Lecture 5 English morphology-4. Lecture content. Adjectives Identifying the adjectives Adjective classification Use adjectives correctly Adjective degrees Past simple tense - Declarative or statement - Interrogative or question - Negative. Adjectives.
- Declarative or statement
- Interrogative or question
An adjective modifies (describes or limits) a noun or occasionally a pronoun. For example;
a red barn a swift ride
a happy woman this side
seven crowns some cookies [limiting]
Sometimes adjectives need the in front of them.
the rich the poor
the deaf the dead
the disabled the unemployed
There are many adjectives ending in –ing and –ed.
Jane’s job is boring. Jane is bored (with her job).
Predicate adjectives; Forms used in front of noun
Alike like, similar
Alive live, living
A predicate adjective appears after a linking verb such as be. It cannot appear directly in front of the noun that it describes.
The snake on the rock was alive. The live snake was lying on the rock.
Verb forms ending in –ed and –ing can be used as adjectives. For example, the verbal adjectives cleaned and cleaning come from the verb to clean.
The woman cleans the car.
The cleaning woman worked on the car.
The woman put the cleaned car back in the garage.
Sometimes we use two or more adjectives.
Adjectives like new/large/round/wooden are fact adjectives. They give us factual information about age, size, colour etc.
When there are 2 colour adjectives, we use and; a black and white dress
Adjectives like nice/beautiful are opinion adjectives. They tell us what somebody thinks of something or somebody.
Opinion adjectives usually go before fact adjectives.
I was met an interesting young man yesterday.
It’s the first day of nice long summer holiday.
We use adjectives after be/get/become/seem;
Compare adjectives ending in –ing and –ed.
The –ing adjectives tells you about the job.
The –ed adjectives tells you how somebody feels (about the job).
My job is boring. I’m bored with my job.
interesting. I’m not interested in my job any more.
tiring. I’m always tired when I finish work.
depressing. My job makes me depressed.
I’m taller than you.
You’re more patient than me.
The exam was quite difficult – more difficult than we expected.
They have more money than we have.
You are more handsome than Bat is. You’re taller than him.
He is not as clever as her.
Henry is rich.
He is richer than Arthur.
But he isn’t as rich as John.
This hotel is the cheapest in town.
The oldest person in our family is my grandmother.
Dorj is the one of the most hard-working workmen of our company.
Bolor is the prettiest girl in our class.
What is the most exciting movie you have ever seen?
Ghost is the most exciting movie I have ever seen.
Tuya is the best student in our class at math, but Bold is the second best student at math.
Something happened once in the past we use Past simple tense when we express about it.
I, You, we, they
He, she, it verb+ed
Didyou, we, they verb?
he, she, it
I, You, we, they didn’tverb
He, she, it
a. What did you do yesterday afternoon?
Yesterday afternoon I played tennis at
b. Where did you live 3 years ago?
I lived in UB 3 years ago.
c. Did you meet Bold last night?
No, I didn’t. I met him last week.
d. Did you go out yesterday evening?
Yes, I did. I went to the cinema with my
e. I didn’t study English when I was at school.
I studied English when I was a student at University.
f. I cut my finger while I was cooking.
He was walking home when he met Ann.