paras. 5 – 20)


Iii conclusion

III. Conclusion

Efforts being made to solve the problem

(Paras. 21-22)


Organization of the text

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Organization of the Text

Thesis statement

Para. 1

Improper treatment of sewage

Para. 5 - 10

Para. 2 - 4

Untreated water from factories

Causes and consequences

Para. 11 - 13

Para. 5-20

Other causes of pollution

Para. 14 - 15

Factors aggravating the case

Para. 16 - 20

Conclusion

Para. 21-22


Writing technique analysis cause and effect pattern

Writing technique analysis: Cause and effect pattern

  • Two fundamental ways of organizing a cause and effect paper:

  • 1. the single-cause and many-effects pattern;

  • 2. the many-causes and single-effect pattern

  • In this article, which pattern(s) did the author use to demonstrate his point to the reader?


Cause and effect pattern

Cause and effect pattern

  • Pair discussion:

  • Work out the cause-effect pattern of “Beware the Dirty Seas”.


Language points

Language Points

  • Waters (line 5) : the water of the stated rivers, lakes, etc. E.g.:

  • the upper waters of the Thames 泰晤士河上游

  • South-China Sea waters 中国南海海域

  • international waters 国际海域

  • fall victim to(line 9) : suffer from

  • E.g.: fall victim to a disease / an explosion / one’s own avarice


Language points1

Language Points

  • endemic (line 13): especially of a disease or a condition, regularly found and very common among a particular group or in a particular area

  • Antonyms: epidemic

  • Endemic is often used in medical and ecological situations to refer to diseases or flora/fauna found especially in certain areas.

  • Malaria is endemic in many of the hotter regions of the world.

  • The disease is endemic among British sheep/to many British flocks.

  • There is endemic racism/poverty/violence in many of the country's cities.


Language points2

Language Points

  • litany(line 14) : a form of prayer for use in church services, recited by a priest with responses from the congregation, i.e., people attending a church service 应答连祷

  • Here, litany is used in its transferred meaning, referring to the frequent outbreaks of disease.

  • E.g.: commit a litany of crimes 犯一系列的罪

  • the mournful litany of disease(line 14) : the deplorable / appalling / dreadful repetitive occurrences of disease


Language points3

Language Points

  • are awash with bacteria(line 25) : have a large amount of bacteria

  • “awash” in its literal sense means “be covered in water”.

  • E.g.: After a heavy rain, the streets were awash.

  • rocks awash at high tide 涨潮时被淹没的岩石

  • The ship’s deck was awash. 船上的甲板被浪潮冲打。

  • “awash with” is used figuratively, meaning “having a large amount of something,” as used in this sentence.

  • The singular form of bacteria is bacterium.


Language points4

Language Points

  • virtually unable to cleanse itself (line 51): practically / in effect unable to make itself free from waste materials

  • Cleanse:

  • 1. to make something completely clean

  • Cleanse the cut/wound thoroughly before you bandage it.

  • 2. to make someone or something morally clean or pure; to cleanse the thoughts of our hearts

  • Roman Catholics go to confession to be cleansed of their sins.

  • (figurative) The mayor has promised to cleanse the city of drug dealers (= to remove them from the city).

  • cleanse: is a more elevated word than clean. It is often used figuratively.


Language points5

Language Points

  • to cope with the remorseless rush of pollution (line 53): to deal successfully with the sewage, effluents, etc., which pour into the sea threateningly and which cannot be stopped

  • remorseless (formal ):

  • 1. never stopping or impossible to stop

  • the hurricane's remorseless approach

  • remorseless pressure to succeed

  • 2. severe and showing no sadness or guilt

  • a remorseless judge


Language points6

Language Points

  • Triple(line 61):, a synonym of treble, is more often used in American English.

  • take effect(line 68): : produce results intended.

  • E.g. The cough medicine took effect quickly.

  • The new policy is expected to take effect soon.


Comprehension questions

Comprehension questions

  • What methods did the author adopt to achieve effectiveness and convincingness in this article?

  • Specific facts

  • Precise figures

  • Comparison

  • Are you fully convinced by Lean’s article?


Comprehension questions1

Comprehension questions

  • About the title:

  • This article focuses on the water pollution of the Mediterranean sea only, why did the author use “sea” in the plural form instead of the singular form in the title?


Vocabulary exercise1

Vocabulary Exercise

  • 1. The frequent outbreak of disease

  • litany

  • 2. further the development of; care for

  • Nurture

  • 3. exist unseen

  • Lurk

  • 4. very small forms of plant and animal life that live in a body of water

  • plankton


A new english course

  • 5. develop gradually ( by a long continuous process)

  • evolve

  • 6. liquid wastes, such as chemicals or sewage that flows out from a factory or some other places into a river or the sea

  • Effluents

  • 7. unpleasant sticky substance, such as the thick liquid on the skin of various fish

  • Slime


A new english course

  • 8. (v.) to pour as if from a sluice (水闸)

  • Sluice

  • 9. (of a disease) found regularly in a particular place

  • Endemic

  • 10. pour; flood with water to clean out

  • flush


Sa to ex ii p 15 workbook

SA to Ex. II, P. 15, Workbook

  • 1. What happens is that the Mediterranean, the cradle of many ancient cultures, is seriously polluted. It is the first of the seas that has been made to suffer from a situation resulting from development mixed with an irresponsible mentality.


Sa to ex ii p 15 workbook1

SA to Ex. II, P. 15, Workbook

  • 2. Further, while the places such as Cannes and Tel Aviv dispose of their wastes through a pipe stretching out half a mile from the shore, most cities do not even bother to do that but simply dump their sewage directly into the sea along the coastline.


Sa to ex ii p 16 workbook

SA to Ex. II, P. 16, Workbook

  • 3. There is an even bigger hazard hidden in the seafood dishes that are forever so appealing to those holiday-makers.

  • 4. Factories are set up around the coastline, few of which, including the most sophisticated, have been equipped with a satisfactory system for dealing with their effluents.


Sa to ex iii p 16 workbook

SA to Ex. III, P. 16, Workbook

  • 1. One man’s effort is not enough to cope with such a complicated situation.

  • 2. When do you think the new IT regulations will take effect?

  • 3. The chances of winning a prize in a lottery are slim; perhaps only a one-in-a-hundred chance.

  • 4. It is deplorable that many a youngster has fallen victim to the use of drugs.


Sa to ex iii p 16 workbook1

SA to Ex. III, P. 16, Workbook

  • 5. There is virtually no one who is in favor of his proposal.

  • 6. Beware of the swindler with a slick tongue and a smiling face.

  • 7. Don’t touch the bag! The explosive in it may blow up at any time. Your life will be at risk.

  • 8. He looked quite confident about the job, though some doubts lurked in the depth of his mind.


A new english course

  • The End of Unit 2

  • Thanks!


Unit three my friend albert einstein

Unit ThreeMy Friend, Albert Einstein

Banesh Hoffmann


Albert einstein

Albert Einstein


Albert einstein1

Albert Einstein

  • Q: What do you know about Einstein?

  • 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Germany – 18 April 1955 in Princeton, USA;

  • American physicist of German-Jewish descent;

  • a theoretical physicist, philosopher and author who is widely regarded as one of the most influential and best known scientists and intellectuals of all time.


Albert einstein2

Albert Einstein

  • Q: What is Einstein famous for?

  • His contributions to theoretical physics significantly altered the physical world;

  • Theory of Relativity

  • E=MC2

  • Quantum theory of light

  • Einstein published more than 300 scientific along with over 150 non-scientific works, and received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities; he also wrote about various philosophical and political subjects such as socialism and international relations.


Albert einstein3

Albert Einstein

  • Q: What is the theory of Relativity?

  • When you sit beside a pretty girl for two hours, you think it is two minutes; when you sit near a hot stove for two minutes, you think it is two hours. That is Relativity.

  • --- Albert Einstein


Awards

Awards

  • In 1922, Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics, "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".

  • In 1999, Albert Einstein was named Person of the Century by Time magazine, a Gallup poll recorded him as the fourth most admired person of the 20th century in the U.S

  • According to The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, Einstein is "the greatest scientist of the twentieth century and one of the supreme intellects of all time."


Banesh hoffmann 1906 the author

Banesh Hoffmann (1906 - ) – the author

  • What do you know about Banesh Hoffmann?

  • What is the relation between Banish Hoffmann and Einstein?

  • Banesh Hoffmann was colleague of Albert Einstein for some time. How do you think Hoffmann describes Einstein as his colleague and friend?


Structure of the text1

Structure of the Text

Introduction: The essence of Einstein

Part 1

Para. 1

Body: main characteristic features

as a man and as a scientist

Part 2

Para. 2 - 19

Conclusion:

Part 3

Para. 20


In class task

In-class task

  • Analysis of Einstein ’s personality traits

  • Work in pair to discuss Einstein’s personality traits with the help of the reference on page 35.


Analysis of einstein s personality traits

Analysis of Einstein ’s personality traits

  • 1. Paras. 2-4

    • Modesty and amiability;

  • 2. Paras. 8-11

    • Concentration on work;

  • 3. Paras. 12-13

    • Love of natural simplicity;

  • 4. Paras. 14-17

    • Academic courage;

  • 5. Paras 18

    • Sense of justice;

  • 6. Paras 19

    • Youthful innocence.


Analysis of einstein s personality traits1

Analysis of Einstein ’s personality traits

  • Q: Paragraphs 5 – 7 are excluded from the above discussion, what are the major concerns of these three paragraphs?


Para 1

Para. 1

  • 1. Introduction: (Para. 1) : Using the word “simplicity” to begin the illustration of Einstein’s essence.


Para 11

Para. 1

  • would be none the worse for its wetting (l.5) -- would not be harmed by its being wet

  • “be none the worse for sth.” (idiom) not be harmed or damaged by something. E.g.:They were trapped in the cave for a couple of days but they were none the worse for their experience.

  • He fell into the river but is none the worse for it.

  • 他掉入河里,却安然无恙。

  • It is often used in the form none the worse for wear( in good condition despite hard use or a difficult experience): We were none the worse for wear after our long trip through the mountains.

  • none the worse:not less,依然,还是,依然如故;

  • E. g.:

  • I like a man none the worse for being outspoken.

  • 我不因为一个人直言不讳而不喜欢他。

  • I like this child none the worse for his being a bit naughty. 这孩子有点顽皮,但我依然喜欢他。


Para 12

Para. 1

  • knack (l.5):know-how (UN); a special skill or ability, usually the result of practice. Example:

  • a knack for remembering faces

  • She has the knack of making people feel comfortable.

  • 她有使人感到舒服的本事。

  • He has the happy knack of making himself popular.

  • 他有使自己得民心的巧妙手腕。

  • skill - an ability that has been acquired by training

  • talent, gift – natural abilities or qualities


Para 13

Para. 1

  • Q: Which phrase in the first paragraph explains the abstract notion of “simplicity”?


In class task1

In-class task

  • In Paragraph 1:

  • Theme: The essence of Einstein: simplicity

  • Example: It is illustrated with one anecdote:

  • He took off his hat and held it under his coat when caught in a downfall

  • Task: Try to summarize the examples and details that help us to understand Einstein’s personality traits mentioned in the paragraphs 2-4.


Paras 2 4

Paras. 2 - 4

  • Paras. 2 - 4: Modesty and Amiability

  • Anecdotes:

  • Salary incident;

  • The writer’s visit


Para 3

Para. 3

awe n. (l.13) -- the feeling of respect and amazement when one is faced with something wonderful, frightening, or completely unknown. 畏惧,敬畏。Examples:

  • He visited the exhibition and stood in awe of the fossils of prehistoric animals.

  • The audience listened to the learned philosopher in awe.

  • awe v. -- cause a feeling of amazement or fear. Example:

  • The magician's performance awed us all.

  • awed adj. -- overwhelmed by respect and fear

  • in tones of awed amazement:with voice qualities that showed amazement as well as respect and fear


Para 31

Para. 3

  • set me at ease (l.18): make me feel relaxed and comfortable.

  • at (your) ease: relaxed E.g.:

  • He felt completely at ease.

  • She soon put/set me at ease (= made me relaxed) .

  • be ill at ease: to be anxious and not relaxed:He seemed ill at ease and not his usual self.


Paras 5 7

Paras. 5 - 7

  • Einstein’s brief life history and academic achievements


Para 5

Para. 5

  • Abreast (line 28): adv. On a level, side by side, and facing the same way并排,并肩,并列

  • Be / keep / abreast of /with与……并进,不落后

  • You should read the newspapers to keep abreast of/with the times.

  • 你应该看报,以便与时俱进。


Para 6

Para. 6

  • his genius burst into fabulous flower (l.34) -- his great talent results in extraordinary success; his great talent yielded an incredible result

  • burst into flower: generally means “blossom(开花)”, but here it is used figuratively, means “become successful, be prosperous”


Para 7

Para. 7

  • offshoot (l.36) : a new stem or branch of a plant; ( figuratively) a thing that is developed from something else. Example:

  • Our recitation session is an offshoot of our Drama Society.

  • It's an offshoot of a much larger company based in Sydney.


Paras 8 11

Paras. 8 - 11

  • Concentration on work

  • Paras. 8 -10: detailed description of Einstein’s concentration when thinking;

  • Para 11: Absorption in work released his pain


Para 91

Para. 9

  • When battling a recalcitrant problem, he worried it as an animal worries its prey. (l.46-47)

  • When tackling a problem which was difficult to solve, he attacked it as an animal chases and frightens another animal it preys upon.

  • “recalcitrant” is often used to describe a person or an animal that is hard to keep under one's control. Example:

  • Try not to punish a recalcitrant child severely, it is better to reason with him.

  • A recalcitrant person执拗的人,桀骜不驯的人


Para 92

Para. 9

  • worry (Animal) : verb

  • To seize sth.with the teeth and shake or tug at sth. repeatedly:撕咬:用牙齿咬往并来回摇晃或用力拖拉:Any dog caught worrying sheep in these fields will be shot.

  • worry (at) sth:(phrasal verb) to shake, pull at or touch something repeatedly:The dog was worrying (at) the rat.

  • worry a problem, etc out: to keep trying to find a way of solving a problem:绞尽脑汁解决问题等

  • She'll worry those figures out until she's sure they've been worked out properly.


Para 93

Para. 9

  • When an animal worries (撕咬)its prey, it shakes it, pulls at it, frightens it, or even eats it. In other words, the animal will not stop attacking its prey. Similarly, Einstein would not let go a problem unsolved, he would keep at it.


Para 94

Para. 9

  • quaint (l.49) -- adjective1) attractive because of being unusual and especially old-fashioned:Many quaint little cottages make the place a new tourist attraction.

  • Grandma Rose is a quaint old lady.2) “quaint” can also be used to show that you do not approve of something, especially an opinion, belief or way of behaving, because it is strange or old-fashioned:"What a quaint idea!" she said, laughing at him.


Para 95

Para. 9

  • pace up and down (line 50):

  • cf. ups and downs,盛衰;沉浮 ;曲折;起伏;成败

  • twists and turns,迂回曲折

  • (through) thick and thin,(不计)甘苦

  • rain or shine,无论晴雨,晴雨无阻

  • wax and wane (月的)盈亏圆缺, [喻]盛衰,

  • ebb and flow潮涨潮落,盛衰,消长

  • People may have sorrow or joy, be near or far apart .The moon may be dim or bright, wax or wane .

  • 人有悲欢离合, 月有阴晴圆缺。


Para 10

Para. 10

  • Infeld and I could have kicked ourselves for …(l. 56): Infeld and I were very annoyed with ourselves because we have not thought of it.

  • be kicking yourself / could have kicked yourself: used to say that you are very annoyed with yourself because you have done something stupid or missed a chance:When I realized what I'd done I could have kicked myself.They must be kicking themselves for selling their shares too early.


Para 111

Para. 11

  • Background information: Einstein and his family

    Spouses: 1. Mileva, 6 January 1903-14, February 1919;

    2. Elsa, m. 1923

    Children:Lieserl Einstein, 1902; Hans Albert Einstein 14 May 1904; Eduard Einstein, 28 July 1910

Einstein’s first wife: Mileva

Einstein’s second wife: Elsa


Paras 12 13

Paras. 12 - 13

  • Love of natural simplicity

  • Anecdote: comment on Mozart vs. Beethoven


Mozart

Mozart

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 – 1791), Austrian composer, one of the world’s great musical geniuses, wrote masterpieces in every branch of music. During his short life, Mozart composed a great volume of music. His 789 compositions include operas, symphonies, concertos, quartets for the piano and for stringed instruments, and sonatas for both piano and violin. His music has delicate beauty and is always fresh and pleasing to hear.


Beethoven

Beethoven

  • Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 –1827) , German composer, was one of music’s greatest geniuses. His works have a rare originality, emotional depth, and expressive power. He was known for his nine symphonies, piano concertos, and sonatas, and string quartets. Most of Beethoven’s compositions were written in the classical forms established by his predecessors Mozart and Haydn, so he is sometimes considered the last great composer in the classical tradition. But he also remoulded and expanded the old forms and infused them with a highly personal intensity of emotion, so he is also referred to as the first of the Romantics.


Paras 12 131

Paras. 12-13

  • Q: What is Einstein’s comments on Beethoven and Mozart?

  • Q: What does “Mozartean simplicity” refer to?

  • Q: In para. 12, what revelation is made through Einstein’ comment on Beethoven and Mozart’ works?

  • As a simple man, Einstein thinks that beauty exists in the Universe. Such beauty is natural, pure, and simple. Beauty found is even greater and more admirable than beauty created.


Paras 14 17

Paras. 14 - 17

  • Academic courage

  • He proposed two assumptions that seemed in violent conflict;

  • His revolutionary ideas caused violent controversy and irrational anger;

  • He insisted his ideas under great pressure from Nazis Germany.


Para 14

Para. 14

  • plausible (l.81) – adjective,

  • 1) seeming likely to be reasonable or true. The word is often used derogatorily. Example:

  • Your reasoning sounds plausible, but I rather doubt it.

    a plausible explanation/excuse2) (disapproving) describes someone who appears to be honest and truthful, even if they are not:a plausible salesman

    provided (that): (l.85) conjunction (also providing (that)): if, or only if:He's welcome to come along, provided that he behaves himself.


Para 15

Para. 15

  • house of cards (line 86)

  • a structure or plan that is insubstantial and subject to imminent collapse, as a structure made by balancing playing cards against each other:

  • The scheme is so overly complicated (that) it's likely to prove( to be) just another house of cards.


Para 151

Para. 15

  • tamper with (l.87) :

  • meddle with, interfere with; try to change something without permission. Examples:

  • It is wrong to tamper with other people's affairs.

  • Don't tamper with the students' records. Put them back into the filing cabinet.

  • I could see at once that the lock had been tampered with.(我能立即发现锁被撬了。)


Para 152

Para. 15

  • words failed him (l.90) -- he could not find words to express his feelings

  • “words fail me”: is said to emphasize your surprise or shock, especially at something you have just seen or been told:

  • “So what did you think of Olive’s camping outfit (露营装备)?” “Words fail me, I’ve never seen anything quite like it!”


Para 153

Para. 15

  • tribute(l.92):[C] noun something that you say, write or give which shows your respect and admiration for someone, especially on a formal occasion:

  • Tributes have been pouring in from all over the world for the famous actor who died yesterday.

  • pay tribute to sb/sth : to praise someone or something:

  • The minister paid tribute to the men who had fought the blaze.

  • hey paid tribute to John for his untiring efforts at carrying through the project.


Para 16

Para. 16

  • remote from the turmoil of everyday life (l.94-95) :far away from the chaos and troubles of our daily life

  • turmoil: noun [S or U]: a state of confusion, uncertainty or lack of order:The whole region is in turmoil.The country is in a state of political turmoil.The Stock Exchange is in turmoil following a huge wave of selling.


Para 161

Para. 16

  • belated: (adj.) coming or being after the expected time:

  • a belated apology

  • They did make a belated attempt to reduce the noise.

  • Belated birthday greetings!姗姗来迟的生日问候


Paras 17 18

Paras. 17 - 18

  • Sense of justice

    a letter to President Roosevelt and

    sad for the destructive effect of atomic bomb


Para 18

Para. 18

  • heed: (l. 104) (verb [T] Formal) to pay attention to something, especially advice or a warning:The airline has been criticized for failing to heed advice/warnings about lack of safety routines.heed:  (noun [U] Formal)The company took no heed of(= did not consider) public opposition to the plans.


Para 181

Para. 18

  • all-out: (l.106) adjective [before noun]complete and with as much effort as possible:We made an all-out effort to get the project finished on time.

  • endeavour (l.107) UK;US endeavor :

  • verb [+ to infinitive] : to try to do something:Engineers are endeavouring to locate the source of the problem.

  • noun [C or U]: an attempt to do something:In spite of our best endeavours, it has proven impossible to contact her.Crossing the North Pole on foot was an amazing feat of human endeavour.


Para 182

Para. 18

ineffable sadness (l.109): sadness that is too intense to be described

  • Ineffable: beyond expression in words e. g.

  • ineffable joy/happiness/beauty/delight.

  • synonyms: indescribable, inexpressible, unspeakable


Para 183

Para. 18

  • Q: (in para. 18) How did Einstein feel about the destructive effect produced as a result of the application of his E=mc2 formula?


Para 19

Para. 19

  • Einstein’s youthful innocence

    Anecdote: joined the children on Christmas Eve


3 conclusion para 20

3. Conclusion (Para. 20)

  • The author’s failure to sum up Einstein and his works: Cosmic simplicity


Para 20

Para. 20

  • akin (l.119): (adjective) similar; having some of the same qualities:be akin to: be similar to

  • Spanish is akin to Latin.


V vocabulary exercise

V. Vocabulary exercise

  • 1. an insecure scheme

    • A house of cards

  • 2. traces

    • vestiges

  • 3. assail a problem again and again until it is solved, just like a dog biting some small animals repeatedly, shaking it or pulling at it with the teeth

    • worry


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  • 4. have respect as well as fear and reverence for

    • Be in awe of

  • 5. finally; after a long series of events

    • ultimately

  • 6. unutterable; incapable of being expressed in words

    • ineffable

  • 7. Cessation, pause

    • surcease


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  • 8. a clever way of doing something

    • knack

  • 9. unexpectedly surprising; astounding

    • staggering

  • 10. hard to deal with; unmanageable

    • recalcitrant

  • 11. seeming to be reasonable

    • plausible

  • 12. indescribably quaint or strange

    • Elusively whimsical


Paragraph writing controlling idea

Paragraph writing: controlling idea

  • Please read the passage “Controlling Idea” on page 42 (Student’s book), then try to answer the following questions:

  • 1. What is a controlling idea?

  • 2. What are the functions of a controlling idea?

  • 3. How to distinguish the controlling idea?


Paragraph writing controlling idea1

Paragraph writing: controlling idea

  • 1. What is a controlling idea?

A controlling idea is a word or a group of words that state the central idea of a paragraph, specifying what the paragraph is about. A controlling idea is often contained in the topic sentence of a paragraph.


Paragraph writing controlling idea2

Paragraph writing: controlling idea

  • 2. What are the functions of a controlling idea?

  • A well-chosen controlling idea directs the writer in his writing by suggesting an outline for him to follow.

  • A well-chosen controlling idea guides the reader in his reading by telling him what the main thought of the paragraph will be.


Paragraph writing controlling idea3

Paragraph writing: controlling idea

  • 3. How to distinguish the controlling idea?

  • Step 1: Try to find the topic sentence

  • Step 2: A controlling idea should be specific instead of being general, able to suggest some different aspect that can be and must be fully developed or explained so that all the possible questions the reader may ask about the subject can be satisfactorily answered.


Paragraph writing controlling idea4

Paragraph writing: controlling idea

Example 1:

Every year 100 million holiday-makers are drawn to the Mediterranean. With one-third of the world’s tourist trade, it is the most popular of all the holiday destinations; it is also the most polluted.


Paragraph writing controlling idea5

Paragraph writing: controlling idea

Example 2:

Some English words have a common root but are used in very different senses. Consider human and humane, for example. Their origin is the same and their meanings are related, but their usage is distinct. A human action is not the same thing as a humane action. We cannot speak of a Declaration of Humane Rights. …


Paragraph writing controlling idea6

Paragraph writing: controlling idea

Example 3:

It was this very Mozartean simplicity that most characterized Einstein’s methods. His 1905 theory of relativity, for example, was built on just two simple assumptions. One is the so-called principle of relativity, which means, roughly speaking, that we cannot tell whether we are at rest or moving smoothly. The other assumption is that the speed of light is the same no matter what the speed of the object that produces it. …


Paragraph writing controlling idea7

Paragraph writing: controlling idea

Exercise:

Please read the passage “Controlling Idea” on page 42 (Student’s book), and then do the exercise on page31 (Workbook)


Exercise ii paraphrase on page 26 workbook

Exercise II: Paraphrase on page 26 Workbook

  • 1. This natural ability of intuitively getting to the essence of a subject was the key to the great discoveries made by him in science. This natural gift and his unusual awareness of beauty.

  • 2. His engrossment in ideas was incredibly intense and deep. When attacking a problem difficult to solve, he kept attempting to deal with it with great effort, just as an animal chase and bites a weaker animal it preys upon until the latter gives in.

  • 3. He would look lost in thought, thinking about something distant, and yet meditating within himself. He did not seem to be in deep thought, nor did he knit his brows – he was just in self-contained peaceful contemplation.


Exercise ii paraphrase on page 26 workbook1

Exercise II: Paraphrase on page 26 Workbook

  • 4. The theories, considered isolatedly one by one, was really credible, so much so that they seem to be simple and clear. But when considered together, they were so strongly contradictory to each other that a less learned scholar would have given up one or the other completely and would no longer take up the issue again.

  • 5. Einstein’s work was done quietly with pencil on paper and seemed to be far removed from the confusion of everyday life, but his ideas were so radical that they led to strong arguments and made people unreasonably angry.


Exercise iii paraphrase on page 27 workbook

Exercise III: Paraphrase on page 27 Workbook

  • 1. He honked his car horn o alert the pedestrians.

  • 2. The fast development of Information Technology is an outstanding example of human endeavour.

  • 3. Mary groped for the appropriate words to express her indebtedness to her teacher.

  • 4. The school principal’s plain words conveyed a message of challenge to the young people.


Exercise iii paraphrase on page 27 workbook1

Exercise III: Paraphrase on page 27 Workbook

  • 5. Don’t tamper with the wires, or you may cause a short circuit.

  • 6. He thought he could beat everyone at the competition, but his excessive confidence failed him.

  • 7. What he said seemed simple and clear, but there was an implied meaning that we couldn’t quite fathom.

  • 8. He tried to steer the group’s random talk towards some constructive subjects.


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  • The End of Unit 3

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Unit four text i the invisible poor

Unit FourTEXT I The Invisible Poor

  • By Michael Harrington


About the author michael harrington

About the author: Michael Harrington

  • Michael Harrington (February 24, 1928-July 31, 1989), was an American democratic socialist, writer, political activist, professor of political science, radio commentator and founder of the Democratic Socialists of America. He was the most well-known socialist in the United States during his lifetime.

  • He devoted his career to raising awareness about the persistence of poverty in the United States. His most famous work, The Other America: Poverty in the United States (1962), made the startling assertion that, despite the general prosperity of the 1950s, between one-fourth and one-fifth of Americans still lived in poverty. Harrington’s revelations about the extent of poverty in the United States shocked many Americans and prompted President John F. Kennedy to call for federal action to reduce poverty in the United States. After Kennedy’s assassination, President Lyndon B. Johnson launched a series of anti-poverty initiatives known as the WAR ON POVERTY.


The other america poverty in the united states

The Other America: Poverty in the United States

  • Harrington's best-known contribution to American politics was his book The Other America: Poverty in the United States (1962). This volume of statistics, straightforward analysis, and simply told narratives attracted an extraordinary amount of attention.


The other america poverty in the united states1

The Other America: Poverty in the United States

  • Appearing at a time when most politicians and commentators were celebrating the achievements of the postwar American economy, the book argued that tens of millions of Americans remained desperately poor and trapped in a culture of poverty. Despite its capabilities, Harrington argued, the United States had not solved the problem of poverty; it was instead turning a blind eye to the large minority of Americans who remained poor.


The other america poverty in the united states2

The Other America: Poverty in the United States

  • The attention the book received led to its being read by President John F. Kennedy and helped to prompt and shape the War on Poverty (which included an expansion of existing social programs as well as new initiatives in housing and health care) sponsored by the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Harrington himself became a participant in a presidential antipoverty task force (特别工作小组 ) and a highly visible spokesman for liberal policies and programs.


General reading exercises

General reading exercises

  • What’s your general impression of the text in terms of the pattern the author follows in developing his ideas?

  • Cause and effect pattern:

  • Single cause and multi-effects

  • Single effect and multi-causes


General reading exercises1

General reading exercises

  • What is the thesis statement?

  • From paragraph 3 to paragraph 17, the author explains in detail why the poor in the US are invisible. Can you identify the reasons given by the author? Make a list of them.

  • (topic sentence)


General reading structure

General reading: Structure

  • In –class Task :

  • 1. What are the paragraphs that are not mentioned in the above exercise? Why they are excluded? What are they about?

  • 2. What are the functions of those paragraphs?


A new english course

  • An outline of development

  • I. Raising the topic: (Para1- 2)

  • Direct opening with a thesis statement (Para 1): “Millions of poor people in the US are getting invisible.”

  • Supporting the thesis statement with the author’s research evidence (i.e. the concrete figure of fifty million) (Para 2)


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  • II. Analyzing the CAUSES of the invisibility

  • of the poor in the U.S. (Para 3-17)

  • Transition(Para 3) – a link between the above stated thesis (effect) and the following various causes.

  • A. perennial causes

  • Reason 1– “Poverty is often off the beaten track”(Para 4)

  • Reason 2– “Beauty and myths are masks of poverty” (Para 5)

  • Transition(Para 6) – briefly summarizing the two obvious causes explained in Para 4 &5 and introducing further specific reasons (i.e. how conditions in America have created a new kind of blindness )


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  • B. A new kind of blindness about poverty

  • Reason 3 -- Transformation of the American cities isolates the poor from sight of the middle class. (Para 7-9)

  • Reason 4 --Well-meaning ignorance keeps concerned and sympathetic Americans from knowing the truth about the poor.(Para 10)

  • Reason5 – Mass production enables the best-dressed poverty to exist. (Para. 11-12)


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  • Reason 6 -- Age factor (Many of the poor are the wrong age to be seen.) (Para 13-14)

  • C. Political invisibility

  • Reason 7 -- the dispossessed at the bottom of society cannot speak for themselves. (Part 15 - 17)

  • III. Conclusion: Re-asserting the theme. (Para 18)


Para 17

Para 1

  • The millions who are poor in the United States tend to become increasingly invisible (l.1):

  • The large number of people who are poor in the United States are likely to become more and more invisible.

  • 1) tend to: have a tendency to; be likely to do something; do or be often or usually. Example:

  • It tends to rain here a lot in the spring.

  • Janet tends to get (=usually gets) angry if you disagree with her.

  • 2) tend to sb / sth : take care of , look after; to deal with the problems or needs of a person or thing:Would you mind waiting? I'm tending to another customer at the moment.Nurses tended to the soldier’s wounds.


Para 21

Para. 2

  • Q: Who do you think “the other America” (line 9) refer to?


Para 22

Para. 2

  • the other America (l.9) & (l.10)&(l.40) :

  • In author’s words, “the other America” refers to “the America that had not benefited from the strong economic growth of the post-war decades.” Consists largely of three groups:

  • 1) the rural poor of Appalachia;

  • 2) African Americans in the deep South and urban ghettoes;

  • 3) the aged.

  • Much of this poverty remained "invisible" to most Americans.


Paragraph 3

Paragraph 3

Perennial (l.10): lasting through the whole year; lasting forever or for a long time 持久的, 长久的

E.g.: the perennial snow fields 终年积雪的原野

the perennial blue jeans 四季都穿的牛仔裤

a perennial invalid 长期病人

the perennial problems of isolation in old age 始终未能解决的老年人孤独问题


Paragraph 4

Paragraph 4

translate:

Journalists travel off the beaten track to give news a different perspective.


Paragraph 41

Paragraph 4

off the beaten track / path (l.11): not well-known; not often visited 去的人不多的,鲜有人涉足的;不出名的; 离开常规;不落俗套

beaten: (of a path, track, etc.) that is given shape by the feet of those who pass along it (路) 被踏平的, 走出来的, 人们常走的. E.g.:

We followed a well-beaten path through the forest. 我们沿着人们常走的小路穿过了森林。

go off the beaten track 打破常规


Paragraph 42

Paragraph 4

turnpike (l.12):(Am. E) also pike, turnpike road; a special road for the use of fast-traveling vehicles, especially such a road which one has to pay to use高速公路


Paragraph 43

Paragraph 4

  • Movie sets of Wales in the thirties (l.13):

  • In the 1930s, there was disastrous unemployment in South Wales, and after Would War I, Wales was a depressed area with a third of the population on relief.

  • Movie sets are the furniture, scenery, etc., used for making moving pictures.

  • Here, the author means that the towns in the valleys of Pennsylvania are shabby and dilapidated.


Paragraph 44

Paragraph 4

  • the rutted roads (l.14):

  • roads with deep, narrow marks made by the wheels of vehicles 有车辙的路;凹凸不平的路

  • rut: deep narrow marks or tracks left in soft ground by the wheel of a vehicle 车辙

  • be in a rut 墨守成规,一成不变

  • lift sb. out of the rut使某人摆脱旧习惯或常规

  • get / fall into a rut 陷入老一套,开始墨守成规

  • fall into a conversational rut 开始了老调重弹的谈话

  • get out of one’s rut 摆脱陈规旧习


Paragraph 45

Paragraph 4

  • a runaway sweatshop (l.17):

  • a sweatshop is a factory in which workers are employed for long hours at low wages and under unhealthy conditions. A runaway sweatshop is an out-and-out sweatshop.(彻头彻尾的血汗工厂)


Para 4 poverty is often off the beaten track

Para. 4: Poverty is often off the beaten track.

  • Questions:

  • What, according to Harrington, has caused poverty less visible in rural America?

  • What is the evidence to demonstrate poverty?

    -- towns like the movie sets in the thirties

    -- company houses in rows

    -- rutted roads

    -- black and dirty

    -- unemployed men in the bar

    -- women working in a runaway sweatshop


Paragraph 5

Paragraph 5

  • run-down (l.20): (adjective)

  • 1. describes buildings or areas that are in very bad condition失修的,破败的;衰败的:a run-down building

  • This neighborhood is getting run-down. 附近这一带正在日渐衰落。

  • 2. [after verb] tired and not healthy, especially because of working too much:My doctor said I was looking run-down and ought to take some time to rest.

  • run-down (noun [S]): a detailed report:Here's a run-down on/of the activities of our ten biggest competitors.


Jean jacques rousseau

Jean Jacques Rousseau

  • J. J. Rousseau (1712 -1778) : Swiss-born French philosopher and political theorist, is considered the father of Romanticism. He advocated the idea of primitivism or "the noble savage“, attributing superior virtue to primitive civilization, which is idealized.


Rousseau s ideas

Rousseau’s ideas

  • Primitivism (原始主义,尚古主义) is the opinion that life was better or more moral during the early stages of mankind or among primitive peoples (or among children) and has deteriorated with civilization.

  • It is a response to the perennial question of whether the development of complex civilization and technology has benefited or harmed mankind.


Rousseau s ideas1

Rousseau’s ideas

  • In his early writing, Rousseau contended that man is essentially good, a "noble savage" when in the "state of nature" (the state of all the other animals, and the condition man was in before the creation of civilization and society), and that good people are made unhappy and corrupted by their experiences in society. He viewed society as "artificial" and "corrupt" and that the furthering of society results in the continuing unhappiness of man.Rousseau's essay, "Discourse on the Arts and Sciences" (1750), argued that the advancement of art and science had not been beneficial to mankind. He proposed that the progress of knowledge had made governments more powerful, and crushed individual liberty. He concluded that material progress had actually undermined the possibility of sincere friendship, replacing it with jealousy, fear and suspicion.


Jean jacques rousseau1

Jean Jacques Rousseau

  • 卢梭提出:在自然状态(动物所处的状态和人类文明及社会出现以前的状态)下,人本质上是好的,是“高贵的野蛮人”(noble savage)。好人被他们的社会经历所折磨和侵蚀。而社会的发展导致了人类不幸的继续。卢梭的《论科学与艺术》("Discourse on the Arts and Sciences", 1750)强调,艺术与科学的进步并没有给人类带来好处。他认为知识的积累加强了政府的统治而压制了个人的自由。他总结得,物质文明的发展事实上破坏了真挚的友谊,取而代之的是嫉妒、畏惧和怀疑。


Paragraph 51

Paragraph 5

  • be exempt from (l.22): be freed from a duty, service, payment, etc. 被豁免;被免除. E.g.:

  • Charitable organizations are exempt from taxation.

  • John is exempt from physical education because of poor health.

  • Strain (l.22): a state in which one is greatly troubled by anxiety and difficulty 极度紧张;重负;过劳. E.g.:

  • Young people are under great strain during the examination period.

  • Examinations of all kinds put a great strain on young people.

  • Tension (l.23): (a feeling of) nervousness, anxiety, worry, or pressure(精神上的)紧张

  • E.g.: Before the interview, Janet suffered from a lot of nervous tension.

  • He felt helpless under the tension of waiting for the news.


Paragraph 52

Paragraph 5

  • Underprivileged (l.24):poor

  • (of people) not having the advantages of ordinary person’s life; lacking in good chances for education, social life, etc. 贫困的;社会经济地位低下的;生活水平低下的

  • E.g.: children from underprivileged homes 贫困家庭的孩子

  • an underprivileged nation 生活水平低下的国家

  • underprivileged areas of a city 城市的贫民区


Paragraph 53

Paragraph 5

  • Questions:

  • “Beauty and myths are perennial masks of poverty.” (Line 17)

  • 1. What does “beauty” and “myths” refer to?

  • 2. Can you explain why beauty and myths are perennial masks of poverty?


Paragraph 54

Paragraph 5

  • Beauty refers to the beautiful environment. Specifically it refers to the hills, the streams, the foliage in the lovely season in the area of the Appalachians Mountains.

  • Myths refer to Rousseau’s idealized concept of the “primitive men,” the fortunate people who were admired for their supposedly simple and pure life, and who were exempt from the strains and tension of the middle class.


Paragraph 55

Paragraph 5

  • Can you explain why beauty and myths are perennial masks of poverty?

When the traveler comes to the Appalachians, he will see the beauty of nature, and the run-down houses remind him of the “primitive man.” He does not know that the people living in the area are actually undereducated, underprivileged; in other words, they are very poor. So outward beauty of nature and false beliefs in the “primitive man” are misleading -- they simply cover up the truth -- the existence of poverty.


Paragraph 6

Paragraph 6

  • they will be functioning a generation hence (l.28): the normal and obvious causes of the invisibility of the poor will still hold true in a generation from now.

  • “hence” (adverb FORMAL): from now; from this time:

  • The project will be completed at the end of the decade, two years hence.

  • hence (adverb FORMAL): that is the reason or explanation for; therefore:

  • His mother was Italian, hence his name - Luca.


Paragraph 7

Paragraph 7

  • In this section from paragraph 7 to 9 focuses on the cause --“transformation of the American city isolates the poor from sight of the middle class ”. why does the author pay especial attention to the middle class instead of the wealthy class?

Because the middle class is the largest class in the U.S. It can represent most Americans. If the poor is invisible by the middle class, we can say the poor is invisible by most Americans.


Paragraph 71

Paragraph 7

The middle class:

Broadly speaking, the middle class is the social group between the upper or the wealthy and working classes, including professional and business workers and their families. The middle class is sometimes divided into lower middle and upper middle classes --- a division based on occupational and educational differences.

Since World War II, the middle class has been the largest class in the United States, where the middle class participate more in political and voluntary organizations than do the subordinate classes, that is, the lowest paid wage earners and the jobless poor. The middle class in the U.S. also has a higher rate of religious participation than any other class.


Paragraph 72

Paragraph 7

  • foray (l.33): noun [C]

  • 1) a sudden attack into an enemy area by a small number of soldiers to damage or seize arms, food, etc.(突袭;闪电式侵扰) Example:

  • The soldiers went on a foray at the command of the officer.

  • 2) foray : a short visit, especially with a known purpose:

  • the president’s three-day foray into the South

  • 总统对南方3天短暂的访问

  • What the author means here is that visits to the slums made by the middle class at usual times are rare, but at Christmas time, there would be some visits.


Paragraph 73

Paragraph 7

Slum (l.33) -- a thickly populated, squalid part of a city inhabited by the poorest people. In many cities in the U.S., particularly in the East and the Middle West, slums developed where unemployment led to great suffering and over-crowdedness; moreover, pauperism and crime are widespread.

Ghetto (l.35) -- In former times, in most European countries, a section of a city inhabited by Jews. In the U.S. today, a thickly populated slum area in a city inhabited predominantly by a minority group.

In the U.S., ghetto is a term used to describe segregated residential areas in the northern U.S. They are typically overcrowded, and have poor housing and high unemployment. They are largely a result of segregation.


Paragraph 74

Paragraph 7

  • tenement (l.36):a large building divided into apartments, usually in a poor area of a city

  • 廉租公寓

  • hovel (l.52): a small hut, especially one which is dirty or needs a lot of repair

  • shantytown: a part of a city or town made up of poorly-built huts, cabins, or houses 棚户区


Paragraph 8

Paragraph 8

  • Suburbia (l.39): noun [U](kind of life lived by, characteristic outlook of, people in) suburbs,narrow in interests and outlook (usually derogatory)

  • 郊外,郊区居民的生活及见识,兴趣及见识偏狭

  • *suburb: (noun [C])

  • the suburbs in Line 47


Paragraph 81

Paragraph 8

  • glimpse (l.40): (noun [C])

  • see something or someone for a very short time. He caught / got a glimpse of her as she got into the car.

  • … may catch the merest glimpse of the other America … (line 40) Q: What can we suggest from the superlative form of “ mere”?

  • The chances for the middle-class women to meet the poor are extremely rare.

  • the failures (l.43): people who fail in doing what they expect to do; unsuccessful people


Paragraph 7 8

Paragraph 7- 8

  • What does “city transformation” refer to?

city transformation:

the poor still live in the miserable housing in the central area of a city while the affluent middle class have moved from cities to the suburbs, so there is little chance for them to meet each other.


Paragraph 7 81

Paragraph 7- 8

  • Q: How do you explain the shift of verb tenses as Harrington proceeds from Para. 7 to Para. 8?

  • The verb tense shifts from the past time in Para. 7 to the present time in Para. 8. This indicates that things happened only in the past and happens no more now.

  • To be more exact, in the past, there were many chances for the middle class to meet the poor intentionally or unintentionally because they lived not far away from each other.

  • But things are different now. The American city transformation isolates the poor from sight of the middle class because the middle class has moved out and lived in the suburbs, while the poor still live in the central area of the city.


Paragraph 101

Paragraph 10

  • compound (line 48)

  • 1) (formal) Verb, used in the passive voice: make worse by adding to;

  • Her terror was compounded by the feeling that she was being watched.His financial problems were compounded when he unexpectedly lost his job.His difficulty was compounded by a sense of insecurity.

  • 2) noun [C]: an enclosed area which contains a group of buildings:The gates opened and the troops marched into their compound.The embassy compound has been closed to the public because of a bomb threat.

  • 3) adjective: consisting of two or more parts:Many insects have compound eyes.


Paragraph 102

Paragraph 10

  • This new segregation of poverty is compounded by a well-meaning ignorance. (Line 48)

  • Questions:

  • 1. What does “new segregation” refer to?

  • 2. What causes “this newsegregation of poverty”?

  • 3. What does “a well-meaning ignorance” refer to?


Paragraph 103

Paragraph 10

  • “This new segregation” refers to the segregation of the poor from the affluent middle class mentioned in the previous two paragraphs.

  • “New” presupposes “old” segregation between the white and the colored people.


Paragraph 104

Paragraph 10

  • What causes “this newsegregation of poverty”?

The cause of this new segregation of the poor from the affluent is: city transformation:

the poor still live in the miserable housing in the central area of a city while the affluent middle class have moved out to the suburbs, so there is little chance for them to meet each other.


Paragraph 105

Paragraph 10

  • What does “a well-meaning ignorance” refer to?

“Well-meaning ignorance” refers to the lack of awareness of the existence of poverty on the part of the middle class because of their optimistic ideas about urban renewal(城市出新).

The middle class hear much about urban renewal, and when they see a slum torn down and modern buildings stand in its place, they feel gratified, thinking that the poor are being taken care of, not knowing the truth that more and more poor people are being squeezed into existing slums.


Paragraph 12

Paragraph 12

  • Pay attention to the demonstrative pronouns (指示代词) in this paragraph. What do they refer to?

  • “this” in line 62:

  • “that moment” in line 64:

  • “this process” in line 66:


Paragraph 121

Paragraph 12

  • This process has been magnified with the poor throughout the country (l.66):

  • This process of having the poor disappear from the public sight by masking them with decent dresses has been developing rapidly all over the country.

  • magnify: verb [T] 1) to make an object look larger than it is by looking through special equipment The cells are first magnified under a microscope.2) to make a bad situation worse All your problems are magnified when you're ill.


Para 131

Para. 13

  • Another group of them live out their lives in loneliness and frustration: … (line 74)

  • Live out one’s life: live to the end of one’s life过一辈子

  • If you live out your life in a particular place or in particular circumstances, you stay in that place or in those circumstances until the end of your life or until the end of a particular period of your life.

  • Grein did not stand trial but lived out his days in a mental asylum.

  • I couldn''t live my life out on tour like he does.

  • I suppose some people create an idea of who they want to be, and then they live it out.


Para 132

Para. 13

  • … these people are out of sight and out of mind,… (line 77)

  • Out of sight and out of mind:

  • (proverb) what is not seen is soon forgotten. 看不见的人或东西很快就会被遗忘


Paras 13 14

Paras. 13 & 14

  • Question:

  • What are the age groups where poverty is more likely to be neglected? Why are they not easy to be seen?

    --- the groups of people at 65 years of age or better and those under 18

    --- the aged poor: sick, can’t move, live in loneliness, stay in the neighborhood

    --- the young poor: stay close to their neighborhood, not disturb the middle class and remain unnoticed except when they commit gang killing


Para 154

Para. 15:

  • What are the words illustrating “no face” and “no voice” ?

    no face: no unions, organizations, political parties, or lobbies; atomized

    no voice: unable to speak for themselves, no legislative program


Paragraph 16

Paragraph 16

  • How do you understand the sentence “there is not even a cynical political motive for caring about the poor, as in the old days”? (l.87):

  • In the old days, there might be some concern for the poor shown by some people to achieve their own purposes. Their motive of doing so would be cynical, or doubtful. But today, there is not even that kind of concern.


Paragraph 17

Paragraph 17

  • articulate the needs of the poor (l.98): express clearly and effectively the needs of the poor

  • articulate: express thoughts and feelings clearly

  • E.g.: He was so despondent(沮丧的,泄气的)that he could hardly articulate his distress.

  • Articulate is often used in language learning, meaning “pronounce distinctly, clearly, and carefully.” E.g.:

  • Josephine articulates every word carefully.

  • She has good articulation.


Paras 15 17

Paras. 15-17

  • Why are the poor politically invisible?

They are unable to speak for themselves because they have no face, no voice.

No politicians care about them because their slums are no longer the centers of powerful political organizations, only those unions without any great political power articulate their needs.


Paragraph 18

Paragraph 18

  • in the old rhetoric of reform (l.101):

  • reform in the old days that was stated in a language that was fine to hear or read but that really did not mean much

  • 以往粉饰太平的改革


Paragraph 181

Paragraph 18

  • rhetoric (noun [U])

  • 1) speech or writing which is intended to be effective and persuasive:How far the president will be able to translate his campaign rhetoric into action remains to be seen.I was swayed by her rhetoric into donating all my savings to the charity.

  • 2) (Derogatory) clever language which sounds good but is not sincere or has no real meaning:In reply to the question, he just produced a lot of empty (= meaningless) rhetoric.


Paragraph 182

Paragraph 18

  • But in this context, “rhetoric” is used in its derogatory sense, meaning “speech of writing that sounds fine and important, but is really insincere or without meaning.”


V vocabulary exercise1

V. Vocabulary Exercise

  • 1.connection

  • involvement

  • 2. sensational, shocking

  • lurid

  • 3. roads with deep, narrow marks made by the wheels of vehicles

  • rutted roads

  • 4. writings about reform in the past that sounded fine and important, but were really insincere and meaningless

  • old rhetoric of reform


V vocabulary exercise2

V. Vocabulary Exercise

  • 5. lasting forever or for a long time

  • perennial

  • 6. people who have lost all their possessions

  • dispossessed

  • 7. a large building, especially one in the poor part of a city, which is divided into small flats which are rented cheaply

  • tenement

  • 8. relating to human experience (a formal word)

  • existential


V vocabulary exercise3

V. Vocabulary Exercise

  • 9. make worse by adding something to … (often used in the passive)

  • compound

  • 10. be freed from a duty, service, payment, etc.

  • be exempt from

  • 11. wealthy, prosperous

  • affluent

  • 12. doubtful as to whether something will happen or whether it is worthwhile

  • cynical


Paragraph unity

Paragraph unity

  • A number of other techniques that you can use to establish coherence in paragraphs are described below.

  • 1. Repeat key words or phrases.

  • Particularly in paragraphs in which you define or identify an important idea or theory, be consistent in how you refer to it. This consistency and repetition will bind the paragraph together and help your reader understand your definition or description.

  • Example: P56


Paragraph unity1

Paragraph unity

  • 2. Create parallel structures.

  • Parallel structures are created by constructing two or more phrases or sentences that have the same grammatical structure and use the same parts of speech.

  • Example:

  • “I have a dream” on page 191: para.2 & para.19


Paragraph unity2

Paragraph unity

  • 3. Be consistent in point of view, verb tense, and number.

  • Consistency in point of view, verb tense, and number is a subtle but important aspect of coherence. If you shift from the more personal "you" to the impersonal “one,” from past to present tense, or from “a man” to “they,” for example, you make your paragraph less coherent. Such inconsistencies can also confuse your reader and make your argument more difficult to follow.


Paragraph unity3

Paragraph unity

  • 4. Use transition words or phrases between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitional expressions emphasize the relationships between ideas, so they help readers follow your train of thought or see connections that they might otherwise miss or misunderstand.


Paragraph unity4

Paragraph unity

  • Please turn to page 50, and read the passage “organization and development”. Try to answer the following questions:

  • 1. What is the definition of transitional words and phrases?

  • 2. What are the roles of transitional words and phrases in text?


Transitions and cohesion

Transitions and cohesion 过渡词与衔接

  • 1. What are transitional words and phrases?

  • Transitional words and phrases, also termed logical connectors or conjunctions by some authors, refer to those words and phrases usually used at the beginning of a sentence or a paragraph to indicate the semantic relation between consecutive sentences paragraphs.


Transitions and cohesion1

Transitions and cohesion 过渡词与衔接

  • 2. What are the roles of transitional words and phrases in text?

  • They act as the links between paragraphs and as indicators pointing out the direction in which the discourse is developing.

  • With the help of these “sign posts”, the reader can more easily follow the train of thoughts of the writer and thus more easily perceive the coherence (连贯) of the writing.


Transitions and cohesion2

Transitions and cohesion 过渡词与衔接

  • 3. SOME USEFUL TRANSITIONS (modified from Diana Hacker, A Writer’s Reference)

  • To Indicate Time: before, after, during, first, second, next, now, then, later, last, finally, eventually

  • To Signal Conflict or Contrast:but, although, nevertheless, however, conversely, on the other hand, yet, otherwise, in contrast, unfortunately, instead

  • To Mark Additional information: also, moreover, in addition, furthermore, and

  • To Compare: likewise, similarly, in the same manner


Transitions and cohesion3

Transitions and cohesion 过渡词与衔接

  • To Show Examples: for example, for instance

  • To Mark Importance: above all, in fact, most importantly, especially, in particular, best of all, worst of all

  • To Show Cause or Effect: because, for, in order to/that, therefore, hence, as a result, consequently, accordingly

  • To Indicate Summary or Conclusion:therefore, consequently, in conclusion, in a word, to sum up, in sum, finally, in conclusion, to sum it up


Transitions and cohesion4

Transitions and cohesion 过渡词与衔接

  • To show place or direction:

  • above, below, beyond, close, elsewhere, farther on, here, nearby, opposite, to the left (north, etc.)

  • To indicate logical relationship:

  • accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus


Transitions and cohesion5

Transitions and cohesion 过渡词与衔接

  • Pronouns, especially the demonstrative pronouns(指示代词) this and that (also these and those), used at the beginning of a paragraph, also have an important role to play in joining the paragraphs, thus enhancing coherence.


Transitions and cohesion6

Transitions and cohesion 过渡词与衔接

  • The text is a good example of coherence and cohesion. One paragraph is well linked to another. Read through the text very quickly and underline the words or expressions that function as cohesive links. Explain the logical relation involved.


Transitional words and phrases in text

Transitional words and phrases in text

  • 4. A remarkable feature of Harrington’s writing is his abundant use of such “linking items”. The paragraphs listed below all begin with such words, or phrases. Try to explain how they function in the overall organization of the text (Exercise onP. 50, Student’s Book):

  • Para. 5: Then, too …

  • Para 6: These are normal and obvious causes of the invisibility of the poor.

  • Para 8: Now the American city has been transformed.

  • Para 9: In short …

  • Para 10: This new segregation …

  • Para 11: The irony in this …

  • Para 12: This is an extremely important factor …

  • Para 13: Then …

  • Para 15: And finally


V sa to organization and development p 50 student s book

V. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book

  • Para. 5: The word “too” indicates furtherance. In this case, it tells the reader what the paragraph deals with is similar to what has been dealt with. The fact is, in this paragraph, we find another perennial reason why poverty is invisible in America.

  • Para. 6: The pronoun “these” can point both backward and forward. In this case it points backward, i.e. “these” refer to the perennial reasons that have been explained in the previous two paragraphs.


V sa to organization and development p 50 student s book1

V. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book

  • Para. 8: “Now” indicates a change of direction. The writer is going to turn from the “perennial” to the “present”.

  • Para. 9: “In short” is used to summarize. What follows is a brief summary of what has just been said, i.e. the effect urban development has on the invisibility of the poor.


V sa to organization and development p 50 student s book2

V. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book

  • Para. 10: “This new segregation” refers to the segregation of the poor from the affluent mentioned in the previous two paragraphs. The segregation is “new” because there has been the “old” notorious segregation of the colored people from the white


V sa to organization and development p 50 student s book3

V. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book

  • Para. 11: The word “this” in “The irony in this” refers to the last sentence of the last paragraph. i.e. “There is a warm feeling of satisfaction, of pride in the way things are working out: the poor, it is obvious, are being taken care of”. Can they be taken care of when they are even invisible?


V sa to organization and development p 50 student s book4

V. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book

  • Para. 12: “This” in “This is an extremely important factor …” refers to the last sentence of the last paragraph, i.e. “Even people with terribly depressed incomes can look prosperous.”

  • Para. 13: The word “then” here has nothing to do with its basic meaning, i.e. a specific point of time either in the past or in the future. Here it is used in the sense of “besides”, showing that there is another reason why the poor are invisible.


V sa to organization and development p 50 student s book5

V. SA to Organization and Development, P. 50, Student’s Book

  • Para. 15: “And finally” here is, as usual, used to show that we have come to the last point in our exposition. Here the writer is going to tell us that the poor are not only materially and emotionally invisible, but they are also politically invisible, i.e. their voice is not heard.


Writing

Writing

  • Task 1: Discussion

  • Work in groups to analyze the poverty in China from a more professional point of view:

  • 1. giving evidence to prove its existence;

  • 2. analyzing causes and effects

  • 3. finding possible solutions.


Writing1

Writing

  • Task 2: Writing

  • Write a cause-and–effect paper with the title “poverty in China”. Pay attention to:

  • 1. cause-and–effect pattern;

  • 2. the topic sentence, the controlling idea;

  • 3. the transitional words and phrases between sentences and paragraphs.

  • 4. use various techniques to establish coherence in paragraphs

  • 注意:请将文中的topic sentences 用下划线标识出来,controlling ideas用双下划线标识; 段与段之间的transitional words and phrases用红笔标识。


Vii sa to ex ii p 37 workbook give the implied meaning of the following

VII. SA to Ex. II, P. 37, Workbook: Give the implied meaning of the following.

  • 1. Beauty and myths are perennial masks of poverty. (para. 5)

  • Beauty refers to the beautiful environment. Specifically it refers to the hills, the streams, the foliage in the lovely season in the area of the Appalachians Mountains. Myths refer to Rousseau’s concept of the “primitive man,” a person who was admired for his supposedly simple and pure life, and who was exempt from the strains and tension of the middle class. Specially they refer to the run-down mountain houses, supposedly the abode(住所) of the fortunate people.


Vii sa to ex ii p 37 workbook give the implied meaning of the following1

VII. SA to Ex. II, P. 37, Workbook: Give the implied meaning of the following.

  • When the traveler comes to the Appalachians, he will see the beauty of nature, and the run-down houses remind him of the “primitive man.” He does not know that the people living in the area are actually undereducated, underprivileged; in other words, they are poor. So outward beauty of nature and false beliefs in the “primitive man” are misleading --- they simply cover up the truth --- the existence of poverty.


Vii sa to ex ii p 37 workbook

VII. SA to Ex. II, P. 37, Workbook

  • 2.This new segregation of poverty is compounded by a well-meaning ignorance. (para. 10)

  • The segregation of the poor from the affluent is new because the poor still live in the miserable housing in the central area of a city while the affluent middle class have moved out to the suburbs, so there is little chance for the affluent to see the poor.

  • Well-meaning ignorance refers to the lack of awareness of the existence of poverty on the part of the middle class who actually have good intentions.


Vii sa to ex ii p 37 workbook1

VII. SA to Ex. II, P. 37, Workbook

  • The middle class hear much about urban renewal, and when they see a slum torn down and modern buildings stand in its place, they feel gratified, thinking that the poor are being taken care of, not knowing that more and more poor people are being squeezed into existing slums.


Viii sa to ex iii p 37 workbook translate the following into english

VIII. SA to Ex. III, P. 37, Workbook: Translate the following into English.

  • 1. Can I be exempt from the regular physical examination this year? I just had one three months ago before I went to the summer camp.

  • 2. Could you tell me again what I should do next? What you said yesterday has slipped out of my mind.

  • 3. We all assumed that Dave was a trustworthy person, but it turned out that we were wrong.


Viii sa to ex iii p 37 workbook translate the following into english1

VIII. SA to Ex. III, P. 37, Workbook: Translate the following into English.

  • 4. His misfortune was compounded by his wife’s illness and his loss of job.

  • 5. Whether or not there are living beings in outer space is of perennial interest to man.

  • 6. When you are under great strain, you will not be able to think clearly.

  • 7. Jim tends to lose his temper when his advice is not heeded.

  • 8. In spite of his great leaning, the teacher finds it difficult to articulate his students’ needs.


A new english course

  • The End of Unit 4

  • Thanks!


Unit five

Unit Five

The Plug-in Drug:

TV and the American Family (Part I)

Marie Winn


A new english course

  • The development of TV industry

  • TV broadcasting began in the U.S. in 1941.

  • In 1946, after World War Ⅱended, TV began to grow rapidly.

  • By 1975, almost 127 million sets were in use.

  • By the 1970’s almost 100% of all wired homes in the U.S. had at least one TV set.


The importance of tv in american live

The importance of TV in American live

  • Television historian and critic Jeff Greenfield places television with the automobile as one of the two “transforming devices of American life.”

  • “With the single exception of the workplace, television is the dominant force in American life today. It is our marketplace, our political forum, our playground, and our school; it is our theater, our recreation, our link to reality, and our escape from it. It is the device through which our assumptions are reflected. It is the single binding thread of this country, the one experience that touches young and old, rich and poor, learned and illiterate”.

  • In fact TV has become the American’s eyes and ears.


About tv watching

About TV-watching

  • “We think basically you watch television to turn your brain off, and you work on your computer when you want to turn your brain on.”

    Steve Jobs

  • 我们认为看电视的时候,人的大脑基本停止工作,打开电脑的时候,大脑才开始运转。

  • Reams of academic studies over the decades have amply confirmed television's pernicious mental and moral influences. And most TV watchers know that their habit is mind-numbing and wasteful, but still spend most of their time in front of that box. So turn your TV off and save some brain cells.

  • 过去十年中,大量的理论研究表明,电视对人的精神和心智是有害的。大多数电视观众都知道这个坏习惯会浪费时间并且使大脑变得迟钝,但是他们还是选择呆在电视机前面。关掉电视吧,给自己省点脑细胞。

  • But be cautious, you can turn your brain off by using a computer also. Try and have an intelligent conversation with someone who plays first person shooters for eight hours a day. Or auto race games, or role-playing games.

  • 还有,电脑也会让你的大脑停止工作,不信的话你去跟那些一天花8小时玩第一射手游戏、汽车拉力游戏、角色扮演游戏的人聊聊看,你也会得出这个结论的。


About the author

Marie Winn

(1936, Prague, Czechoslovakia )Marie Winn, a journalist, author and birdwatcher, is known for her books and articles on the birds of Central Park, for her Wall Street Journal ornithology (scientific study of birds) column, for her critical coverage of television. She is the author of The playground Book, The Sick Book, The Baby Reader, and other books for parents and children.

About the author


A new english course

This selection is taken from The Plug-in Drug, published in 1977.

In 2002, she added new material to update the study as The Plug-In Drug: Television, Computers, and Family Life, published on the 25th anniversary of the original book.


Organization cause and effect pattern

Organization: Cause and effect pattern

  • In-class task:

  • Please turn to Page 64 and read the passage “Cause and Effect”. Then try to identify the paragraph(s) that is (are) devoted to the effects and impacts listed on page 64.

  • Part A: Opening (cause) – ? paragraph(s)

  • Part B: Positive effects – ? paragraph(s)

  • Part C: Negative effects – ? paragraph(s)

  • Part D: Closing (impacts) – ? paragraph(s)


A new english course

Organization and main idea of the text

  • 1. Opening part (Paragraph1)

  • The introduction of television into American society (cause)


A new english course

Organization and main idea of the text

  • 2. Body part (paragraph 2- 14)

  • A. Positive effects (Para. 2-5)

  • 1) A wonderful improvement in the change of children’s habits

  • 2) A good means to bring the family together

  • Transition (Para. 6) : from positive effects to negative effects

  • B. Negative effects (Para. 7-14)

  • 1) Too much time devoted by children toTV-watching

  • 2) A general lack of communication within peer groups

  • 3) A widening gap in the relations between children and their parents

  • 4) Traditional family concept being challenged and culture change


A new english course

3. Closing part (Para. 15-17)

A. Impact on children:

A drastic change in their life and personality; the process

that transforms children into people being hindered

B. Impact on family and family life:

Ever-loosening family ties


Iii detailed reading

III. Detailed Reading

  • 1. Important language points

  • The plug-in drug (in the title)

  • plug (sth) in/plug (sth) into sth:to connect an electrical device to an electrical system or device so that it can be used, by pushing its plug into a socket:

  • Of course the radio isn't working - you haven't plugged it in!

  • Can you show me where the microphone plugs into the tape recorder?

  • “the plug-in drug” is a term used by the author to refer to TV which works when it is plugged in.


Paragraph 1

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  • Analyze the structure of the first sentence and then translate it into Chinese.


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  • A period that has seen the medium become ...:

  • see sb/sth.do 见到/见证...

  • 1. During the nearly ten-year-old war in Afghanistan, Kabul, has avoided much of the violence that the rest of the country has endured. But this summer has seen the Taliban strike the Afghan capital.

  • 2. The ancient Thai city of Ayutthaya, which has seen its temple engulfed in the kingdom's flood crisis, has discovered a new menace lurking in the floodwaters -- crocodiles.


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  • 译文:

  • 在电视引入美国社会后的25年中,(这一时期,)电视已经如此根深蒂固地深入美国人的生活,至少有一个州将它列为法定的必需品,它与衣服,炊具之类一样不会在负债清偿时被人拿走,看电视已经成为人们日常生活中必不可少、普普通通的一部份。


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  • … that has seen the medium become so deeply ingrained in American life …(l.2): TV has become an indispensable part of American life, so much so that it cannot be done away with.

  • medium: noun [C] plural: media or mediums

  • ingrained (l.2): (adj.)If habits and beliefs are ingrained, they are so fixed that they are difficult to change or to destroy. E.g.

  • The belief that one should work hard is ingrained in our culture.

  • Both responses reflect the deeply ingrained prejudice of many Chinese against the humanities - and are grossly erroneous .

  • 这两种看法反映了很多中国人对人文学科的根深蒂固的偏见——这是极为错误的。

    deep-rooted prejudice根深蒂固的偏见;

    deep-seated differences of opinion根深蒂固的观点差异;

    implanted convictions坚定的信念;

    deeply ingrained habits of a lifetime终生的习惯;

    a deeply planted need根深蒂固的贫困


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  • “TV set has attained the rank of a legal necessity, safe from repossession in case of debt along with clothes, cooking utensils, and the like…” (l.3-4):

  • The TV set has become so important in the life of a family that its possession is guaranteed by law. Even when a person is in debt, it can’t be taken away from him by whomever he owes a debt, along with clothes, cooking instruments, and the like.

  • safe from repossession: protected from repossession, that is, a claim / a demand made by the original owner to regain the possession of …


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Paragraph 1

  • (be) safe from ...: be free from, be protected from 不受...侵害/危及/影响

  • Thai officials are assuring the public that Bangkok is safe from flooding as they continue to build up barriers and mobilize relief efforts.

  • Based on results from surveillance, poultry on the mainland is basically safe from bird flu infections

  • Bees hover around low-growing clover and yellow jackets actually live in the ground. Keep those tender feet safe from stingers by wearing shoes on grassy fields or lawns.

  • Cf: Are these toys safe for small children?


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  • “myopia”: (Specialized) not able to see clearly things that are far away (医学用语)近视

  • Synonyms: nearsightedness, short sight

  • myopia: (Disapproving) unable to understand a situation or the way actions will affect it in the future引申为“目光短浅”(贬义词)

  • political myopia(政治上的短视)

  • spiritual myopia(精神上缺乏远见)。“myopic”: (adj.) nearsighted, shortsighted


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  • afflict: (vt.) cause trouble, pain, distress to sb; suffer from, e.g.

    He felt much afflicted at (by) the sad news.

    听到那个坏消息他感到很难过。

    A nightmare afflicts me from time to time. 恶梦不时折磨着我。

    Unemployment afflicts 12 million workers in that country.

    在那个国家120万工人深受失业之苦。


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Question: Why does Winn accuse the early observers of myopia?

The early observers saw only the favorable effects of TV and none of them was sufficiently far-sighted to predict the negative effects of TV in the future. That is why they are accused of myopia, i.e.,

short-sightedness.


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Paragraph 1

  • wondrous (l.10): adjective, extremely and surprisingly good:

  • a wondrous sight/sound/thing

  • Our new improved face cream has wondrous effects on tired-looking skin.

  • Wondrous is a formal or literary word. Wonderful is the more usual word.


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  • …the changes TV would effect upon child-rearing methods … (l.28);

  • … the possible effects of so much TV viewing…( in Para. 7, l.32):

  • “effect” is both a noun and a verb. Note the difference between them. Examples:

  • effect : [T] verb (FORMAL), to cause sth. to happen and achieve something :

  • We have tried our best to effect a reconciliation between the two parties.

  • 我们尽全力促成双方的和解。

  • They tried to effect the rescue (cause the rescue to happen) of the hostages held by the terrorists.

  • 他们尽力解救被恐怖份子扣押的人质。


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  • Compare affect and effect:

  • 1. affect is the usual verb and effect is the usual noun:

  • Government policy will not affect (V.) us = will not have any effect (n.) on us.

  • 2. effect used as a verb is very formal and means “to bring about, usually according to one’s wishes”:

  • He was able to effect certain changes (bring about certain changes) in government policy.

  • 他能够引起政策的某些改变。/ 他有能力给政策带来某些改变。


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  • a steady refrain helped to soothe and reassure anxious parents (l.33):

  • a remark repeated on and on to comfort anxious parents and make them feel less worried

  • refrain:noun [C]1 a short part of a song or poem that is repeated, especially at the end of each verse (= the separate parts)诗歌每节收尾的重复

  • 2 a phrase that is often repeated (often derogatorily ):一再重复的话

  • Shielding the middle class from higher taxes was one of then-candidate Obama's most-repeated refrains last year.

  • refrain:verb [FORMAL],to avoid doing or hold yourself back from doing something:We refrained from talking until we knew that it was safe.The sign on the wall said "Please refrain from smoking."


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  • a steady refrain helped to soothe and reassure anxious parents (l.33):

  • a remark repeated on and on to comfort anxious parents and make them feel less worried

  • soothe: verb [T], to make someone feel calm or less worried:to soothe a crying baby

  • reassure: verb [T], to comfort someone and stop them from worrying:[+ to infinitive] I was nervous on my first day at college, but I was reassured to see some friendly faces.[+ (that)] He reassured me (that) my cheque would arrive soon.


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  • a pattern of influences (l.34): a way in which various factors/elements exert their influences. The source of influences are given after the colon in the sentence, namely, the home, the peer group, etc.


Paragraph 82

Paragraph 8

  • The peer group has become television-oriented, and much of the time children spend together is occupied by television viewing (l.40-41): Children have become television addicts, devoting much of the time when they are together to watching TV.

  • Examples to show the use of –oriented:

  • Human oriented design 人性化设计;

  • Shift the basic education from test-oriented (exam-oriented) education/ school system to quality-oriented one.

  • 基础教育由应试教育向素质教育转变

  • The essential connotation of enterprise culture is people- oriented.

  • 企业文化的本质内涵是“以人为本”。


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  • Chi Fulin, head of the China Institute for Reform and Development, said the establishment of more public services and a  public service-oriented government  will lay the foundation for boosting domestic demand.

  • 中国改革发展研究院院长迟福林表示,建立更多公共服务设施以及建设公共服务型政府将为扩大内需奠定基础。


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  • Examples to show the use of –oriented:

  • More and more women now tend to seek a “budget husband””(“经适男” ) instead of wealthy husband(金龟婿) just as home buyers now look for budget houses (经济适用房) rather than villas during the economic crisis. Although not earning a lot, the budget husbands don't have bad habits such as drinking, smoking or gambling and are family-oriented (顾家).

  • The term “lever women” (“杠杆女”) refers to wives or girlfriends who play their advantages to the full to help their husbands or boyfriends succeed in careers. Such women are compared to levers to lift their husbands or boyfriends.


Paragraph 9

Paragraph 9

  • TV’s contribution to family life has been an equivocal one (l.47): (电视对家庭生活的影响是有争议的。 )

  • It is questionable whether TV has made a positive or negative influence on family life.

  • equivocal: (adjective; FORMAL) questionable, ambiguous. E.g.:

  • The ancient oracles were often vague and equivocal.

  • 古代的神谕常是意义模糊和模棱两可的。

  • The court took the view that the defendant 's plea was equivocal.

  • 法院持有这样的观点,即被告的答辩是模棱两可的.

  • On matters of principle we should be clear-cut in attitude, and by no means be equivocal.   

  • 在原则问题上, 我们必须态度鲜明, 决不能模棱两可。


Paragraph 91

Paragraph 9

  • How do you interpret the seemingly paradoxical statement “While it has, indeed, kept the members of the family from dispersing, it has not served to bring them together” (line 48)?

TV helps to keep all the family members in the house in a physical sense. But they are not really doing things together. Instead, they watch their own favorite programs with little interaction between them. In this sense the TV undermines the relationships between family members.


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  • cast a spell (咒语,魔法) on: to use words thought to be magic, especially in order to have an effect on someone (对……下魔咒,施法术):

  • The old witch cast a spell on the prince and he turned into a frog.

  • The witch cackled as she cast her spell on the love potion. "Now the prince will fall in love with me", she said.

  • 在给那瓶爱情魔药施展法术时,巫婆咯咯地笑了起来。“这下王子会爱上我了吧”,她说。

  • love potion: a spell that makes someone fall in love with you when they drink it 爱情魔药

  • At 17 jazz cast its spell on me (= I started to like it very much). (FIGURATIVE)


A new english course

  • break the spell: 打破了魔咒。spell在这里是“魔咒,咒语”的意思。例如:speak the spell over sb.(对某人念咒语)。

  • spell还可以表示“魔力,魅力,诱惑力,吸引力”。例如:The prince fell under the spell of her beauty.(王子被她的美貌所迷住。)

  • 我们可以用under a spell来表示某人“被迷住”。看一下例子:

  • The explorer's story held the children under a spell.

  • 探险家的故事把孩子们给迷住了。


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  • “…the television set casts its magic spell, freezing speech and action, turning the living into silent statues so long as the enchantment lasts …” (l.53-54):

  • Q1: Which kind of figure of speech is used in this sentence?

  • Q2: Can you explain this sentence?

  • Figure of speech: Simile

  • TV seems to have magic power over people.As soon as TV is on, people stop talking and doing anything else, growing to be lifeless statues before the TV screen. They will remain so till the end of the program.


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  • The primary danger … lies not so much in the behavior it produces as in the behavior it prevents… through which much of the child’s learning takes place and through which his character is formed.

    Q1: What is the behavior that TV screen produces?

    Q2: What is the behavior that TV screen prevents?


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Q: Which is more dangerous, the behavior TV produces or the behavior it prevents? Why?

Watching TV is itself dangerous, but what is more dangerous is that it prevents the talks, the games, the family festivities and arguments. Children can learn a lot from all these activities, and they form their character to some extent in the process of these activities.


Paragraph 1010

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  • Turning on the TV can turn off the process that transforms children into people (l.58-59):

  • The moment a child sits down to watch television is the moment his grown towards maturity is suspended.


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  • Stint (l. 85): noun [C], a fixed or limited period of time spent doing a particular job or activity:

  • He has just finished a stint of compulsory military service.

  • 他刚服完定期的义务兵役。


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  • Stint (l. 85): noun [C], a fixed or limited period of time spent doing a particular job or activity:

  • The former president (George W. Bush ) has mostly shied from the limelight since leaving office -- except for a high-profile stint raising money to help Haiti recover from a devastating earthquake -- and kept a low political profile.

  • 前总统布什自离任后极少公开露面,一直保持低调的政治姿态,但在海地强震后的一段时期,曾为帮助募集善款而高调亮相。

  • Local media said former Boca Juniors coach Carlos Bianchi, who led the team to a string of national and continental titles in two stints between 1998 and 2004, was a popular favorite to replace Maradona.

  • 当地媒体称,前博卡青年队主帅卡洛斯•比安奇是接任马拉多纳的热门人选。比安奇曾在1998至2004年执教博卡青年队的两届任期内率队夺得多个国内联赛冠军和洲际冠军。


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  • The children’s evening is regimented with an almost military precision. (l.89):

  • the children’s activities in the evening are arranged in such an exact way that they were almost like military actions.

  • Note the use of words related to the military to be in harmony with what the mother said about the “war, battles, and skirmishes” in paragraph 13.


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  • Their mother does not see anything amiss with watching programs just for the sake of watching (l.91-92):

  • amiss: [adjective], wrong; not suitable or not as expected:

  • I could see by the look on their faces that something was amiss.

  • take sth. amiss: to be offended by something that someone has said to you因某事见怪:

  • I was worried that he might take my words amiss.

  • Don't take itamiss if I point out your errors.   

  • 如果我指出你的错误,那么请你不要生气。


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  • for the sake of … :

  • for the welfare or benefit of为了……的好处;

  • because of an interest in or desire for处于对……的兴趣

  • It is men who are more likely to talk for the sake of talking when engaged in social chit-chat by recycling their words with ritualistic and redundant language that doesn't contain new information.

  • 在社交场合闲聊时,男性更可能只是为聊天而聊天。他们一般只是重复那些多余的、不包含任何新信息的礼节性语言


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  • Some say their "bargain mentality" encourages rational spending, but others also warn against rash and unnecessary consumption - buying for the sake of coupons.

  • 有人说他们的这种“占便宜心理”促进了理性消费,不过,也有人提醒要小心为了优惠券而购物这样的冲动购物行为和不必要的消费。

  • The coupon-crazed tribe(淘券族)


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  • Without conjuring up memories of the Victorian era with family games and long, leisurely meals, and large families, the question arises…(l.94-95):

  • without calling to mind what happened in the Victorian era with family games and long, leisurely meals, and large families …

  • The Victorian era of the UK was the period of Queen Victoria’s rule from June 1837 to January 1901. Family games, long leisurely meals, and large families characterize the family life of that era.


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  • conjure up: to make a picture or idea appear in someone's mind. E. g.:

  • Can you conjureup a picture of the imperial life in ancient Egypt ?

  • 你能想象出一幅古埃及宫廷生活的图画吗?

  • The Oscar program frequently conjured up images and music from Oscar-winning film blockbusters of yore (long ago) , from "Gone with the Wind" to "Star Wars" and "Titanic."

  • 颁奖典礼上不时回放以前的一些奥斯卡获奖大片中的图像和音乐,包括《乱世佳人》、《星球大战》和《泰坦尼克号》等。


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  • That spontaneous taking up of an activity (l.101): taking part in an activity without planning or preparation beforehand.

  • spontaneous: adjective, happening or done in a natural, often sudden way, without any planning or without being forced.

  • Hundreds of New York subway riders, unencumbered by skirts, trousers or modesty, took part in a spontaneous showing of leg despite sub-freezing temperatures.

  • 尽管气温降到了零下,但数百名纽约地铁乘客仍然脱掉裙子、长裤,抛开羞怯,参与到自发组织的“无裤日”活动中来。


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  • On the spur of the moment (l.101): with a sudden tendency to act without thinking much, on a sudden impulse; on a whim

  • "For instance, we know that mental disorders like depression or alcohol use disorders play a major role in European countries, for instance," said Alexandra Fleischmann. "But, we have to also look at Asian countries where impulsiveness plays a much more important role, which is that suicide can happen on the spur of the moment."

  • The study found triggers such as receiving birthday money, coming into an unexpected windfall such as cash back from a company, or a small win on the lottery often result in spur of the moment purchases.

  • 研究发现,收到生日礼金、或是得到一些意外之财,例如公司返还现金或中了小额彩票等,这些通常都会诱发冲动消费。

  • He told us it was not a spur-of-the-moment decision taken just after the game. We regret this decision very much but we have to accept it.  


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  • shunt (l.108): to move someone or something from one place to another, usually because they are not wanted and without consideration of any unpleasant effects:

  • I spent most of my childhood being shunted (about) between my parents who had divorced when I was five.

  • He shunts his kids off to a camp every summer.

  • 每年夏天,他都将孩子们打发到夏令营去。


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  • Parents accede to those demands (l.111): parents agree to those demands

  • 1. accede to sth: to agree to do what people have asked you to do:He graciously acceded to our request.同意It is doubtful whether the government will ever accede to the nationalists' demands for independence.

  • 2. accede to the throne/accede to power to become king or queen, or to take a position of power:继承王位,掌权The diaries were written in 1837 when Queen Victoria acceded to the throne.(继承王位)

  • 3. accede to: to join a group of people, countries, etc., in an agreement加入In addition, China has decided toaccedeto the Information Technology Agreement and started negotiations on relevant issues.

  • 此外,中国决定加入《信息技术协议》,并就有关事宜开始谈判。


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  • Its backlog of shared experiences (l.113):

  • the amount of shared experiences that a family must accumulate but has not yet accumulated

  • backlog: noun [C usually singular],a large amount of things that you should have done before and must do now:

  • After the postal strike there was a huge backlog of undelivered mail.

  • 邮政部门罢工以后, 大量邮件积压下来.


Paragraph 174

Paragraph 17

  • Many European flights took to the skies Tuesday for the first time in days but the travel chaos was far from over: London's airports remained shut, a massive flight backlog was growing and scientists feared that history could repeat itself with yet another volcanic eruption in Iceland.

  • 上周二,欧洲很多航班在停飞数天后首度飞上蓝天,但交通混乱状况远未结束:伦敦机场仍然关闭,积压航班数量非常大且呈上升趋势。科学家担心如果冰岛再有火山喷发,这一历史将重演。

  • flight backlog:航班积压;

  • backlog of work:积压的工作、待办的事项;

  • backlog of orders:商务活动中出现的“订单积压”


Paragraph 175

Paragraph 17

  • Q: How do you understand the last sentence?

    If family members always mind their individual business without any time to do something together so as to have some shared experiences, the family is, then, anything other than / nothing but a care-taking institution instead of a warm place full of love, laughter and fun.


Vocabulary exercise2

Vocabulary exercise

  • 1. ambiguous

  • equivocal

  • 2. a reserve

  • backlog

  • 3. bring into the mind

  • Conjure up

  • 4. splitting, breaking up

  • splintering


Iv vocabulary exercise

IV. Vocabulary exercise

  • 5. trouble

  • afflict

  • 6. (in this context) in possession of good relation / of a close bond

  • sane

  • 7. unthinkable, absurd

  • preposterous

  • 8. valuable object; advantage

  • asset


Iv vocabulary exercise1

IV. Vocabulary exercise

  • 9. interested in and influenced by TV

  • Television-oriented

  • 10. person who performs magic by using the power of evil spirits

  • sorcerer

  • 11. a group of people of the same age, class, position, etc.; here, a group of children of the same age

  • peer

  • 12. fixed amount of work; here, the fixed TV program

  • stint


Exercise the use of quotation

Exercise: The use of quotation(引用的使用)

  • Please turn to page 63. Read the passage “Organization and Development”, and then answer the following questions:

  • 1. Why people use quotations frequently in writing?

  • 2. What are the cautions in using quotation?

  • 3. Identify the quotations in the text “The Plug-in Drug” and explain how they contribute to the writer’s purpose of writing and the organization of the essay.


Exercise the use of quotation1

Exercise: The use of quotation(引用的使用)

  • 1. Functions of quotation:

  • The use of quotations is an effective way to gather support for one’s viewpoint.

  • Well-selected quotations show that the writer is not alone in what he thinks; instead, they indicate that his view is shared by many others.

  • Well-selected quotation also help create the impression that the writer is free from subjectivity and bias in the stand he takes, thus making his viewpoint more convincing.


Exercise the use of quotation2

Exercise: The use of quotation(引用的使用)

  • 2. Cautions in using quotation:

  • Over-use of quotations: using too many quotations may lead to boredom and, what is even worse, may result in the unfavorable impression that the author lacks the appropriate means to present and argue for his own viewpoint, thus weakening his stand.

  • While quoting others, one should always remember to acknowledge the source so that no plagiarism is committed.


Exercise the use of quotation3

Exercise: The use of quotation(引用的使用)

  • 3. Quotations in “The Plug-in Drug: TV and the American Family”:

  • An important feature of Winn’ s writing is her extensive use of quotations. Winn has quoted from magazines, individual authors, and even some unknown sources.

  • Winn is aware that the negative effect of TV on the American family was not perceived at all when it first came into being, but with the passing of time its negative effect has gradually made itself felt, causing a gradual change in the general public’s attitude. To serve her purpose, Winn has chronologically arranged the quotations she chooses to cite. Now, go over the whole article, identify the quotations and explain what is each quotation about and explain how it contributes to the writer’s viewpoints.


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Quotations and viewpoints

  • Early enthusiasm over TV as

  • a wonderful invention

Para. 2-5

In paras.2-4, three quotations from early writers and commentators to show the general view in favor of TV as a new invention without the slightest foresight as to its possible negative effect.


Quotations and viewpoints

Quotations and viewpoints

Arising concern over too much TV viewing

Para 7-8

In para7, a quotation of the authors of an early and influential study of TV’s effects on children illustrates a popularly accepted view which helped to soothe the worrying parents who began to feel about the negative effects TV might have on children.


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Quotations and viewpoints

Criticism of TV’s negative effects on family lifeand children’s growth

Para 9-14

Quotation in para 10 to state the view that TV had negatively affected family life and the transformation of children into adults.

More quotations in para 12, 13 to criticize how TV dominates family life and diminishes interaction between parents and children.


Quotations and viewpoints1

Quotations and viewpoints

Appeal for a better family life

Para 15-end

Quoting from Times (Para. 17) to stress the importanceof parent-children communication


Quotations and viewpoints2

Quotations and viewpoints

  • The ordering of the quotations reflects people’s general attitudes toward TV – beginning with wild admiration of TV as a wonderful invention but ending with strong criticisms of its negative effects on the healthy way of family life and children’s healthy growth.


Class discussion

Class Discussion:

Group discussion and presentation in class:

  • Positive effects of TV

  • Negative effects of TV


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  • Television's Positive Effects on Society

  • by Nichole VanSickle

  • 1. The television keeps us informed with plenty of helpful information. We are informed through the television of the latest news, weather, and information which are important in our daily lives. The television often acts as an almanac, dictionary, and an eye into the world around us. It informs us of the most recent happenings around the world within seconds.

  • 2. It is a great way of educating the people throughout society with the important issues that affect our everyday lives. Be it social, political, economical, or medical, there is always something new to be told, and the television is the quickest way to get it out to the people.

  • 3. Television serves as an entertainer as well. The television has become an important part of our entertainment today. Not only is it more convenient than going to movies, plays, concerts, or sporting events but it is also a lot cheaper.


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The excessive viewing results in the negative consequences described by Barton. D. Schmitt, author of "Your Child's Health“.

TV displaces active types of recreation

It decreases time spent playing with peers. A child has less time for self-directed daydreaming and thinking. It takes away time for participating in sports, music, art, or other activities that require practice to achieve competence.

TV interferes with conversation and discussion time.

It reduces social interactions with family and friends.

TV discourages reading.

Reading requires much more thinking than television. Reading improves a youngster's vocabulary. A decrease in reading scores may be related to too much time in front of the TV.


Exercise coherence

Exercise: coherence

  • Please read the passage “coherence” on page 69 (Student’s Book), and then do the exercise “Paragraph Writing: Coherence” on page 54-55 (Work Book).


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supplementary reading

Television's Positive Effects on Society Nichole VanSickle

According to Marie Winn and her essay “The Plug-In Drug,” television has various negative effects on our society today. In her essay Winn explores the ways in which television has harmfully caused disruptions with the quality of family life, rituals, and values. She recognizes there is a problem with oursociety and the way in which it is consistently influenced by television. I am able to agree with Winn on this point, but I do not feel that the totality of the influence is negative. Television today has a lot of positive effects and influences on our society and our American culture. Television gives us helpful information, various forms of education, and entertainment which are all a part of the positive effects that television has on our society.


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On a day to day basis, the television keeps us informed with plenty ofhelpful information. We are informed through the television of the latest news,weather, and information which are important in our daily lives. The televisionoften acts as an almanac, dictionary, and an eye into the world around us. Itinforms us of the most recent happenings around the world within seconds. Such as the O.J. Simpson trial, the Oklahoma City bombing, and the wars taking place in the Middle East. Through TV we can be warned about almost anything from a hurricane approaching to the fact that the stock market is falling. The television in today's society has become one of our most basic resources for information. We use the TV as a convenient way to find out some of the simples information such as the date, time, and what is going to be on channel 11 at 9:30. Our American society has designed its lifestyle around the convenience of the TV and the fact that it is so easily accessible.

The television has other purposes besides convenience. It is a great wayof educating the people throughout society with the important issues that affectour everyday lives. Be it social, political, economical, or medical, there isalways something new to be told, and the television is the quickest way to getit out to the people. Not only is the television fast, but it is also very accurate and in depth as well. The television takes the time to do the research that most


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Americans are too lazy to do themselves. Through various news programs and documentaries, the television keeps us educated, and on the right track so that we as Americans are not left out in the dark when it comes to the current events around the nation. For example, being that it is an election year, we are constantly being informed about the candidates, their whereabouts, and the debates. The reason for this is because, this is an important piece of education when it comes to the American people. We need to know these things, or we along with our government will suffer.

Along with informational and educational purposes, television serves asan entertainer as well. When television was first developed, entertainment wasnot one of its main purposes. As time went on people began to sit and watch thetelevision for that reason. Soon after came the development of sitcoms, andspecial programs which served as entertainment purposes. Throughout the years,entertainment on TV has become much more popular among Americans. Thetelevision has become an important part of our entertainment today. Not only isit more convenient than going to movies, plays, concerts, or sporting events butit is also a lot cheaper. With modern day television people do not have to leave their houses, and get dressed up to drive to see what they could be watching on their own TV sets at home. This is why the television companies


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have adapted to meet the needs of the American people by supplying access tomovies, plays, concerts, and the most popular sporting events. This past summerthe TV proved its convenience for entertainment. Many Americans were able tosit back and watch the Olympics in their own homes, and still be able to get thefeel of being there in Atlanta.

Throughout the years, the American people have come to rely on thetelevision and all it has to offer. The television with its multi-purposes haspositively affected our society through its means of information, education, andentertainment. We as Americans have become a part of a society which is greatly influenced by the television. Although, this influence has been proven toaffect the quality of family life, as Winn mentions in “The Plug-In Drug.” Thepositive effects of television on our society as a whole, and the knowledge itprovides is far greater than this quality of life that she mentions. I mustadmit that there are both positive and negative aspects that come out of ourtelevisions today, but I feel that the positive effects definitely out weigh thenegatives when it comes to the importance of information, education, andentertainment for our society.


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The End of Unit 5

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