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HIST 202 - HESEN. The U.S. and World War I, 1914-1918. Long-Term Causes of World War I. Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Remember MAIN!. Alliance Systems. Triple Alliance/Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Italy…until 1915. Triple Entente/Allied Powers

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The U.S. and World War I, 1914-1918

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Hist 202 hesen

HIST 202 - HESEN

The U.S. and World War I, 1914-1918


Long term causes of world war i

Long-Term Causes of World War I

  • Militarism

  • Alliances

  • Imperialism

  • Nationalism

  • Remember MAIN!


Alliance systems

Alliance Systems

  • Triple Alliance/Central Powers

    • Germany

    • Austria-Hungary

    • Ottoman Empire

    • Italy…until 1915

  • Triple Entente/Allied Powers

    • Great Britain

    • France

    • Russia

    • Italy…in 1915

    • U.S….in 1917


Balkan powder keg

Balkan Powder Keg

  • Problems in Serbia

    • Austria-Hungary governs

    • One of the smallest European countries

    • Black Hand

      • GavriloPrincip

      • June 28, 1914 – assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand


American neutrality

American Neutrality

  • U.S. traded with all Allied countries

  • 1915 – British blockade Germany

    • Effects:

      • U.S. can’t trade with Germany

      • German enters famine

      • Germany blames Great Britain and U.S.


Submarine warfare

Submarine Warfare

  • Response from Germany – “Eliminate the blockade”

  • Targeted merchant and military vessels

  • Lusitania – May 7, 1915

    • 128 Americans died

  • Sussex – March 1916

    • Sussex Pledge – sink with warnings only


  • Economic links with allies

    Economic Links with Allies

    • Tied chiefly to Great Britain and France

    • U.S. makes war supplies – sends to Allied Powers

    • Blame blockade for not trading with Germany

    • 1914-1917 – trade with Great Britain and France quadrupled


    Public opinion

    Public Opinion

    • Americans favored Britain and France

    • Germany – “bully of Europe”

      • Reinforced with Lusitania

    • Loans to businesses – JP MORGAN


    Ethnic influences

    Ethnic Influences

    • Second generation immigrants in U.S.

    • Make-up 30% of population

    • Sympathizers

      • Germans – “homeland”

      • Irish – hates British

      • Russians – great protectors


    Opposition to the war

    Opposition to the War

    • Mostly from the Midwest and West

    • Scared that U.S. would get involved

    • Progressives

    • Populists

    • Socialists

    • Pacifists


    Going to war

    Going to War

    • Major U.S. causes:

      • Unrestricted submarine warfare

      • Zimmerman Telegram

      • Russian Revolution

    • Declaration of War – April 2, 1917


    Fighting over there

    Fighting “Over There”

    • Conditions

      • Trench warfare

      • Trench foot

      • Chemical warfare

      • Shell shock

      • Affected Allied and Central Powers ***


    U s mobilization

    U.S. Mobilization

    • Committee on Public Information

      • George Creel

    • Food Administration

      • Herbert Hoover

    • National War Labor Board

    • War Industries Board


    Public opinion and civil liberties

    Public Opinion and Civil Liberties

    • Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917)

      • Prohibited disloyal speech

      • Applied to all Allied Powers

      • Imprisonment – 2,000

      • Schenck v. U.S. - 1919


    Armed forces

    Armed Forces

    • Selective Service Act

      • June 1917

      • 2.8 million men put into lottery

      • Made up half of the fighting force

      • African-Americans

        • 400,000 served in segregated units

        • W.E.B. DuBois


    Effects on american society

    Effects on American Society

    • MORE JOBS!!

      • Men leave --- factory jobs taken by women

      • Men leave cities – migrants move North from South


    World war i ends

    World War I Ends

    • War ends November 11, 1918

    • Hailed as a major Allied victory

      • 116,000 U.S. troops killed

      • 5 million Russians dead


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