Compounds and chemical bonding
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Compounds and Chemical Bonding. Compounds. Compounds are formed when two or more atoms come together through a chemical bond. Usually, these come in two types: Ionic Compounds/Bonding: Between a metal and a non-metal. Molecular (Covalent) Compounds: Between two non-metals. Metals: Yellow

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Compounds and Chemical Bonding

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Compounds and Chemical Bonding


Compounds

Compounds are formed when two or more atoms come together through a chemical bond.

Usually, these come in two types:

Ionic Compounds/Bonding: Between a metal and a non-metal.

Molecular (Covalent) Compounds: Between two non-metals.


Metals: Yellow

Non-Metals: Blue


Chemical Bonds

Chemical bonding is simple to understand:

Bonds are formed between two atoms either to share (covalent/molecular) or steal (ionic) each other’s electrons, becoming more stable in the process.


Halogens: -1 Charges


Chemical Bonds

If we look closely at the halogens, we see that they are all one away from having their octets (one away from being fully stable like a noble gas).

Being non-metals, they can steal electrons and have a (-) charge.

Usually, we pair chemicals like this with those who would like to give up their electrons (metals, such as sodium, +1)


Ionic Compounds

Ionic compounds derive from a simple rule we’ve already seen once before: opposites attract.

When a metal which wants to lose electrons (+) meets a non-metal who wants to steal them (-), they stick together.

Compounds made from charged particles (ions), are therefore known as ionic.


Naming

  • Naming these compounds is easy:

  • The first atom in the formula is always the metal and will have no change to its name with one exception.

    • We DO have to name the charge for D-block transition metals using parentheses and roman numerals by the stock system.

    • So, Fe3+ would be Iron (III)

  • The non-metal’s –ine suffix becomes –ide instead.


Practice (Formulae  Names)

NaBr

Na3P

CaO

Fe2O3

FeO

CuCl

KCl

MgBr2

Y2O4

U2O8


Practice (Names  Formulae)

Aluminum Fluoride

Sodium Sulfide

Magnesium Phosphide

Manganese (IV) Iodide

Cesium Oxide

Mercury (II) Sulfide

Cadmium (I) Phosphide

Iridium (V) Sulfide

Hydrogen Iodide

Tin (IV) Chloride


Covalent (Molecular) Compounds

  • Unlike metals, non-metals can form chemical bonds by sharing electrons rather than simply stealing or losing them.

  • Covalent compounds are formed when two non-metals form a bond by sharing their electrons.

  • Many chemicals, including the majority of those which build up your body, belong to this class of compound.


Naming non-metals

  • Unlike metal/non-metal combinations, we have to treat covalent compounds differently when we name them.

  • When two different non-metals come together, we call them Binary Molecular Compounds.

  • Unlike before, we can use prefixes and suffixes to describe the number of atoms present rather than just their charges.


Rules of Naming:

  • We usually don’t modify the first atom’s name, except to specify an amount of atoms greater than 1.

  • The second atom, on the other hand, must always have an amount specified and will end in –ide (as usual.)

  • The prefixes are as follows:

    • 1: Mono-2: Di-

    • 3: Tri-4: Tetra-

    • 5: Penta-6: Hexa-

    • 7: Hepta-8: Octa-

    • 9: Nona-10: Deca-


Examples: (Formulae  Names)

  • N2O

  • OF2

  • Cl2O8

  • SO3

  • PCl3

  • SF6

  • CO

  • CO2

  • PCl5

  • BrF7


Examples: (Names  Formulae)

  • Nitrogen trifluoride

  • Disulfur dichloride

  • Dinitrogen tetroxide

  • Tetraphosphorous decoxide

  • Pentacarbon monoxide

  • Heptasulfur decaphosphide

  • Nitrogen triiodide

  • Phosphorous monoxide

  • Boron trifluoride

  • Silicon dioxide


Polyatomics

  • Polyatomics are charged covalent compounds which may form ionic bonds with metals.

  • Think of polyatomics as packs of non-metals which travel together and attack metals.

  • They have unique and specific names/charges that we rarely have to modify.

  • Polyatomics are typically found when you have a metal and more than one non-metal in combination.


Common Polyatomics and Charges

  • NH4+Ammonium ion

  • CN-Cyanide ion

  • OH-Hydroxide ion

  • C2H3O2-Acetate ion

  • ClO3-Chlorate ion

  • NO3-Nitrate ion

  • MnO4-Permanganate ion


Polyatomics, cont’d

  • CO32-Carbonate ion

  • CrO42-Chromate ion

  • Cr2O72-Dichromate ion

  • SO42-Sulfate ion

  • PO43-Phosphate ion


Polyatomics and Naming

  • Naming compounds with polyatomics is very similar to ionic nomenclature.

  • Ex. KNO3 would become “potassium nitrate.”

  • Note, however, that I did not have to add an –ide to the end. We will rarely be modifying the names of polyatomics under ionic conditions.


Practice with Polyatomics

  • Formulas  Names

    • NH4C2H3O2

    • Ca3(PO4)2

    • Ba(OH)2

  • Names  Formulas

    • Ammonium nitrate

    • Strontium cyanide

    • Sodium phosphate


Oxyacids and Oxyanions

  • Many of the aforementioned polyatomics contain the element oxygen and are known as oxyanions for their characteristic negative charge.


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