Compounds and chemical bonding
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Compounds and Chemical Bonding. Compounds. Compounds are formed when two or more atoms come together through a chemical bond. Usually, these come in two types: Ionic Compounds/Bonding: Between a metal and a non-metal. Molecular (Covalent) Compounds: Between two non-metals. Metals: Yellow

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Compounds and Chemical Bonding

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Compounds and chemical bonding

Compounds and Chemical Bonding


Compounds

Compounds

Compounds are formed when two or more atoms come together through a chemical bond.

Usually, these come in two types:

Ionic Compounds/Bonding: Between a metal and a non-metal.

Molecular (Covalent) Compounds: Between two non-metals.


Compounds and chemical bonding

Metals: Yellow

Non-Metals: Blue


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

Chemical bonding is simple to understand:

Bonds are formed between two atoms either to share (covalent/molecular) or steal (ionic) each other’s electrons, becoming more stable in the process.


Halogens 1 charges

Halogens: -1 Charges


Chemical bonds1

Chemical Bonds

If we look closely at the halogens, we see that they are all one away from having their octets (one away from being fully stable like a noble gas).

Being non-metals, they can steal electrons and have a (-) charge.

Usually, we pair chemicals like this with those who would like to give up their electrons (metals, such as sodium, +1)


Ionic compounds

Ionic Compounds

Ionic compounds derive from a simple rule we’ve already seen once before: opposites attract.

When a metal which wants to lose electrons (+) meets a non-metal who wants to steal them (-), they stick together.

Compounds made from charged particles (ions), are therefore known as ionic.


Naming

Naming

  • Naming these compounds is easy:

  • The first atom in the formula is always the metal and will have no change to its name with one exception.

    • We DO have to name the charge for D-block transition metals using parentheses and roman numerals by the stock system.

    • So, Fe3+ would be Iron (III)

  • The non-metal’s –ine suffix becomes –ide instead.


Practice formulae names

Practice (Formulae  Names)

NaBr

Na3P

CaO

Fe2O3

FeO

CuCl

KCl

MgBr2

Y2O4

U2O8


Practice names formulae

Practice (Names  Formulae)

Aluminum Fluoride

Sodium Sulfide

Magnesium Phosphide

Manganese (IV) Iodide

Cesium Oxide

Mercury (II) Sulfide

Cadmium (I) Phosphide

Iridium (V) Sulfide

Hydrogen Iodide

Tin (IV) Chloride


Covalent molecular compounds

Covalent (Molecular) Compounds

  • Unlike metals, non-metals can form chemical bonds by sharing electrons rather than simply stealing or losing them.

  • Covalent compounds are formed when two non-metals form a bond by sharing their electrons.

  • Many chemicals, including the majority of those which build up your body, belong to this class of compound.


Naming non metals

Naming non-metals

  • Unlike metal/non-metal combinations, we have to treat covalent compounds differently when we name them.

  • When two different non-metals come together, we call them Binary Molecular Compounds.

  • Unlike before, we can use prefixes and suffixes to describe the number of atoms present rather than just their charges.


Rules of naming

Rules of Naming:

  • We usually don’t modify the first atom’s name, except to specify an amount of atoms greater than 1.

  • The second atom, on the other hand, must always have an amount specified and will end in –ide (as usual.)

  • The prefixes are as follows:

    • 1: Mono-2: Di-

    • 3: Tri-4: Tetra-

    • 5: Penta-6: Hexa-

    • 7: Hepta-8: Octa-

    • 9: Nona-10: Deca-


Examples formulae names

Examples: (Formulae  Names)

  • N2O

  • OF2

  • Cl2O8

  • SO3

  • PCl3

  • SF6

  • CO

  • CO2

  • PCl5

  • BrF7


Examples names formulae

Examples: (Names  Formulae)

  • Nitrogen trifluoride

  • Disulfur dichloride

  • Dinitrogen tetroxide

  • Tetraphosphorous decoxide

  • Pentacarbon monoxide

  • Heptasulfur decaphosphide

  • Nitrogen triiodide

  • Phosphorous monoxide

  • Boron trifluoride

  • Silicon dioxide


Polyatomics

Polyatomics

  • Polyatomics are charged covalent compounds which may form ionic bonds with metals.

  • Think of polyatomics as packs of non-metals which travel together and attack metals.

  • They have unique and specific names/charges that we rarely have to modify.

  • Polyatomics are typically found when you have a metal and more than one non-metal in combination.


Common polyatomics and charges

Common Polyatomics and Charges

  • NH4+Ammonium ion

  • CN-Cyanide ion

  • OH-Hydroxide ion

  • C2H3O2-Acetate ion

  • ClO3-Chlorate ion

  • NO3-Nitrate ion

  • MnO4-Permanganate ion


Polyatomics cont d

Polyatomics, cont’d

  • CO32-Carbonate ion

  • CrO42-Chromate ion

  • Cr2O72-Dichromate ion

  • SO42-Sulfate ion

  • PO43-Phosphate ion


Polyatomics and naming

Polyatomics and Naming

  • Naming compounds with polyatomics is very similar to ionic nomenclature.

  • Ex. KNO3 would become “potassium nitrate.”

  • Note, however, that I did not have to add an –ide to the end. We will rarely be modifying the names of polyatomics under ionic conditions.


Practice with polyatomics

Practice with Polyatomics

  • Formulas  Names

    • NH4C2H3O2

    • Ca3(PO4)2

    • Ba(OH)2

  • Names  Formulas

    • Ammonium nitrate

    • Strontium cyanide

    • Sodium phosphate


Oxyacids and oxyanions

Oxyacids and Oxyanions

  • Many of the aforementioned polyatomics contain the element oxygen and are known as oxyanions for their characteristic negative charge.


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