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PRIORITIZE. “We must not sacrifice our future for a momentary pleasure.”. VACCINES and VACCINE PROTOCOLS. Canine and Feline. Vaccination Failures. Vaccines do not produce immunity in 100% of population Should decrease severity

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PRIORITIZE

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PRIORITIZE

“We must not sacrifice our future for a momentary pleasure.”


VACCINES and VACCINE PROTOCOLS

Canine and Feline


Vaccination Failures

  • Vaccines do not produce immunity in 100% of population

    • Should decrease severity

  • Protection of 70% of population sufficient if communicability is low

  • In general practice, 1 vaccine break constitutes a failure


MODIFIED LIVE vs. KILLED

  • MLV

    • Strong, long-lasting immune response that is achieved with fewer doses

    • Adjuvants are not as necessary

    • Quicker immune respones

    • Less chance of allergic reactions

    • After it is mixed only effective 1 hour

  • KILLED (inactivated)

    • More stable in storage

    • Unlikely to contain contaminating pathogens

    • Unlikely to cause disease due to residual disease-causing characteristics

    • Produce little to no cellular and mucosal immunity

NO VACCINE IS 100% EFFECTIVE!


ADJUVANTS

  • Chemicals, microbial components, or mammalian proteins

  • Enhances the immune response to vaccine antigens

  • Aluminum gels/ salts


CORE VACCINE

  • Severity of disease

  • Transmissibility

  • Zoonotic potential


CORE VACCINESWHAT ARE THEY?

  • Those vaccines that every puppy should receive; identified by vaccine experts such as the AAHA Canine Task Force

    • CORE VACCINES FOR CANINES INCLUDE:

      • Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2)

      • Canine Distemper virus (CDV)

        • rCDV: Recombinat


CORE VACCINES

  • Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2)

    • CAV-2 protects both 1 & 2

    • Infectious Canine Heaptitis

    • No CAV-1 because of anterior uveitis

    • Hepatitis blue ice

  • Rabies virus (RV)

    • Killed vaccine

    • State/provincial/local laws


  • VACCINES – GENERAL GUIDELINES

    • Begin: 6-9 weeks of age

      • Do not give vaccines earlier than 5-6 weeks

        *remember maternal antibody interference

    • Frequency: q 2-4 weeks

      • May vary according to risk, vaccine

    • End: at least one dose should be given at age 14-16 weeks of age or older

    • Revaccination: at 1 year of age or 1 year after the last puppy vaccination


    VACCINES-SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS, RABIES VACCINATION

    • Rabies vaccine is initially given at 12 wks of age

      • Does not need to be boostered in 2-4 weeks, but rather within 12 months. Each subsequent rabies vaccine should be given q 3yrs.

      • Rabies vaccine is the only canine vaccine requiring a minimum duration of immunity study and labeled as 1 yr or 3 yr. by the USDA.


    VACCINES-DURATION OF IMMUNITY

    • The minimum duration of immunity for the core vaccines (except rabies) is at least 5-7 yrs. (after initial puppy set of vxns)

      • based on challenge and/or antibody titers

        you can even have this done in your own pets to determine his/her immunity level against a particular disease.

    • Today, a 3 yr revaccination program has been recommended in the AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines for dogs and the American Association of Feline Practitioners Guidelines for cats


    SO WHY DO WE VACCINATE EVERY YEAR?

    • Following the vaccine label

    • Veterinarians resistant to change

    • Fear that not revaccinating will cause the animal to become susceptible soon after one year.

    • Compliance with boarding kennel rules


    VACCINES-NON-CORE

    • Optional or non-core vaccines should only be given to animals that need them and only as often as needed!

      • Potential problems: duration of immunity is not known, the efficacy is limited or not known

    • EX: Leptospirosis, Bordetella, Canine Influenza, Lyme disease, Canine coronavirus, Giardia (AAHA Guidelines do not recommend coronavirus or giardia vaccines unless they can be proven to be beneficial for a certain animal)


    VACCINES-NON-CORE

    • New vaccines: snakebites (Crotalus sp. Toxoid, western diamonback rattlesnake), periodontal disease (porphyromonas sp.), as well as a therapeutic vaccine for treatment of canine melanomas.

      *VACCINES MUST BE TAILORED

      TO THE INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL

      -Older/younger animal vs. adult

      - bacterial vaccine vs. viral vaccine

      • Geographic area


    VACCINES-GENERAL GUIDELINES IN FELINES

    • Begin: 8-10 weeks of age

    • Frequency: q 2-4 weeks

    • End: last dose at 14-16 weeks of age


    VACCINES-FELINE CONSIDERATIONS


    CORE VACCINES-FELINE

    • Feline parvovirus (panleukopenia)

    • Feline calicivirus

    • Feline herpes virus (viral rhinotracheitis)

    • Rabies virus

      • Given at 12-16 weeks of age

    • FVRCP


    VACCINES-NON-CORE

    • FeLV (feline leukemia)

    • FIV (feline immunodeficiency virus)

    • Chlamydia

    • Feline coronavirus (FIP)

    • Feline Giardia

    • Bordetella bronchiseptica

    • Feline systemic calicivirus


    VACCINE QUESTIONS

    • May I use smaller vaccine dose in small breeds to reduce the risk of adverse reactions?

      • NO- the volume (1.0ml) as recommended by the manufacturer generally represents the minimum immunizing dose

        • This means that a Great Dane should receive the same amount of vaccine as a Chihuahua


    VACCINE QUESTIONS

    • May I vaccinate pregnant pets?

      • It is best to avoid this. Risk to the fetuses is a concern. Assess risk vs. benefit


    VACCINE QUESTIONS

    • May I vaccinate a patient while under anesthesia?

      • It is best not to do this. The patient may develop a hypersensitivity reaction that may be harder to recognize under anesthesia and may be more difficult to treat. Risk of vomiting and aspiration is higher.


    VACCINE QUESTIONS

    • May I inject a modified live intranasal Bordetella vaccine?

      • NO- the vaccine can cause a severe local reaction and may even result in death (liver disease)

      • Intranasal vaccines are effective against respiratory disease, form immunoglobulin A which produces quick local immunity


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