The Cold War. Communism vs Capitalism USSR vs US Us vs Them. Chapter 22 Sec. 1. The Cold War Chapter 22 Sec. 1 . Era of confrontation & competition between the Soviet & US from 1946 to 1990. The roots of the Cold War can be found in the period just before the end of WWII.
Communism vs Capitalism
USSR vs US
Us vs Them
Chapter 22 Sec. 1
Era of confrontation & competition between the Soviet & US from 1946 to 1990.
The roots of the Cold War can be found in the period just before the end of WWII.
TWO Differing Goals:
The United State’s Goals- Democracy, free enterprise & economic growth would lead to peaceful future in post war world.
The Soviet Union’s Goals: keep Germany weak economically & militarily, communism was superior to capitalism= spread communism.
YALTA CONFERENCE, 1945: FDR, CHURCHILL AND STALIN MET TO DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR.
Division of Germany after World War II DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR.
POTSDAM CONFERENCE, JULY 1945 DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF EUROPE AFTER THE WAR.
CHURCHILL, TRUMAN, AND STALIN
DECIDE HOW TO DEAL WITH GERMANY AND JAPAN
* Truman hinted that the US had developed a new powerful weapon (atomic bomb).
Churchill giving his “iron curtain” speech in March of 1946 at Fulton Missouri
"A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victories. . . . From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”
Churchill’s main points were that there should be a US/UK agreement within the framework of the U.N. to resist and deter any disturbances to world peace and that Stalin wants "not war but the fruits of war”, and if the allies stay strong and united they can counter any Soviet threat
UNITED NATIONS MEETS FOR THE FIRST TIME, 1945 1946 at Fulton Missouri
Chapter 22 Sec. 2
Result- Soviet’s withdrew with promise of a Iranian-Soviet oil company.
BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY FACED COMMUNIST REVOLTS IN 1947 AND ASKED THE U.S. FOR AID TO DEFEND THEMSELVES FROM COMMUNIST TAKEOVERS
FIGHTING AGAINST COMMUNISTS IN GREECE
“To aid free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.”
GERMAN CITY OF HAMBURG IN 1947 BEFORE THE MARSHALL PLAN Western Hemisphere?
EFFECTS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN
HAMBURG, 1952, AFTER THE MARSHALL PLAN
IN MAY OF 1949 THE RUSSIANS ENDED THE BERLIN BLOCKADE Western Hemisphere?
EASTERN EUROPEAN NATIONS TAKEN OVER BY THE USSR AFTER WW II YUGOSLAVIA, WHILE COMMUNIST, REMAINED INDEPENDENT
IN OCTOBER 1947 THE UN AUTHORIZED THE CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL WITH BOTH THE US AND USSR VOTING IN FAVOR.
ON MAY 14TH 1948 ISRAEL DECLARED ITS INDEPENDENCE AND FIVE ARAB STATES IMMEDIATELY INVADED WITH THE GOAL OF DESTROYING THE NEWLY CREATED JEWISH STATE. THEY WERE DEFEATED BY ISRAEL
MUFTI AND HITLER DURING THE WW II
The Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Al Husseini stated, “I declare a holy war, my Moslem brothers! Murder the Jews! Murder them all!"
THE CONFLICT BETWEEN ARABS AND ISRAELIS IS AN ONGOING THEME IN THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE US DURING THE COLD WAR AND BEYOND.
BECAUSE OF THE 1948 ARAB ISRAELI WAR SOME 500,000 ARABS FLED ISRAEL AND MANY REMAIN REFUGEES TODAY HOPING TO RETURN TO THEIR FORMER HOMES. IT IS ESTIMATED THAT AS MANY AS 800,000 JEWS WERE FORCED TO LEAVE ARAB COUNTRIES DURING THE 1940’S AND 50’S. MOST OF THESE REFUGEES WERE ABSORBED INTO ISRAEL.
President Truman approves the development of the hydrogen bomb. This new type of nuclear weapon is at least 100 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in 1945.
THE FIRST US HYDROGEN BOMB WAS EXPLODED IN NOVEMBER OF1952. THE USSR EXPLODED ONE IN 1953.
Pusan Perimeter bomb. This new type of nuclear weapon is at least 100 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in 1945.
North Koreans pushed the South Korean and U.N. armies all the way to Pusan in the south
GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR WAS PUT IN OVERALL COMMAND OF UNITED NATIONS FORCES
Macarthur made a brilliant Invasion at Inchon which pushed the North Koreans back over the border
China then invaded & pushed the UN army back to the 38th parallel
THE WAR IN KOREA TURNED INTO A STALEMATE RESEMBLING WORLD WAR I TRENCH WARFARE.
1951- peace negotiations began
Armistice signed July 1953 (President Eisenhower)-hinted use of bomb against China
33,600 US soldiers died
Led to US military buildup
Chapter 22 Section 3
Loyalty Review Program (1947-1951)
Formed in1938 to investigate Communists & Fascists in the US.
The Committee investigated communists & those who “sympathized” with them.
Richard Nixon - member of the committee (1948-1949)
Hollywood on Trial- HUAC questioned people in the movie industry about communist activities.
“The Hollywood Ten”- used 5th Amendment to refuse to testify.
Blacklists- people who refused to cooperate were denied jobs.
Alger Hiss (former member of FDR’s staff)- accused of being a communist by (Whittaker Chambers).
Hiss denied being a communist
Pumpkin Papers- seemed to prove that Hiss had lied
Hiss was found guilty of perjury
Truman will not run again: Foreign Policy not working, USSR had the bomb, China fallen to communism, US troops in Korea.
Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson
Republicans nominated Dwight D.Eisenhower
IN MARCH OF 1953 JOSEPH STALIN THE COMMUNIST DICTATOR OF THE SOVIET UNION DIED. AFTER THIS THE KOREAN PEACE NEGOIATIONS TOOK A MORE POSITIVE TURN.
NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV BECAME THE LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION AFTER STALIN’S DEATH. HE DENOUNCED THE CRIMES OF STALIN IN A FAMOUS 1956 SPEECH AND SET OUT TO REFORM THE USSR. ALTHOUGH HE ADVOCATED “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE” THERE WERE SEVERAL SERIOUS ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WHILE HE WAS IN OFFICE. IN 1956 HE ANNOUNCED AT A UN SPEECH THAT “WE (USSR) WILL BURY YOU (US)”
Nikita Khrushchev becomes leader of USSR
OCTOBER 4 AFTER STALIN’S DEATH. HE DENOUNCED THE CRIMES OF STALIN IN A FAMOUS 1956 SPEECH AND SET OUT TO REFORM THE USSR. ALTHOUGH HE ADVOCATED “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE” THERE WERE SEVERAL SERIOUS ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN THE TWO SUPER POWERS WHILE HE WAS IN OFFICE. IN 1956 HE ANNOUNCED AT A UN SPEECH THAT “WE (USSR) WILL BURY YOU (US)”TH 1957 THE SPACE RACE BEGAN WHEN RUSSIA LAUNCHED SPUTNIK,THE FIRST ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE TO ORBIT THE EARTH. AMERICANS WERE SHOCKED THAT THE SOVIETS WERE THE FIRST INTO SPACE
In 1957 a new word entered the world’s vocabulary: ICBM, short for intercontinental ballistic missiles. These were nuclear bomb carrying missiles with ranges of over five thousand miles. No place on earth was safe from nuclear destruction.
USSR WAS THE FIRST TO SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCH AN ICBM
FIRST US ATLAS ICBM
The U.S. did not get an object into orbit until January of 1958 after several embarrassing failures. The space race was on.
OCTOBER 23, 1956 THE PEOPLE OF HUNGARY ROSE UP AGAINST THEIR USSR COMMUNIST IMPOSED GOVERNMENT. FOR A SHORT TIME IT APPEARED THAT THE REVOLT MIGHT SUCCEED BUT ON NOVEMBER 4TH SOVIET TANK ARMIES INVADED AND CRUSHED THE REVOLT. A SIMILAR 1952 REVOLT IN POLAND WAS ALSO DEFEATED BY RUSSIAN TANKS.
FIDEL CASTRO USSR COMMUNIST IMPOSED GOVERNMENT. FOR A SHORT TIME IT APPEARED THAT THE REVOLT MIGHT SUCCEED BUT ON NOVEMBER 4
ON JANUARY 1, 1959 REVOLUTION IN CUBA SUCCESSFULLY OVERTHREW THE Pro-US GOVERNMENT. ON JANUARY 6THFIDEL CASTRO BECAME PREMIER AND LATER COMMUNIST DICTATOR OF CUBA. MANY CUBANS FLEE TO THE U.S.
MAY 1960: THE U-2 INCIDENT USSR COMMUNIST IMPOSED GOVERNMENT. FOR A SHORT TIME IT APPEARED THAT THE REVOLT MIGHT SUCCEED BUT ON NOVEMBER 4
A US U-2 RECONNAISSANCE (SPY) PLANE WAS SHOT DOWN OVER THE SOVIET UNION
U-2 Plane was piloted by Garry Powers