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Science and the Mass Media. Preview Section 1: Science as a Social Institution Section 2: Mass Media as a Social Institution Chapter Wrap-Up. Read to Discover What factors have contributed to the institutionalization of science?

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Science and the Mass Media

Preview

Section 1: Science as a Social Institution

Section 2: Mass Media as a Social Institution

Chapter Wrap-Up


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Read to Discover

What factors have contributed to the institutionalization of science?

How do the norms of scientific research differ from the realities of scientific research?

Section 1: Science as a Social Institution


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Science emerged as a recognizable system of study in Greece during the 300s B.C. and was reborn in Europe in the 1300s as a result of the following factors:

The Renaissancebegan in Italy in the 1300s

The Printing Pressfacilitated the spread of scientific knowledge

The Age of Exploration encouraged advances in math and astronomy, and sparked curiosity with biological samples brought back from distant lands

The Protestant Reformation lessened resistance to scientific inquiry

Section 1: Science as a Social Institution

The Institution of Science


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The Scientific Revolution during the 300s emerged in the 1500s, redefining the nature of the universe, the methods of scientific research, and the functions of science

The Enlightenment supported reason over religious beliefs, using the scientific method and scientific facts

Industrializationled to the emergence of modern science in the late 1800s and early 1900s; the central ideal was progress, and most people saw science as a tool of progress

Section 1: Science as a Social Institution

The Institution of Science


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Section 1: Science as a Social Institution during the 300s

Question

How do the norms of scientific research differ from the realities?


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Realities of Scientific Research during the 300s

Norms of Scientific Research

Although many scientists try to or would like to follow Merton’s norms, reality often falls short of this ideal

 Fraud

 Competition

 Matthew Effect

 ConflictingViews of Reality

 Universalism

 Organized Skepticism

 Communalism

 Disinterestedness

 Counter-norms

Section 1: Science as a Social Institution


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NORMS: during the 300s

Universalism—Scientific research should be judged solely on the basis of quality

Organized Skepticism—No scientific finding or theory is exempt from questioning

Communalism—All scientific knowledge should be made available to everyone in the scientific community

Disinterestedness—Scientists seek truth, not personal gain

Counter-norms—Opposite of the four norms above, adopted by scientists when the issues of their research are not clearly defined

Section 1: Science as a Social Institution


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REALITIES: during the 300s

Fraud—Falsification or misrepresentation of scientific data

Competition—Scientific achievement is measured in terms of peer recognition and can lead to financial rewards and job security; competition can result in refusal to share data, a rush to publish causing possible inaccuracy, and even publishing data with intentional inaccuracies

The Matthew Effect—Honors and recognition tend to go to those who have already achieved recognition

Conflicting Views of Reality—People define reality in a certain way and act accordingly; the scientific community’s perception of reality at any point in time determines appropriate topics for research, methods which should be used, and even acceptable interpretations of data

Section 1: Science as a Social Institution


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Read to Discover during the 300s

What are the major developments in the history of mass media, and what are the types of mass media in the United States?

How do the sociological perspectives of mass media differ?

What are some contemporary mass-media issues?

Section 2: Mass Media as a Social Institution


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Writing and Paper during the 300s —a written language was needed to record business and other transactions; paper was developed some time between 3100 and 2500 B.C.

Printing Press—during the 1450s Johannes Gutenberg developed movable type

Section 2: Mass Media as a Social Institution

History of Mass Media


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The Industrial Age during the 300s —with rising standards of education and increasing requirements for factory work and life in the city, more people learned to read and write

The Computer and the Information Society—the digital computer completely transformed the way people store and access information

Section 2: Mass Media as a Social Institution

History of Mass Media


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Print Media during the 300s —include newspapers, magazines, and books

Audio Media—sound recordings and radio

Visual Media—movies, television, DVDs, and videocassettes

Online Media—Internet

Convergence—integration of different media

Section 2: Mass Media as a Social Institution

Types of Mass Media


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The Functionalist Perspective during the 300s —focuses on the ways in which mass media help to preserve social stability

The Conflict Perspective—focuses on how mass media serve to maintain the existing social order

Section 2: Mass Media as a Social Institution

Sociological Perspectives of Mass Media


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Section 2: Mass Media as a during the 300s Social Institution

Question

What are some contemporary mass media issues?


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Contemporary Mass-Media Issues during the 300s

Section 2: Mass Media as a Social Institution

 Children watching too much television

 Violence on television

 Ratings systems and parental controls

 Advertising targeting children

 Disengagement from direct social contact

 Decline in social capital

 Internet causing decline in face-to-face relationships

 The power of the media; agenda-setting


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Chapter Wrap-Up during the 300s Understanding Main Ideas

  • What four factors contributed to the rebirth of science in Europe?

  • How did world exploration influence societal behavior and the growth of scientific learning?

  • What forces combined to encourage the development of the urban newspaper?

  • How do age, education, and income affect media consumption? How have new technologies affected this trend?

  • What functions do the media serve?

  • According to conflict sociologists, how does the knowledge gap help maintain social inequality?

  • According to Robert Putnam, how has television led to a decline in the country’s social capital?


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