Theme 4 technological options that respond to demands and market opportunities synthesisers report
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THEME 4: TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS THAT RESPOND TO DEMANDS AND MARKET OPPORTUNITIES Synthesisers Report. Frances Kimmins, Mette Vaarst, Cyprian Ebong, Kerry Albright. Synthesisers report. Review the papers describing technology options under Theme 4 to draw out Best practices

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Frances Kimmins, Mette Vaarst,

Cyprian Ebong, Kerry Albright

Synthesisers report

  • Review the papers describing technology options under Theme 4 to draw out

    • Best practices

    • Key lessons learnt

    • Options which are not represented

  • Introduction

  • Review of crop/soil resource papers

  • Review of livestock papers

  • Cross cutting issues

  • Gaps from both

Theme 4: Technological options that respond to demands and market opportunities

Goal: To provide appropriate technologies, knowledge, information and methods that enhance productivity, increase value and the competitiveness of agricultural systems and the products in both national and international markets.


  • Technological options that increase productivity of crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry resources developed and promoted

  • Technological options that optimise quality, broaden utilization base and enhance marketability of agricultural products developed and promoted

  • Appropriate farm power, tools and equipment that optimise production and processing developed and promoted

Technological options mean…

  • Technical options (tests, electronic equipments, bio-control agents etc.)

  • Knowledge and information

  • Management practices

Selected papers for theme 4

  • Approximately 52 papers in total

  • 36 crop/soil resource papers

  • 16 livestock papers

  • The majority originated from Uganda and a number covered cross regional programmes.

  • The remaining papers were submitted by researchers in Kenya, Benin, Ethiopia, Senegal River Valley, Malawi and Nepal.

Technology options

Focus for crop/soil resource options

  • Crop varieties

  • Management practices

  • Biological control of pests and diseases

  • Agroprocessing

  • New equipment


  • Only a few economic evaluations were reported

Technology options

Focus for livestock options

  • Breeding

  • Feeding

  • Animal husbandry practices

    • Incl. management of medicine

  • Animals’ role on the farm


  • Only a few economic evaluations were reported

  • No new technologies described

Partnerships represented in the papers

  • National scientists

    • Natural & social sciences

  • International scientists

  • NGO

  • Farmer groups

  • Extension organisations

  • Poorly represented: commercial partners

Aim of studies



Sustain yields


Increased yields



Improved quality



Improved access to quality


Diet enhancement



Adding value


Improved efficiency



Purpose of technological options

Crop/soil resource papers

  • Most papers described field based participatory studies to identify, develop and assess technologies

  • Few addressed strategic/basic research issues

  • Smallest number submitted on crop processing/new equipment

Examples of participatory research activities 1 on crop/soil research

Good practice in development of technological options

through participatory methods

  • 335-4 Working with Smallholder Farmers to Improve Maize Production and Marketing in Western Kenya. Paul L. Woomer and Eusebius J. Mukhwana,, Kenya

  • 64-4 Experiences of Soil Fertility Management Through Legume Based Farmer Participatory Experimentation in Malawi. Amon Kabuli & Judith Malawi

  • 157-4 Developing Technology Options for Rice Integrated Crop Management (RICM) in the Sahel Zone of West Africa: Case of irrigated rice production the Senegal River Valley Mohamed Kebbeh, Kouamé Miezan and Mameri Camara

  • 77-4 Evaluation and dissemination of Striga management technologies for small-scale sorghum farmers in eastern Uganda Olupot,J.Ra., J.Oryokotb, D.S.O.Osiruc and B.Gebrekidanda

Some examples of participatory research activities 2

Best practice in improving producers’ access to new technologies

  • 95-4 Pigeon pea seed production and delivery system: An experience in the Lango farming system J.E.P. Obuo, J.R. Omadi, D. Okwang and H. Okurut-Akol Uganda

  • 114-4 Farmer Led Multiplication of Rosette Resistant Groundnut Varieties. Tino Grace

  • 116-4 Promoting Potato Seed Tuber Management for increased Ware Yields in Kapchorwa, Eastern Uganda. Sarah Namisi and Julian Smith

Lessons learnt from the participatory research activities 1


  • Broader than just the development of technological options, need to manage knowledge and communicate options to end users


  • Important tool for prioritising research activities

  • Can be used to address a range of farming constraints and/or provide other benefits such as additional grain for food, weed suppression, animal feed, fuelwood etc

Lessons learnt from the participatory research activities 2


  • enables researchers, service providers and farmers to work together to identify effective practices for different environments

  • provides a good environment for learning and sharing messages between the different stakeholders

  • empowers farmers in the decision processes


  • Resources must be available for a number of years especially for perennial crops because outcomes/impact will not be evident over a 3 year time scale

Lessons learnt from Participatory Research Activities 3


  • Demand should not rely on solely researchers assessments because they realise they may not have an adequate understanding of farmer resources (e.g. time, labour or capital) or market requirements.

  • Demand-led research is also not a simple case of reacting to farmers demands because it does not take into account knowledge and technologies of which farmers are unaware.

Lessons learnt from Participatory Research Activities 4

  • Improves the likelihood of technology uptake

  • Improves the speed of delivering varieties with marketable qualities to farmers

Questions arising from the participatory projects

Q. Next steps?

Q. How do researchers scale up their findings?

Q. What promotion channels can be used to promote the benefits to non- participating farmers?

Strategic research activities

Good practice described in

  • 126-4 Seed transmission of Fusarium xylarioides in Coffea canephora in Uganda. Hakiza G.J. Kyetere D. T1., Erbaugh M., Warren, H., and S. Olal.

  • 322-4 The use of starter cultures in the fermentation of bushera: a Ugandan traditional fermented sorghum beverage. C. M. B K. Muyanjaa, T. Langsrudb J.A. Narvhusb,

  • 323-4 Early screening of cassava for resistance to root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)Kagoda, F., Coyne, D., Kajumba, C., Dusabe,

  • Biocontrol research papers submitted by the Ugandan National Banana programme and IITA

  • 325-4 A greenhouse experiment to evaluate compost derived from household and market crop wastes Idenfors, A., 1E. Otabbong, 2J.S. Tenywa and 2A. Amoding

Lessons learnt from strategic research projects

  • Underpins technology development and client oriented approaches by generating new knowledge on poorly understood problems

  • Explores management options for which there are no existing solutions

    • May require policy action by researchers

  • Provides a relatively controlled environment to

    • test hypotheses

    • screen large numbers of genotypes

    • enhance local breeding efforts

  • Provides baseline information

  • Important for providing training opportunities


  • 259-2 Long-term storage of sweet potato by small-scale farmers through improved post harvest technologies Namutebi, A., Natabirwa, H., Lemaga, B4, Kapinga, R, Matovu, M., Tumwegamire, S., Nsumba, J. and Ocom J.

  • 161-4 Improving the AEATRI-motorized maize sheller to meet the market demands of commercial maize farmers Candia Alphonse, Saasa Richard, Muzei James and Ocen Paul

  • 34-4Production of tomato puree: an alternative to conservation of locally produced tomato in Benin D. Montcho & O Fagbohoun

  • 40-4Development on improved parboiling equipment for paddy rice in BeninPaul Houssou & Eric Amonsou

Lesson learnt from the post harvest processes and technologies

  • Economic analyses should be integrated into research projects to assess financial benefits.

  • Research to broaden utilization base and enhance marketability should be enhanced in national programmes-linkages to private sector?

Livestock papers

  • All papers described on-farm or in-farming-community studies to identify, develop and assess technologies

  • Unclear in most papers: ‘previously identified problem areas’ => ‘participatory approach’

    • ‘sensitized’ / trained / provided with… /

  • Researcher formulate research question in most studies, carry out the research and interpret the results

Improved breeds

  • Ssewannyana, E., Oluka, J, Masaba, J.K. Growth and performance of indigenous and crossbred goats at Serere, Uganda. 537-542.

  • Ssewannyana, E. Onyait, A.O., Ogwal Okot, J., Masaba, J. Strategies for improving the meat and egg productivity of indigenous chickens in Kumi and Apac district, Uganda.

  • Bebe, B.O. Effects of feeding systems and breed of cattle on reproductive performance and milk production on smallholder farms. 558-563.

  • Needs to address:

    • What should be ready before breeds are considered (e.g. water, feed, hygiene …)?

    • Consequences for management practices?

    • Consequences on household, community and animal population levels?

Time and improvement

  • Ssewannyana, E. Onyait, A.O., Ogwal Okot, J., Masaba, J. Strategies for improving the meat and egg productivity of indigenous chickens in Kumi and Apac district, Uganda.

  • Lesson learned about a success:

    • Improvement can be measured in very short time

    • Vaccination strategy simple & with dramatic (positive) effect

    • Gender issue explicitly addressed

    • Concern: project organised by researchers

    • Concern about long-term exhausting projects with ‘identification phase’ etc.!

Disease management

  • Okello-Onen, J., Ssekitto, C.M.B., Mwayi, W. Factors affecting the sustainability of tick and tick-borne disease control in Uganda and malpractice associated with acaricide use. 663-666.

  • Twinamasiko, E., Tailor, N., Mbuza, F., Senyonga, S. Evaluation of the role of antibiotics and anti-bacterial agents in the control of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. 458-465.

  • Lesson learned: gives background to raise critical voice:

    • Background knowledge: Increasing problems with resistance against medicines. Residuals also food safety issue!!!

    • Medicine is often used inappropriately

    • Medicine cannot compensate for bad conditions/ management

    • Diagnostics? Facilities to evaluate relevance of medication?

Health promotion and disease management

  • In research (often): the ’tragic divorce’

  • In extension, training & learning: how cover both – also partly divorced!

Can the current animal health and veterinary system meet the demand ?

How improve? How collaborate with other disciplines?

Focus on resources

  • Okello-Onen, J., Okoth, J.O., Abila, P.P., Matete, G.O., Wamwiri, F., Politzar, H. Effektiveness of monoscreen traps for tsetse fly control. 667-671.

  • Ssewannyana, E. & Mukasa, B. Assessment of the potential productivity of pigs in the Teso and Longo farming systems, Uganda: A case study. 549-553.

  • Okurut, S., Odogola, W.R., Candia, A., & Saasa, A.R. Constraints to utilization of draft animal power technology at farm level in Uganda. 564-568.

  • Ocaido, M., Muwazi, R., Opuda-Asiibo, J. Economics of developing mixes game and livestock production systems around lake Mburo National Park, Uganda.

  • Lesson to learn more from: focus on available resources!

    • Non-chemical solutions gives no prestige?

    • Scavenger animals

    • Feed resources: local / left overs / conservation / mixed grazing systems

    • Draft animals

  • The role of the animal(s) / species & breeds!!!

Whose responsibility to transfer?

  • Shrestha, N.P. & Edwards, S.A. Evaluation of suckling and post weaning practices for improving reproductive efficiency in Nepalese Pakhribas pigs. 554-557.

  • Oluka, J., Ssewannyana, E., Petersen, P.H. Effect of management systems on body weight of indigenous goat kids reared under on-farm conditions.

  • Oluka, J., Petersen, P.H., Kiwuwa, G.H. & Bareeba, F.B. Population screening for selection of bucks and does in Mubende goat in Uganda. 543-548.

    Who and how to ‘transfer’ this?

    • Best reproduction in sows: only night suckling for piglets after 6 weeks in Nepalese study

    • Best results with kids: women are care-takers

    • Indication: weight of doe influences kids weight till yearling age

    • Farmer innovation? Researcher contribute? Extension agents? Technology/ recommendation?

’Transforming agriculture through research’Research and responsibility

  • Cross-disciplinary research

    • Also needed in vet. Science and livestock research!

  • Farming system view and approach

    • Focus on expert areas ok – but take whole system into planning, analysing, discussing …

  • Scientist’s responsible to be ’the professional’ – take that role in the partnership!

  • Participatory research:

    • No ’general correct answer’ – developed in context

  • Action research

    • Research process and plans develop during project

Private farms

Research stations







resource use



Scientific results: New knowledge, tools


Towards sustainability?

  • Sabiiti, E.N., Mpairwe, D., Rwakaikara, M.S., Mugasi, S. Restoration of degraded natural grasslands to enhance soil fertility, pasture and animal productivity. 466-469.

  • Kabirizi, J., Mpairwe, D., Mutetikka, D. Incorporating leguminous forages in intensive smallholder dairy cattle production systems in Masaka district, Uganda: Farmers’ experiences and lessons learnt.

  • Ocaido, C.P., Otim, C.P., Okuna, N.M., Ssekitto, C., Kakaire, D., Erume, J., Wafula, R.Z.O., Monrad, G., Walubengo, J., Musisi, G., Okello-Bwangamoi, Okure, S., Ebiaru, W. Dual control on ticks and tsetse flies using deltamethrin through community participatory methods. 672-679.

  • Responsible use of medicine; costs & benefits

  • Animals as a part of the farm =>

    • Species and breeds: Specialization / diversity

    • Disease pressure in community and area

    • Avoid overloading of land

    • Human capital: Work load!

    • Water and feed access & supply? Dry season?

Questions arising from the on-farm projects

Q. Next steps – dissemination?

Q. How do researchers scale up their findings?

Q. How can benefits be used by all farmers? How is the importance of the context evaluated when results are used somewhere else than where they were made?

Development of new+ Use of existing technologies

  • Developmen of some new technologies relevant, e.g. diagnostics, animal husbandry practices etc.

  • Going through these papers: How can existing technologies be implemented when and where they are relevant and used appropriately?

  • In livestock research and development: Need for involving more levels (human, farm, community, organisations, institutions); facing the complexity!

’Farmer Field Training & Learning’

  • Context based

  • Exchange

  • Common knowledge developed

  • Local ressources

  • Complex life situations!

  • Farmers need to be driving force in on-farm improvement

  • Support from animal health professionals needed!

  • Development MUST be in harmony with need and conditions: Research as development and vice versa!

Gaps in the livestock theme

  • In most papers: reflections on the complexity of the livestock production systems lacking

    • Quite narrow focus on one or few technological options and not thinking further to implementation or how it fits into the whole farming system

  • Food safety and quality issues only covered through medicine mismanagement – not zoonoses, hygiene, nutritional value of animal food products …

  • Gender considerations poorly represented

  • Private sector particularly processors, retailers or exporters apparently not involved in research

Cross cutting issues in crop/soil resource papers

  • Linkages between the agriculture and health sectors have been identified by some teams

    • Sengooba’s team on improved mangoes and citrus have linked health, gender and market concerns to technical information

    • Muyanja et al on bushera mentions that heat treatment of bushera can improve food safety by reducing coliform bacteria levels

    • Houssou’s and Amonsou’s paper acknowledge that par boiling of paddy enhances not only yield but nutritional quality/ value of rice

    • Sabiiti’s team mentions the importance of grasslands for both animal production and herbal medicine

Gaps in the crop theme

  • No papers on biotechnology

    • Offers possibilities of increasing resistance to nematodes, viruses, and fungal diseases in lines preferred by consumers

  • Gender considerations poorly represented

    Only 4 papers disaggregate information by gender

  • Few if any projects described explicit research linkages to the private sector particularly processors, retailers or exporters

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