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Admin. Review. Lesson 17. The US Navy in North Africa, the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic 1943-1945. Learning Objectives. Comprehend the absolute priority given to keeping the sea lanes to Britain open.

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Lesson 17

Lesson 17

The US Navy in North Africa, the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic

1943-1945


Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Comprehend the absolute priority given to keeping the sea lanes to Britain open.

  • Know the relationship between Roosevelt and Churchill in the establishment of the United Nations and the broad concepts of Allied strategy.

  • Comprehend the confrontation between German U-boat strategy versus Allied convoy Antisubmarine (ASW) strategy in the Atlantic.

  • Comprehend the differences between British “War of Attrition” versus American plans for a direct confrontation with Germany.

  • Comprehend how Allied amphibious landings assisted in ending the war in Europe.


Remember our themes
Remember our Themes!

  • The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy

  • Interaction between Congress and the Navy

  • Interservice Relations

  • Technology

  • Leadership

  • Strategy and Tactics

  • Evolution of Naval Doctrine


Competing allied strategies
Competing Allied Strategies

  • Allies spend 1943-44 building up in England for cross channel invasion

  • Anzio Op SHINGLE

    • January 1944

  • Normandy OpOVERLORD

    • June 1944

  • Southern France OpDRAGOON

    • August 1944

  • Succeed in pushing Germans back into its borders.

  • Spring 1945: War ends in Europe.


Op shingle
Op SHINGLE

  • Intended to outflank German forces of the Winter Line and enable an attack on Rome

  • Allied forces in this attack consisted of 5 cruisers, 24 destroyers, 238 landing craft, 62+ other ships, 40,000 soldiers, and 5,000+ vehicles.

  • Gen Lucas fails to size advantage

  • Stalemate


Op overlord
Op OVERLORD

  • A 12,000-plane airborne assault preceded an amphibious assault involving almost 7,000 vessels. Nearly 160,000 troops crossed the English Channel on 6 June; more than 3 million troops were in France by the end of August.


Op dragoon
Op DRAGOON

  • Controversial from the time it was first proposed.

  • Difference of opinion between the American military leadership and their British counterparts.

  • Revived after the successful execution of OVERLORD

    • Allied ability to resupply their growing forces in France

      • Port facilities at Cherbourg

      • Artificial harbor at Omaha Beach

    • French pressure


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