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PRIORITIZE. “We must not sacrifice our future for a momentary pleasure.”. VACCINES and VACCINE PROTOCOLS. Canine and Feline. Vaccination Failures. Vaccines do not produce immunity in 100% of population Should decrease severity

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Prioritize

PRIORITIZE

“We must not sacrifice our future for a momentary pleasure.”


Vaccines and vaccine protocols

VACCINES and VACCINE PROTOCOLS

Canine and Feline


Vaccination failures

Vaccination Failures

  • Vaccines do not produce immunity in 100% of population

    • Should decrease severity

  • Protection of 70% of population sufficient if communicability is low

  • In general practice, 1 vaccine break constitutes a failure


Modified live vs killed

MODIFIED LIVE vs. KILLED

  • MLV

    • Strong, long-lasting immune response that is achieved with fewer doses

    • Adjuvants are not as necessary

    • Quicker immune respones

    • Less chance of allergic reactions

    • After it is mixed only effective 1 hour

  • KILLED (inactivated)

    • More stable in storage

    • Unlikely to contain contaminating pathogens

    • Unlikely to cause disease due to residual disease-causing characteristics

    • Produce little to no cellular and mucosal immunity

NO VACCINE IS 100% EFFECTIVE!


Adjuvants

ADJUVANTS

  • Chemicals, microbial components, or mammalian proteins

  • Enhances the immune response to vaccine antigens

  • Aluminum gels/ salts


Core vaccine

CORE VACCINE

  • Severity of disease

  • Transmissibility

  • Zoonotic potential


Core vaccines what are they

CORE VACCINESWHAT ARE THEY?

  • Those vaccines that every puppy should receive; identified by vaccine experts such as the AAHA Canine Task Force

    • CORE VACCINES FOR CANINES INCLUDE:

      • Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2)

      • Canine Distemper virus (CDV)

        • rCDV: Recombinat


Core vaccines

CORE VACCINES

  • Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2)

    • CAV-2 protects both 1 & 2

    • Infectious Canine Heaptitis

    • No CAV-1 because of anterior uveitis

    • Hepatitis blue ice

  • Rabies virus (RV)

    • Killed vaccine

    • State/provincial/local laws


  • Vaccines general guidelines

    VACCINES – GENERAL GUIDELINES

    • Begin: 6-9 weeks of age

      • Do not give vaccines earlier than 5-6 weeks

        *remember maternal antibody interference

    • Frequency: q 2-4 weeks

      • May vary according to risk, vaccine

    • End: at least one dose should be given at age 14-16 weeks of age or older

    • Revaccination: at 1 year of age or 1 year after the last puppy vaccination


    Vaccines special considerations rabies vaccination

    VACCINES-SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS, RABIES VACCINATION

    • Rabies vaccine is initially given at 12 wks of age

      • Does not need to be boostered in 2-4 weeks, but rather within 12 months. Each subsequent rabies vaccine should be given q 3yrs.

      • Rabies vaccine is the only canine vaccine requiring a minimum duration of immunity study and labeled as 1 yr or 3 yr. by the USDA.


    Vaccines duration of immunity

    VACCINES-DURATION OF IMMUNITY

    • The minimum duration of immunity for the core vaccines (except rabies) is at least 5-7 yrs. (after initial puppy set of vxns)

      • based on challenge and/or antibody titers

        you can even have this done in your own pets to determine his/her immunity level against a particular disease.

    • Today, a 3 yr revaccination program has been recommended in the AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines for dogs and the American Association of Feline Practitioners Guidelines for cats


    So why do we vaccinate every year

    SO WHY DO WE VACCINATE EVERY YEAR?

    • Following the vaccine label

    • Veterinarians resistant to change

    • Fear that not revaccinating will cause the animal to become susceptible soon after one year.

    • Compliance with boarding kennel rules


    Vaccines non core

    VACCINES-NON-CORE

    • Optional or non-core vaccines should only be given to animals that need them and only as often as needed!

      • Potential problems: duration of immunity is not known, the efficacy is limited or not known

    • EX: Leptospirosis, Bordetella, Canine Influenza, Lyme disease, Canine coronavirus, Giardia (AAHA Guidelines do not recommend coronavirus or giardia vaccines unless they can be proven to be beneficial for a certain animal)


    Vaccines non core1

    VACCINES-NON-CORE

    • New vaccines: snakebites (Crotalus sp. Toxoid, western diamonback rattlesnake), periodontal disease (porphyromonas sp.), as well as a therapeutic vaccine for treatment of canine melanomas.

      *VACCINES MUST BE TAILORED

      TO THE INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL

      -Older/younger animal vs. adult

      - bacterial vaccine vs. viral vaccine

      • Geographic area


    Vaccines general guidelines in felines

    VACCINES-GENERAL GUIDELINES IN FELINES

    • Begin: 8-10 weeks of age

    • Frequency: q 2-4 weeks

    • End: last dose at 14-16 weeks of age


    Vaccines feline considerations

    VACCINES-FELINE CONSIDERATIONS


    Core vaccines feline

    CORE VACCINES-FELINE

    • Feline parvovirus (panleukopenia)

    • Feline calicivirus

    • Feline herpes virus (viral rhinotracheitis)

    • Rabies virus

      • Given at 12-16 weeks of age

    • FVRCP


    Vaccines non core2

    VACCINES-NON-CORE

    • FeLV (feline leukemia)

    • FIV (feline immunodeficiency virus)

    • Chlamydia

    • Feline coronavirus (FIP)

    • Feline Giardia

    • Bordetella bronchiseptica

    • Feline systemic calicivirus


    Vaccine questions

    VACCINE QUESTIONS

    • May I use smaller vaccine dose in small breeds to reduce the risk of adverse reactions?

      • NO- the volume (1.0ml) as recommended by the manufacturer generally represents the minimum immunizing dose

        • This means that a Great Dane should receive the same amount of vaccine as a Chihuahua


    Vaccine questions1

    VACCINE QUESTIONS

    • May I vaccinate pregnant pets?

      • It is best to avoid this. Risk to the fetuses is a concern. Assess risk vs. benefit


    Vaccine questions2

    VACCINE QUESTIONS

    • May I vaccinate a patient while under anesthesia?

      • It is best not to do this. The patient may develop a hypersensitivity reaction that may be harder to recognize under anesthesia and may be more difficult to treat. Risk of vomiting and aspiration is higher.


    Vaccine questions3

    VACCINE QUESTIONS

    • May I inject a modified live intranasal Bordetella vaccine?

      • NO- the vaccine can cause a severe local reaction and may even result in death (liver disease)

      • Intranasal vaccines are effective against respiratory disease, form immunoglobulin A which produces quick local immunity


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