Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition
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Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition. Chapter Four : The Components of the System Unit. Objectives Overview. See Page 155 for Detailed Objectives. Objectives Overview. See Page 155 for Detailed Objectives. The System Unit.

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Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition

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Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2012 Edition

Chapter Four: The Components of the System Unit


Objectives Overview

See Page 155

for Detailed Objectives


Objectives Overview

See Page 155

for Detailed Objectives


The System Unit

  • The system unitis a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

Page 156

Figure 4-1


The System Unit

  • The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes:

Page 157

Figure 4-2


The System Unit

  • The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit

    • A computer chip contains integrated circuits

Page 158

Figure 4-3


Processor

  • The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

    • Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU)

Page 159


Processor

Page 159

Figure 4-4


Processor

  • The control unitis the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer

  • The arithmetic logic unit(ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations

Pages 159 - 160


Processor

  • For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle

Page 160

Figure 4-5


Processor

Pages 160 - 161


Data Representation

Page 162


Data Representation

A computer circuit represents the 0 or the 1 electronically by the presence or absence of an electrical charge

Eight bits grouped together as a unit are called a byte. A byte represents a single character in the computer

Page 162

Figures 4-6 – 4-7


Data Representation

  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data

Page 162

Figure 4-8


Data Representation

Page 163

Figure 4-9


Memory

  • Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data

  • Stores three basic categories of items:

Page 163


Memory

  • Each location in memory has an address

  • Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), orterabytes (TB)

Page 164

Figure 4-11


Memory

  • The system unit contains two types of memory:

Page 164


Memory

Page 165

Figure 4-12


Memory

  • Three basic types of RAM chips exist:

Page 166


Memory

  • RAM chips usually reside on a memory moduleand are inserted into memory slots

Page 166

Figure 4-13


Memory

  • The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use

  • Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data

Pages 166 - 167


Memory

Page 167


Memory

  • Flash memorycan be erased electronically and rewritten

    • CMOStechnology provides high speeds and consumes little power

Pages 167 – 168

Figure 4-14


Memory

  • Access timeis the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory

    • Measured in nanoseconds

Page 168

Figures 4-15 – 4-16


Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

  • An expansion slotis a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card

  • An adapter cardenhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals

    • Sound card andvideo card

Page 169

Figure 4-17


Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

  • Removable flash memory includes:

    • Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC Cards/ExpressCard modules

Pages 169 - 170

Figure 4-19


Ports and Connectors

Pages 170 - 171


Ports and Connectors

Page 170

Figure 4-20


Ports and Connectors

  • On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sides

Pages 170 - 171

Figure 4-21


Ports and Connectors

  • A USB portcan connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector

    • You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with a USB hub

Pages 171 - 172

Figure 4-22


Ports and Connectors

  • Other types of ports include:

Pages 172 - 173


Ports and Connectors

  • A port replicator is an external device that provides connections to peripherals through ports built into the device

  • A docking station is an external device that attaches to a mobile computer or device

Page 173

Figure 4-23


Buses

  • A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other

    • Data bus

    • Address bus

  • A computer can have these basic types of buses:

    • System bus

    • Backside bus

    • Expansion bus

Page 174

Figure 4-24


Bays

  • A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment

    • A drive baytypically holds disk drives

Page 175

Figure 4-25


Power Supply

Page 175


Putting It All Together

Page 176

Figure 4-26


Putting It All Together

Page 176

Figure 4-26


Keeping Your Computer or Mobile Device Clean

Page 177


Summary

Page 178


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