Images and cartographic products to support lunar simulations training and landing
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Images and Cartographic Products to Support Lunar Simulations, Training, and Landing. Brent A. Archinal U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff, AZ Go for Lunar Landing: From Terminal Decent to Touchdown Fiesta Inn Resort, Tempe, AZ 2008 March 4-5. Overview.

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Images and Cartographic Products to Support Lunar Simulations, Training, and Landing

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Images and cartographic products to support lunar simulations training and landing

Images and Cartographic Products to Support Lunar Simulations, Training, and Landing

Brent A. Archinal

U.S. Geological Survey

Flagstaff, AZ

Go for Lunar Landing: From Terminal Decent to Touchdown

Fiesta Inn Resort, Tempe, AZ

2008 March 4-5


Overview

Overview

Using imagery and altimetry to create mosaics and topographic models (DEMs or DTMs), for planning, simulation, training, navigation, and operations

  • Existing and planned data sources <- Just covered by M. Robinson

  • Most important data sources

  • Mapping product formats – then and now

  • USGS landing site mapping examples

  • Apollo 15 site mapping examples

  • Possible products for Constellation use


Data sources planned most important imagery altimetry

Data Sources – Planned (most important) imagery, altimetry

LOLA 1 month polar coverage

  • Altimetry

    • From all upcoming missions (LRO LOLA, Kaguya (SELENE), Chandrayaan-1, Chang’E-1)

    • LOLA provides highest accuracy (1 m vertical, ~50 m horizontal) and coverage (5 spot pattern)

    • All mission data needed for densification

  • Imagery, global

    • LRO WAC (~70 m resolution, multispectral), M. Robinson presentation

    • M3 (~100 m, hyperspectral)

  • Imagery, high resolution and stereo

    • Apollo stereo, 16% of Moon (1-15 m res)

    • LRO NAC (0.5-2 m resolution), stereo on many important sites

    • Chandrayaan-1 (5 m resolution), global stereo, 15 m post spacing

    • Kaguya (10 m resolution), global stereo, 30 m post spacing

  • Geodetically controlled data required

    • Tied to lunar laser ranging network, with LOLA as base

    • All other datasets (past, present, future) need registered to this

LOLA Spot

Pattern

Apollo 15 Panoramic

Camera image

1 meter resolution

(Numerous boulders visible)

LRO

WAC

LRO NAC 1 & 2


Mapping products then

Mapping Products – Then

LO map of Apollo 15 site, with annotation

  • Paper LO and Apollo “image maps” and topographic (contour) maps.

  • By USGS and DMA

  • See e.g. LPI site: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/resources/

  • Still best data in many areas

USGS LO map, used for A17 LRV fender repair


Mapping products now for simulations training and landing

Mapping Products, Now – for simulations, training, and landing

  • Digital products – DEMs (or DTMs)

  • Lend themselves to creating simulations for planning and training

  • Also for display and terrain matching navigation during landing and surface operations

  • Illumination possible from any direction

  • Global and Landing site mapping

  • GIS systems used for data comparison

Examples from USGS “PIGWAD” Planetary Mapping site (http://webgis.wr.usgs.gov/)


Current landing site mapping examples usgs

Current Landing Site MappingExamples - USGS

Using commercial photogrammetric workstation and software and USGS ISIS planetary mapping software

Recent experience from many missions, including:

  • Mars Landing site mapping from MGS MOC 1.5 to 6 m resolution), MRO HiRISE (30 cm resolution) (A. McEwen, PI), soon CTX (8 m resolution).

  • Titan surface mapping from Huygens DISR imaging

  • Lunar landing site mapping from Lunar Orbiter, Apollo Metric, and Apollo Panoramic cameras (10 m post spacing, ~3 m possible) (next slides)

    Via stereo (see M. Broxton presentation) with photoclinometry (shape from shading) for single pixel DEMs – similar to A. McEwen “photometric stereo”

    Manual editing and QC absolutely essential for mission success compared to fully automatic techniques

Model of ~3 km area of surface of Titan

USGS Digital Photogrammetric Workstation

running Leica SOCET SET

Opportunity Rover

Model of ~1 km Victoria Crater on Mars

From ~30 cm resolution

HiRISE stereo images


Apollo 15 site mapping example

Apollo 15 Site Mapping - Example

  • Lunar Orbiter

  • Apollo Metric Camera

  • Apollo Panoramic camera

USGS mapped Apollo 15 landing site with scanned Apollo Pan, LO IV global HR, LO V site MR images

From 2 to 30 m/pixel

Good sub pixel matching except in shadows, bland areas at highest resolution

No “cliffs” in LO models but other distortions found

10s % of Moon could be mapped now with 10 to 150 m post spacing


Apollo 15 site simulation example

Apollo 15 Site – Simulation Example

Simulation from

Apollo 15 stereo Pan images

10 m post spacing, 2 m resolution

Ground truth

Mosaic of Apollo 15 photos by David Scott from surface


Possible products for constellation use

Use merged altimeter datasets for global DEM

Global reference frame

Dense coverage

High resolution polar coverage

Use global stereo for densifying global DEM

Apollo

Chandrayaan-1 or Kaguya

Landing site mapping

LROC NAC when available

Apollo Panoramic

Chandrayaan-1

Polar mapping / DEMs

Mini-RF (LRO, Chandrayaan-1) for shadowed areas

Product formats:

Controlled global mosaics and DEMs for planning, simulation, terrain following navigation

Controlled site mosaics and DEMs for landing and surface planning, simulation, and navigation

Digital products and some hardcopy products

Possible Products For Constellation Use

Key is post mission processing and geodetic control (registration) of data

Via Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project? – See Ray French presentation

What products are really needed for Constellation?

Processing beyond that likely needed as well, for resource location and science


Backup

Backup


Data sources existing important imagery altimetry

Data Sources – Existing (important) imagery, altimetry

Lunar

Orbiter

near side

view

  • Lunar Orbiter

    • Still best coverage for much of Moon

    • Global digital mosaic finally completed last month!

    • Some areas, 1 m resolution and stereo

  • Apollo (see M. Robinson presentation)

    • A15-A17, covers ~16% of Moon

    • Metric camera gives 4 fold stereo, at 7-15 m resolution, 160 x 160 km

    • Panoramic camera gives stereo at 1-4 m resolution, 339 x 26 km

    • Will likely _not_ be superseded for some time

  • Clementine

    • Near global coverage at ~150-200 m resolution

    • Multispectral, but high sun angle, some stereo info

    • Only existing altimetry but sparse (~70,000 points)

    • Basis for current Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 (~44,000 images, ~273,000 points & topography)

Apollo 15 Panoramic image (A15 landing site)

Clementine Global Basemap Mosaic


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