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The Cold War. Communism vs Capitalism USSR vs US Us vs Them. Chapter 22 Sec. 1. The Cold War Chapter 22 Sec. 1 . Era of confrontation & competition between the Soviet & US from 1946 to 1990. The roots of the Cold War can be found in the period just before the end of WWII.

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The cold war

The Cold War

Communism vs Capitalism

USSR vs US

Us vs Them

Chapter 22 Sec. 1


The cold war chapter 22 sec 1
The Cold War Chapter 22 Sec. 1

Era of confrontation & competition between the Soviet & US from 1946 to 1990.

The roots of the Cold War can be found in the period just before the end of WWII.

TWO Differing Goals:

The United State’s Goals- Democracy, free enterprise & economic growth would lead to peaceful future in post war world.

The Soviet Union’s Goals: keep Germany weak economically & militarily, communism was superior to capitalism= spread communism.



YALTA CONFERENCE, 1945: FDR, CHURCHILL AND STALIN MET TO DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR.


The yalta conference feb 1945
*The Yalta Conference DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR. (Feb. 1945)

  • FDR (BEFORE HE DIED), STALIN, & CHURCHILL

  • PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN CAUSING THE COLD WAR

  • Soviets were setting up communist governments in Europe as they moved through.

  • Poland- two rival governments claimed the right to govern Poland- one communist the other –non-communist.

  • Agreement- FDR & Churchill agreed to recognize communist government set up by the Soviets; Stalin agreed to allow free elections later (never happened)

  • Declaration of Liberated Europe- Big three agreed that people in Europe had the right to form governments & democracy.

  • Germany- the Big Three agreed to divide Germany into 4 zones controlled by : Britain, France, US, & Soviets.

  • Berlin also divided into 4 zones

  • Stalin insisted that Germany pay heavy war reparations

  • FDR got Stalin to accept German goods instead of cash


Division of Germany after World War II DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR.


POTSDAM CONFERENCE, JULY 1945 DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR.

CHURCHILL, TRUMAN, AND STALIN

DECIDE HOW TO DEAL WITH GERMANY AND JAPAN


The potsdam conference july 1945
* The Potsdam Conference (July 1945) DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR.

  • FDR died; 1st meeting between President Truman, Stalin, Churchill

  • War was still raging against Japan at this point

  • Stalin wants to keep Germany weak; Truman distrustful of Stalin-won’t appease him.

    Agreement-

  • Stalin agreed to accept small amount of industrial equipment from US, British, & French zones instead of cash.

  • Soviets had to pay for part of it with food shipments from the Soviet zone to Western Germany.

  • Truman agreed to accept new German-Polish border

    * Truman hinted that the US had developed a new powerful weapon (atomic bomb).


Behind the iron curtain
Behind the ‘Iron Curtain” DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR.

  • Soviets established communist government in Romania & did not allow non-communist to serve in government in Poland.

  • *“Satellite nations”- communist countries of Eastern Europe controlled by USSR.

  • 1946- Winston Churchill gave a speech in Fulton, Missouri– “an iron curtain has fallen across Eastern Europe”.

  • *“Iron Curtain”- area separating free Europe from communist area of Eastern Europe & Soviet Union.


Churchill giving his “iron curtain” speech in March of 1946 at Fulton Missouri

"A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victories. . . . From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”

Churchill’s main points were that there should be a US/UK agreement within the framework of the U.N. to resist and deter any disturbances to world peace and that Stalin wants "not war but the fruits of war”, and if the allies stay strong and united they can counter any Soviet threat



The long telegram
The Long Telegram 1946 at Fulton Missouri

Chapter 22 Sec. 2

  • *George Kennan

    • American Ambassador to USSR

  • *Long Telegram: 5,540 word explanation of what he believed were Soviet goals

  • Proposed long term *CONTAINMENT of Communism

  • *Containment – keeping Communism within its present territory

  • *Containment will be US policy during the Cold War for 40 years!!



Iran crisis
Iran Crisis 1945-46

  • After WWII- US & USSR jointly occupied Iran

  • US withdrew– USSR refused to withdraw & supported a communist government in North Iran (wanted access to oil).

  • Truman’s Actions:

  • Sent strong message to Soviets to withdraw

  • Sent USS Missouri to eastern Mediterranean

    Result- Soviet’s withdrew with promise of a Iranian-Soviet oil company.


BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY FACED COMMUNIST REVOLTS IN 1947 AND ASKED THE U.S. FOR AID TO DEFEND THEMSELVES FROM COMMUNIST TAKEOVERS

FIGHTING AGAINST COMMUNISTS IN GREECE


What plan said the us would be the only influence in the western hemisphere
What plan said the US would be the only influence in the Western Hemisphere?

  • The Roosevelt Corollary

  • The Quadruple Alliance

  • The Monroe Doctrine

  • The Platt Amendment


The truman doctrine
The Truman Doctrine Western Hemisphere?

  • Truman’s policy on fighting Soviet aggression around the world

  • Asked Congress for $400 million to fight communists in Turkey & Greece.

  • Truman pledged to help people fighting against communism with money & supplies.

“To aid free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.”


The marshall plan
The Marshall Plan Western Hemisphere?

  • 1947 George Marshall – Secretary of State

  • European recovery plan

  • American aid to rebuild Europe after WWII- US sent billions of dollars to help western Europe recover.

  • Necessary to fight Communism


GERMAN CITY OF HAMBURG IN 1947 BEFORE THE MARSHALL PLAN Western Hemisphere?

EFFECTS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN

HAMBURG, 1952, AFTER THE MARSHALL PLAN


The berlin crisis
The Berlin Crisis Western Hemisphere?

  • 1948- US, Britain, France announce that they will merge their 3 zones & allow Germany to set up a government.

  • Make West Berlin part of new Germany

  • June 1948- USSR cut all rail, road traffic to West Berlin


The berlin airlift
The Berlin Airlift Western Hemisphere?

  • Truman ordered an airlift of supplies to West Berliners

  • 11 months (2 million tons of supplies)

  • Also sent bombers with atomic weapons to Britain just in case



Alliances are made
Alliances are Made Western Hemisphere?

  • **NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  • Mutual defense alliance

  • *Warsaw Pact

  • Soviet Union’s response to West Germany joining NATO

  • An organized military alliance in Eastern Europe


EASTERN EUROPEAN NATIONS TAKEN OVER BY THE USSR AFTER WW II YUGOSLAVIA, WHILE COMMUNIST, REMAINED INDEPENDENT


IN OCTOBER 1947 THE UN AUTHORIZED THE CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL WITH BOTH THE US AND USSR VOTING IN FAVOR.

ON MAY 14TH 1948 ISRAEL DECLARED ITS INDEPENDENCE AND FIVE ARAB STATES IMMEDIATELY INVADED WITH THE GOAL OF DESTROYING THE NEWLY CREATED JEWISH STATE. THEY WERE DEFEATED BY ISRAEL

MUFTI AND HITLER DURING THE WW II

The Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Al Husseini stated, “I declare a holy war, my Moslem brothers! Murder the Jews! Murder them all!"


THE CONFLICT BETWEEN ARABS AND ISRAELIS IS AN ONGOING THEME IN THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE US DURING THE COLD WAR AND BEYOND.

BECAUSE OF THE 1948 ARAB ISRAELI WAR SOME 500,000 ARABS FLED ISRAEL AND MANY REMAIN REFUGEES TODAY HOPING TO RETURN TO THEIR FORMER HOMES. IT IS ESTIMATED THAT AS MANY AS 800,000 JEWS WERE FORCED TO LEAVE ARAB COUNTRIES DURING THE 1940’S AND 50’S. MOST OF THESE REFUGEES WERE ABSORBED INTO ISRAEL.


Cold war in east asia
Cold War in East Asia IN THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE US DURING THE COLD WAR AND BEYOND.

  • Chinese Revolution

    • 1949 Communists

    • Mao Zedong

  • US sent aid to Nationalist government who were defeated & fled to Taiwan

  • Shocked America

  • 1949 – Soviets test their first Atomic Bomb

  • Sino-Soviet Pact

    • 1950

    • China & USSR

  • Changed US policy towards Japan

    • Encouraged more rapid recovery


President Truman approves the development of the hydrogen bomb. This new type of nuclear weapon is at least 100 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in 1945.

THE FIRST US HYDROGEN BOMB WAS EXPLODED IN NOVEMBER OF1952. THE USSR EXPLODED ONE IN 1953.


The korean war 1950 1953
The Korean War 1950-1953 bomb. This new type of nuclear weapon is at least 100 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in 1945.

  • 38th parallel

  • Communist in the North

  • Democracy in the South

  • June 25, 1950--North Korea invaded South Korea

  • Test of Containment

  • US got UN to send multinational force led by US


Pusan Perimeter bomb. This new type of nuclear weapon is at least 100 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in 1945.

North Koreans pushed the South Korean and U.N. armies all the way to Pusan in the south


GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR WAS PUT IN OVERALL COMMAND OF UNITED NATIONS FORCES

Macarthur made a brilliant Invasion at Inchon which pushed the North Koreans back over the border

China then invaded & pushed the UN army back to the 38th parallel



Korean war
Korean War WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

  • Truman fired Gen. McArthur- MacArthur wanted to attack China (criticized president openly)

  • *Limited War

    • Truman remained committed to a limited objective of containing communism

  • **Important turning point in Cold War

    • Created the need for the US to begin a massive military build up


End of the korean war
End of the Korean War WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

1951- peace negotiations began

Armistice signed July 1953 (President Eisenhower)-hinted use of bomb against China

33,600 US soldiers died

Changes:

Led to US military buildup


The red scare
The Red Scare WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

Chapter 22 Section 3

  • Fear that Communists were secretly working to subvert the American government

  • Sept. 1945- Soviet Igor Gouzenko defected to Canada; carried documents that Soviet spies were trying to infiltrate US & Canada

  • Subversion

    • The effort to secretly weaken a society & overthrow its government

  • J. Edgar Hoover

    • FBI Director

      Loyalty Review Program (1947-1951)

  • US Government screened all federal employees for Communist leanings.

  • 6 million US federal employees screened

  • 14,000 investigated by FBI

  • 2,000 quit their jobs

  • 212 were fired for “questionable" loyalty


The house un american activities committee huac
The House Un-American Activities WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.Committee (HUAC)

Formed in1938 to investigate Communists & Fascists in the US.

The Committee investigated communists & those who “sympathized” with them.

Richard Nixon - member of the committee (1948-1949)

Hollywood on Trial- HUAC questioned people in the movie industry about communist activities.

“The Hollywood Ten”- used 5th Amendment to refuse to testify.

Blacklists- people who refused to cooperate were denied jobs.

Alger Hiss (former member of FDR’s staff)- accused of being a communist by (Whittaker Chambers).

Hiss denied being a communist

Pumpkin Papers- seemed to prove that Hiss had lied

Hiss was found guilty of perjury


Subverts
Subverts WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

  • Whittaker Chambers

    • Admitted he was a Communist & claimed there were other government officials

  • Alger Hiss

    • Government official named by Chambers

    • Pumpkin Papers

    • Convicted of perjury


Julius ethel rosenberg
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

  • 1950- Government charged them with spying

  • NY couple-members of Communist Party

  • Convicted & put to death (1953)

  • Divided the country


Project venona
Project WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.Venona

  • 1946-1995

  • Cryptographers cracked the Soviet spy code (1946)

  • Found many spies in the US

  • American public didn’t know until 1995

  • Proved Rosenberg's were guilty


Joseph mccarthy
Joseph McCarthy WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

  • Claimed to have the names of 205 Communists in the government (State Department)

  • Charged Secretary of State Dean Acheson & Army Chief of Staff George Marshall

  • *McCarthyism-tactic of damaging reputations using vague unfounded charges


Mccarthyism
McCarthyism WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

  • (1950)McCarranInternal Security Act

    • Made it illegal to conspire or perform any act with a person contributing to a totalitarian government

    • Required all Communist organizations & party members to register with the Attorney General

  • 1954-Army-McCarthyHearings

    • Televised hearings

    • McCarthy seen bullying witnesses in the Army

    • *Caused his support to fade

  • Senate voted censure of McCarthy


Living with the bomb
Living with the Bomb WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

  • Duck & Cover

    • Protection from the blast

  • Fallout shelters

    • Built in backyards to protect from fallout

  • Fallout

    • Radiation left over after a blast

  • Cold War Nightmares

    • Movies

  • Enjoyed a time of prosperity


Fallout shelters
Fallout Shelters WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.


Dwight d eisenhower 1953 1961 pledged to end korean war
Dwight D. Eisenhower WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.1953 – 1961Pledged to end Korean War

Chapter 23

Section 4


Election of 1952
Election of 1952 WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

Truman will not run again: Foreign Policy not working, USSR had the bomb, China fallen to communism, US troops in Korea.

Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson

Republicans nominated Dwight D.Eisenhower

  • *Eisenhower promised to go to Korea to force an end to the war if elected.

  • Dec. 1953- armistice signed


More bang for the buck
‘More Bang for the Buck’ WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

  • Believed key to winning Cold war was a strong economy

  • Conventional war cost too much – using atomic weapons gave the US ‘more bang for the buck’

  • *Massive Retaliation

    • The best way to prevent a conventional war was to threaten with nuclear weapons


Brinkmanship
Brinkmanship WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.

  • Critics of Eisenhower’s Massive Retaliation called his willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side down= “brinkmanship”

  • Secretary of State John Dulles- major player in US policy in 1950’s.


IN MARCH OF 1953 JOSEPH STALIN THE COMMUNIST DICTATOR OF THE SOVIET UNION DIED. AFTER THIS THE KOREAN PEACE NEGOIATIONS TOOK A MORE POSITIVE TURN.


NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV BECAME THE LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION AFTER STALIN’S DEATH. HE DENOUNCED THE CRIMES OF STALIN IN A FAMOUS 1956 SPEECH AND SET OUT TO REFORM THE USSR. ALTHOUGH HE ADVOCATED “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE” THERE WERE SEVERAL SERIOUS ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WHILE HE WAS IN OFFICE. IN 1956 HE ANNOUNCED AT A UN SPEECH THAT “WE (USSR) WILL BURY YOU (US)”

Nikita Khrushchev becomes leader of USSR


The domino theory
**The Domino Theory AFTER STALIN’S DEATH. HE DENOUNCED THE CRIMES OF STALIN IN A FAMOUS 1956 SPEECH AND SET OUT TO REFORM THE USSR. ALTHOUGH HE ADVOCATED “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE” THERE WERE SEVERAL SERIOUS ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WHILE HE WAS IN OFFICE. IN 1956 HE ANNOUNCED AT A UN SPEECH THAT “WE (USSR) WILL BURY YOU (US)”

  • 1947- President Truman started sending money to French forces in Vietnam trying to prevent their colony from take over by Communists.

  • Eisenhower continued this policy

  • “Domino Theory”- Eisenhower’s belief that if one Asian nation fell to communism others would fall as well.


Containment 1950s
Containment – 1950s AFTER STALIN’S DEATH. HE DENOUNCED THE CRIMES OF STALIN IN A FAMOUS 1956 SPEECH AND SET OUT TO REFORM THE USSR. ALTHOUGH HE ADVOCATED “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE” THERE WERE SEVERAL SERIOUS ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WHILE HE WAS IN OFFICE. IN 1956 HE ANNOUNCED AT A UN SPEECH THAT “WE (USSR) WILL BURY YOU (US)”

  • Taiwan

    • China attacks Taiwan

    • US warns of nuclear weapons

    • China backs down

    • Containment works

  • Suez Canal Crisis (1956)

  • Egyptian troops seized Suez Canal—Britain & France sent troops

  • USSR supported Egypt

  • British & French withdraw


Central intelligence agency
Central Intelligence Agency AFTER STALIN’S DEATH. HE DENOUNCED THE CRIMES OF STALIN IN A FAMOUS 1956 SPEECH AND SET OUT TO REFORM THE USSR. ALTHOUGH HE ADVOCATED “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE” THERE WERE SEVERAL SERIOUS ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WHILE HE WAS IN OFFICE. IN 1956 HE ANNOUNCED AT A UN SPEECH THAT “WE (USSR) WILL BURY YOU (US)”

  • Created to use covert operations to combat & contain Communism

  • Developing Nations were key

    • Iran – CIA started a riot & returned the Shah of Iran to power

    • Guatemala- CIA trained opponents of communist president ousted him.

      • United Fruit Company


OCTOBER 4 AFTER STALIN’S DEATH. HE DENOUNCED THE CRIMES OF STALIN IN A FAMOUS 1956 SPEECH AND SET OUT TO REFORM THE USSR. ALTHOUGH HE ADVOCATED “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE” THERE WERE SEVERAL SERIOUS ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WHILE HE WAS IN OFFICE. IN 1956 HE ANNOUNCED AT A UN SPEECH THAT “WE (USSR) WILL BURY YOU (US)”TH 1957 THE SPACE RACE BEGAN WHEN RUSSIA LAUNCHED SPUTNIK,THE FIRST ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE TO ORBIT THE EARTH. AMERICANS WERE SHOCKED THAT THE SOVIETS WERE THE FIRST INTO SPACE


Sputnik
Sputnik AFTER STALIN’S DEATH. HE DENOUNCED THE CRIMES OF STALIN IN A FAMOUS 1956 SPEECH AND SET OUT TO REFORM THE USSR. ALTHOUGH HE ADVOCATED “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE” THERE WERE SEVERAL SERIOUS ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WHILE HE WAS IN OFFICE. IN 1956 HE ANNOUNCED AT A UN SPEECH THAT “WE (USSR) WILL BURY YOU (US)”

  • *Sputnik--First artificial satellite launched by the Soviets in 1957

    • Alarmed Americans

    • Americans falling behind in missile technology

  • B-52 Bomber – able to fly across continents

  • Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs)

    • Could deliver bombs without aircraft

  • National Aeronautics& SpaceAdministration

    • NASA

    • Coordinate research in rocket science & space exploration

  • National DefenseEducation Act (NDEA)

    • Education in science, math & foreign languages


In 1957 a new word entered the world’s vocabulary: ICBM, short for intercontinental ballistic missiles. These were nuclear bomb carrying missiles with ranges of over five thousand miles. No place on earth was safe from nuclear destruction.

USSR WAS THE FIRST TO SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCH AN ICBM

FIRST US ATLAS ICBM


The U.S. did not get an object into orbit until January of 1958 after several embarrassing failures. The space race was on.


OCTOBER 23, 1956 THE PEOPLE OF HUNGARY ROSE UP AGAINST THEIR USSR COMMUNIST IMPOSED GOVERNMENT. FOR A SHORT TIME IT APPEARED THAT THE REVOLT MIGHT SUCCEED BUT ON NOVEMBER 4TH SOVIET TANK ARMIES INVADED AND CRUSHED THE REVOLT. A SIMILAR 1952 REVOLT IN POLAND WAS ALSO DEFEATED BY RUSSIAN TANKS.


FIDEL CASTRO USSR COMMUNIST IMPOSED GOVERNMENT. FOR A SHORT TIME IT APPEARED THAT THE REVOLT MIGHT SUCCEED BUT ON NOVEMBER 4

ON JANUARY 1, 1959 REVOLUTION IN CUBA SUCCESSFULLY OVERTHREW THE Pro-US GOVERNMENT. ON JANUARY 6THFIDEL CASTRO BECAME PREMIER AND LATER COMMUNIST DICTATOR OF CUBA. MANY CUBANS FLEE TO THE U.S.


The paris summit 1960
The Paris Summit USSR COMMUNIST IMPOSED GOVERNMENT. FOR A SHORT TIME IT APPEARED THAT THE REVOLT MIGHT SUCCEED BUT ON NOVEMBER 4 (1960)

  • 1959- Soviet leader Khrushchev visited the US

  • Eisenhower & Khrushchev agreed to meet again in Paris 1960.

  • The Soviets shot down an American spy plane before the summit began

  • At first, Eisenhower denied US involvement.

  • Khrushchev broke up the summit


MAY 1960: THE U-2 INCIDENT USSR COMMUNIST IMPOSED GOVERNMENT. FOR A SHORT TIME IT APPEARED THAT THE REVOLT MIGHT SUCCEED BUT ON NOVEMBER 4

A US U-2 RECONNAISSANCE (SPY) PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN OVER THE SOVIET UNION

U-2 Plane was piloted by Garry Powers


Military industrial complex
Military Industrial Complex USSR COMMUNIST IMPOSED GOVERNMENT. FOR A SHORT TIME IT APPEARED THAT THE REVOLT MIGHT SUCCEED BUT ON NOVEMBER 4

  • Eisenhower’s warning in his farewell speech

  • Do not let the build up of military industry affect democracy


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