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Burnout, Work Engagement and Performance. Evangelia Demerouti, PhD Athens, May 2004. Outline. Burnout: background Measurement of Burnout Research Findings Engagement Burnout Interventions. Burnout: ‘discovery’. Since 1974 (Freudenberger)

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Burnout work engagement and performance l.jpg

Burnout, Work Engagement and Performance

Evangelia Demerouti, PhD

Athens, May 2004


Outline l.jpg

Outline

  • Burnout: background

  • Measurement of Burnout

  • Research Findings

  • Engagement

  • Burnout Interventions


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Burnout: ‘discovery’

  • Since 1974 (Freudenberger)

  • Definition: Syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among people who do “people work” of some kind (Maslach, 1982)

  • Main cause: Emotional demands posed by clients


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Burnout: reasons for interest

  • Negative consequences for employees (lack of interest in work – existential doubts)

  • Consequences for clients (low quality of service)

  • High costs for organizations

  • Its excessive spread (around 20% of the employees)

  • Important social problem but still unclear concept


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Causes of burnout

  • Work pressure

  • Emotional demands

  • Role problems

  • Work-family conflict

  • Social support

  • Feedback

  • Participation in decision making


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Consequences of burnout

Individual level

  • Depression

  • Psychosomatic complaints

  • Infections

    Work-related attitudes

  • Job satisfaction

  • Organizational commitment

  • Turnover intention

    Organizational level

  • Absenteeism

  • Turnover


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Burnout and Personality

  • Neuroticism

  • Low extraversion

  • Low hardiness

  • External locus of control

  • Low self-esteem

  • Type A personality

  • Passive coping style


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Depression

Depressive mood

Unhappiness, displeasure

Weight loss

Fearfulness

Sleeping problems (wake up early)

Guilt feelings

Suicide thoughts

Indecisiveness

Attribution of the problem: sickness

General

Low vitality

Burnout

Anger, aggression

Low pleasure

No weight symptoms

No fearfulness

Sleeping problems (difficulty to fall asleep)

Guilt feelings

No suicide thoughts

Indecisiveness (complaint)

Attribution of the problem: work

Work-related

Moderate vitality

Depression vs. Burnout (clinical)


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Occupation-independent conceptualisation of burnout

  • Related to traditional work stressors

  • Work stressors better predictors than ‘working with people’ (Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998)

  • Burnout symptoms parallel to phenomena in non-service occupations (e.g., fatigue, alienation, withdrawal, efficacy)

  • Artefact of the utilized research designs: alternative hypotheses untested


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Measurement of Burnout


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Two ways of diagnosis

  • (Company) doctors using diagnostic session - decision tree

  • Questionnaire (self-reports)


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Emotional Exhaustion (9): feelings of being emotionally overextended and drained by others

Depersonalization (5): feelings of callous, cynical and detached responses toward clients

Reduced Personal Ac-complishment (8): decline in one’s feelings of competence and successful achievement in work with people

Exhaustion (7): feelings of emotional emptiness, overtaxing from work, strong need for rest and a state of physical exhaustion

Distancing from work (8): distancing oneself from one’s work, negative attitudes and behaviours toward work in general, work contents and object

MBI OLBI


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Oldenburg Burnout Inventory

  • Positive and negative worded items

  • Only the core dimensions of burnout

  • Not context-specific

  • Based on theory and not on empirical findings

  • Cut-off scores: - clinical burnout - above the 75 percentile on both dimensions

Demerouti, 1999


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Example items OLBI & MBI-GS

  • Exhaustion (OLBI)

  • “After my work, I usually feel worn out and weary”

  • “After my work, I usually feel totally fit for my leisure activities” (R).

  • Distancing from work (OLBI)

  • “I usually talk about my work in a derogatory way”

  • “I get more and more engaged in my work” (R)

  • (1 = totally disagree, 4 = totally agree)

  • Exhaustion (MBI-GS)

  • “I feel burned out from my work”, “I feel tired when I get up in the morning and have to face another day on the job”.

  • Cynicism (MBI-GS)

  • “I have become less enthusiastic about my work”, “I have become more cynical about whether my work contributes anything”.

  •  Professional efficacy (MBI-GS)

  • “I feel I am making an effective contribution to what this organization does”, “In my opinion, I am good at my job”.

  • (0 = never, 6 = every day)


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Theoretical explanations


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Autonomy

Demand-Control Model

Job Demands

Karasek, 1979


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Salary

Status, Self-esteem

Development

Internal Demands

External Demands

Effort-Reward Imbalance Model

Siegrist, 1996


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Outcomes

Investments

Inequity Model

Schaufeli et al. 1996


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Job Demands

Role conflict

Work-Home

Work times

Emotional Demands

Work Pressure


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Job Resources

Skill Variety

Possibilities Self-growth

Supervisory Coaching

Social Support

Autonomy


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Balance

Role conflict

Skill Variety

Work-Home

Possibilities Self-growth

Work times

Coaching

Emotional Demands

Social Support

Work pressure

Autonomy


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Job Demands-Resources Model

Mental

Job

Demands

+

(Impaired)

Health

Emotional

-

Physical

Organizational

Outcomes

Etc.

-

Support

Job

Resources

+

Motivation

+

Autonomy

Feedback

Etc.

Demerouti et al., 2001


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Assumptions

  • Unique Working Environment for every occupational group

  • 2 categories: Job Demands and Job Resources

  • 2 Processes

    • Health Impairment process

    • Motivational process

  • Job Resources can be Buffer against Job Demands

  • Job Demands may undermine the Motivational Impact of Job Resources


  • Research findings l.jpg

    Research findings


    Slide25 l.jpg

    Human services, production, ATC, N = 374

    Self-reports, observers ratings (italics)

    Demerouti et al., 2001


    Slide26 l.jpg

    Demerouti et al., 2000


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    Food Processing Industry, N=214

    Job

    Demands

    Burnout

    T2 LT

    Absence

    WP

    .63

    .21

    .92

    Reorgan

    .58

    -.68

    .62

    Job

    Resources

    T2 ST

    Absence

    Autonomy

    Commitment

    .96

    -.20

    Participation

    .67

    Bakker, Demerouti, De Boer & Schaufeli, 2003


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    Human Services, N=146

    Bakker, Demerouti & Verbeke, 2004


    Im balance l.jpg

    (Im) Balance

    Impaired health

    Low motivation

    Impaired health

    Motivation

    H

    JOB DEMANDS

    Health

    Low motivation

    Health

    Motivation

    L

    L

    H

    JOB RESOURCES


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    Study among salespersons (N= 650)

    • burned-out salespeople: lowest in-role & extra-role performance

    • non burned-out salespeople: highest in-role & extra-role performance

    • customer-exhausted: among the highest performers (in-role & extra-role performance)  compensation strategy

    • customer-depersonalized: in-role performance uninfluenced, extra-role performance diminished  loss-based selection, in a proactive manner

    • ineffective: highest similarity with the burned-out group (low in- & extra-role performance) feelings of in-efficiency & poor professional self-esteem

      !!! The relationship between burnout – performance is not clear cut!


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    Reciprocal effects

    • Exhaustion  Errors  more JD  more Exhaustion

    • Depersonalisation  negative behaviour  less JR  more Depersonalisation

    • Competence  good performance  more JR  more Competence

    • Negative or Positive Spiral...


    Slide33 l.jpg

    Job

    Demands I

    Job

    Demands II

    Job

    Demands III

    Exhaustion I

    Exhaustion III

    Exhaustion II

    Job

    Resources I

    Job

    Resources II

    Job

    Resources III

    Depersonalization I

    Depersonalization II

    Depersonalization III

    Personal

    Accomplishment I

    Personal

    Accomplishment III

    Personal

    Accomplishment II

    Bakker, Demerouti, van Dierendock & Schaufeli, submitted


    Work engagement l.jpg

    Work engagement


    Slide35 l.jpg

    Towards positive psychology

    • Most psychologists are busy with sicknesses instead of well-being

      - Publications on negative vs. positive states are 17:1 (Diener et al., 1999)

    • Causes of sicknesses are not identical with the causes of well-being

    • Absence of sickness does not automatically mean presence of well-being

    • Different focus: instead of treatment and prevention, improvement and optimalization!


    Slide36 l.jpg

    Burnout vs. Engagement

    Exhaustion

    Red.

    Competence

    Cynicism

    Absorption

    Vigor

    Dedication


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    Work engagement: definition

    • Engagement: a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli et al., 2004). It refers to a persistent and pervasive affective–cognitive state that is not focused on any particular object, event, individual, or behavior.

      Dimensions

    • Vigor is characterized by high levels of energy and mental resilience while working, the willingness to invest effort in one’s work, and persistence also in the face of difficulties.

    • Dedication is characterized by a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge.

    • Absorption is characterized by being fully concentrated and happily engrossed in one’s work, whereby time passes quickly and one has difficulties with detaching oneself from work.


    Slide38 l.jpg

    Work Engagement

    • Vigor

      • At my work, I feel bursting with energy

      • At my job, I feel strong and vigorous

    • Dedication

      • To me, my job is challenging

      • I am enthusiastic about my job

    • Absorption

      • When I am working, I forget everything else around me

      • I am completely immersed in my work


    Engaged employees l.jpg

    Engaged Employees

    • Take personal initiative

    • Generate their own positive feedback

    • Are also engaged outside their work

    • Are tired in a different way

    • Also want to do other things than working


    Prevalence l.jpg

    Prevalence

    %


    Home care n 45 000 l.jpg

    Home Care, N=45.000

    Workload

    Job

    Demands

    Burnout

    Client

    Satisfaction

    Emotions

    +

    -

    Intimity

    Work-Home

    -

    Support

    Job

    Resources

    Engagement

    Efficiency

    Autonomy

    +

    +

    Feedback

    Coaching

    Source: Taris, Bakker et al. (in prep.)


    Burnout interventions l.jpg

    Burnout interventions


    Slide44 l.jpg

    Overview of the strategies

    Focus

    Aim

    Organization

    Individual

    Identification

    Primary

    prevention

    Secundary

    prevention

    Treatment


    Slide45 l.jpg

    Organisational strategies

    • Risk inventarisation

    • Screening

    Identification

    Primary

    prevention

    • Regulation of work pressure

    • Job design / task content

    • Conflict management

    • Management Development

    Secondary

    prevention

    • Contact company doctor

    • Social-medical team

    Treatment


    Slide46 l.jpg

    Individual strategies

    • Self-monitoring

    • Self-assessment

    Identification

    Primary

    prevention

    • Didactic stress management

    • Work-Family balance

    Secondary

    prevention

    • Time management

    • Relaxation training

    • Social medical supervision

    • Psychotherapy

    Treatment


    Slide47 l.jpg

    Success (meta-analysis)

    k

    N

    d

    Effect

    Cogn. therapy

    18

    858

    .68

    moderate

    Relaxation

    17

    982

    .35

    small

    Multimodal

    8

    470

    .51

    moderate

    Organization

    5

    1463

    .08

    non-sign.

    • Van der Klink et al. (2000)


    Slide48 l.jpg

    Critical success factors

    • Stepwise systematic approach

    • Adequate diagnosis and analyses of the problems

    • Combination of work- and person-oriented approaches

    • Active participation of all involving parties

    • Commitment of the top

    Kompier & Cooper (1999)


    Jdr project l.jpg

    Training

    Consultants

    Follow-up

    Acquisition

    Interventions

    Project

    Report

    Project team

    Data via

    Internet

    JDR-

    questionnaire

    JDR-Project


    Jdr project50 l.jpg

    Training

    Consultants

    Follow-up

    Acquisition

    Interventions

    Project

    Report

    Project team

    Data via

    Internet

    Individual

    Feedback

    JDR-

    questionnaire

    JDR-Project


    Feedback well being l.jpg

    Feedback Well-Being

    Source: www.hcmg.co.uk


    Feedback job demands l.jpg

    Feedback Job Demands

    Source: www.hcmg.co.uk


    Feedback job resources l.jpg

    Feedback Job Resources

    Source: www.hcmg.co.uk


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    Summary and Future

    • Burnout: Syndrome of our times

      • More clarity regarding causality & consequences

      • Multi-dimensional approaches

  • JDR-model: flexible and static structure

    • Scientific - Integration

    • Practice – Application to organizations, teams, and individuals

  • Future Research

    • Longitudinal, positive health indicators, reciprocal relations, burnout contagion and crossover, international research


  • E demerouti@fss uu nl l.jpg

    [email protected]

    Thank you for your attention!


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