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Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition. Chapter Four : The Components of the System Unit. Objectives Overview. See Page 155 for Detailed Objectives. Objectives Overview. See Page 155 for Detailed Objectives. The System Unit.

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Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition

Chapter Four: The Components of the System Unit


Objectives overview
Objectives Overview

See Page 155

for Detailed Objectives


Objectives overview1
Objectives Overview

See Page 155

for Detailed Objectives


The system unit
The System Unit

  • The system unitis a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

Page 156

Figure 4-1


The system unit1
The System Unit

  • The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes:

Page 157

Figure 4-2


The system unit2
The System Unit

  • The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit

    • A computer chip contains integrated circuits

Page 158

Figure 4-3


Processor
Processor

  • The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

    • Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU)

Page 159


Processor1
Processor

Page 159

Figure 4-4


Processor2
Processor

  • The control unitis the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer

  • The arithmetic logic unit(ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations

Pages 159 - 160


Processor3
Processor

  • For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle

Page 160

Figure 4-5


Processor4
Processor

Pages 160 - 161



Data representation1
Data Representation

A computer circuit represents the 0 or the 1 electronically by the presence or absence of an electrical charge

Eight bits grouped together as a unit are called a byte. A byte represents a single character in the computer

Page 162

Figures 4-6 – 4-7


Data representation2
Data Representation

  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data

Page 162

Figure 4-8


Data representation3
Data Representation

Page 163

Figure 4-9


Memory
Memory

  • Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data

  • Stores three basic categories of items:

Page 163


Memory1
Memory

  • Each location in memory has an address

  • Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), orterabytes (TB)

Page 164

Figure 4-11


Memory2
Memory

  • The system unit contains two types of memory:

Page 164


Memory3
Memory

Page 165

Figure 4-12


Memory4
Memory

  • Three basic types of RAM chips exist:

Page 166


Memory5
Memory

  • RAM chips usually reside on a memory moduleand are inserted into memory slots

Page 166

Figure 4-13


Memory6
Memory

  • The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use

  • Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data

Pages 166 - 167


Memory7
Memory

Page 167


Memory8
Memory

  • Flash memorycan be erased electronically and rewritten

    • CMOStechnology provides high speeds and consumes little power

Pages 167 – 168

Figure 4-14


Memory9
Memory

  • Access timeis the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory

    • Measured in nanoseconds

Page 168

Figures 4-15 – 4-16


Expansion slots and adapter cards
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

  • An expansion slotis a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card

  • An adapter cardenhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals

    • Sound card andvideo card

Page 169

Figure 4-17


Expansion slots and adapter cards1
Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

  • Removable flash memory includes:

    • Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC Cards/ExpressCard modules

Pages 169 - 170

Figure 4-19


Ports and connectors
Ports and Connectors

Pages 170 - 171


Ports and connectors1
Ports and Connectors

Page 170

Figure 4-20


Ports and connectors2
Ports and Connectors

  • On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sides

Pages 170 - 171

Figure 4-21


Ports and connectors3
Ports and Connectors

  • A USB portcan connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector

    • You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with a USB hub

Pages 171 - 172

Figure 4-22


Ports and connectors4
Ports and Connectors

  • Other types of ports include:

Pages 172 - 173


Ports and connectors5
Ports and Connectors

  • A port replicator is an external device that provides connections to peripherals through ports built into the device

  • A docking station is an external device that attaches to a mobile computer or device

Page 173

Figure 4-23


Buses
Buses

  • A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other

    • Data bus

    • Address bus

  • A computer can have these basic types of buses:

    • System bus

    • Backside bus

    • Expansion bus

Page 174

Figure 4-24


Bays

  • A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment

    • A drive baytypically holds disk drives

Page 175

Figure 4-25


Power supply
Power Supply

Page 175


Putting it all together
Putting It All Together

Page 176

Figure 4-26


Putting it all together1
Putting It All Together

Page 176

Figure 4-26


Keeping your computer or mobile device clean
Keeping Your Computer or Mobile Device Clean

Page 177


Summary
Summary

Page 178


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