By katherine wang and jennifer cheng
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The Skeletal System. By Katherine Wang and Jennifer Cheng. π. Background. provides support for the body protects the internal organs and fragile body tissues.  composed of all the bones in your body and other tissues (tendons, ligaments, and cartilage)

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By katherine wang and jennifer cheng

The Skeletal System

By Katherine Wang and Jennifer Cheng

π


Background

Background

  • provides support for the body

  • protects the internal organs and fragile body tissues. 

  • composed of all the bones in your body and other tissues (tendons, ligaments, and cartilage)

  • Has two parts, axial and appendicular


Functions of the skeletal system

Functions of the skeletal system

  • Strength: gives shape to body

  • Protection of organs

  • Leverage for movement

  • Production of red blood cells


Parts of the skeletal system

Parts of the Skeletal system

  • Axial skeleton

    • the main supportive structure of the body

    • Central section of the skeleton

    • Includes skull, vertebrae, sternum, and ribs

  • Appendicular skeleton

    • Freely movable parts of upper and lower limbs

    • Outer part of skeleton

    • Includes shoulders, hip bones, arms,

      wrists, hands, legs, and feet


  • The bone

    The Bone

    • Is responsible for shape and form of human body

    • Made of cells and protein fibers surrounded by calcium salts

    • Stores important minerals such as calcium and phosphorus

    • Structure:

      • Outer layer of strong, dense, compact bone

      • Under outer layer is spongy bone, which is lighter than the top layer

      • Most bones have bone marrow in the middle

  • Yellow marrow is made of fat cells and stores fat

  • red marrow produces red and white blood cells and platelets


  • Growth of the bone

    Growth of the bone

    • Osteoclasts: cells that break down old bones and replace the old bone with new bone tissue. This is called bone remodeling

    • Chondroblasts: cells that are responsible for forming new cartilage

    • When bones fracture, blood vessels in the bone also break.

    • Blood clots and forms a fracture hemotoma, which keeps the bone stable and stops the flow of blood

    • Cells in the bone then remove dead and damaged tissue, which causes swelling and inflammation

    • After a few days, the fracture hematoma becomes tougher, and turns into a soft callus

    • Fibroblasts then start to produce collagen, a type of fiber and the main protein in bones and connective tissues

    • Osteoblasts then produce new bone cells


    Types of joints

    Types of joints

    • Joints are the point of contact between two bones

      • Are classified by amount of movement

  • There are three types of joints

    • Immovable

    • Slightly movable

    • Freely movable

  • Joints can also be known as an articulation


  • Immovable joints

    Immovable joints

    • Joints where two or more bones are located close together but cannot move

      • E. x.: The skull

  • Synarthrosis→ The immovable joints between the bones of the skull


  • Slightly movable joints

    Slightly movable joints

    • Joints that are tightly connected but have limited movement

      • E. x.: back bone and hip bone

    Back bone


    Freely movable joints

    Freely movable joints

    • Do not have limited motion

    • 6 types of freely movable joints

      • Ball and socket joint → where the rounded head of a bone sits in the cup of another

        • Is able to move in all directions

        • E. x.: shoulder joint

    • Saddle joint → allows movement back and forth and side to side

      • Does not allow rotation

      • E. x.: the thumb

  • Hingle joint → where two bones open and close in a single direction

    • E. x.: the knee joint


  • Freely movable joints cont

    Freely movable joints (cont.)

    • Pivot joint → where one bone swings around the ring formed by another bone

      • E. x.: elbow joint

    • Gliding joint → Also known as plane joint. Where one smooth surface slides across another

      • E. x.: wrist joint

    • Condyloid joint → allows movement without rotation

      • E. x.: jaw or finger joints


    Freely movable joints cont1

    Freely movable joints (cont.)


    Connective tissues and parts

    Connective tissues and parts

    • Tendons: soft, elastic connective tissues that attach muscle to bone

      • Muscles move bones by pulling on tendons

    • Ligaments: tough tissue that connects bones to bones

    • Cartilage: stiff but flexible tissue that is found between joints

      • Allows joints to move against each other without pain

    • Synovial membrane: a thin membrane in freely moving joints that lines the joint capsule in fluid


    Weaknesses strengths of the skeletal system

    Weaknesses/strengths of the skeletal system

    • Bones can heal themselves

    • Bones are very easily broken

      • 6.8 million Americans fracture of break a bone each year

      • Most people in the U.S. will break two bones in his or her lifetime


    Types of fractures

    Types of fractures

    • Oblique fracture: when a bone breaks diagonally

    • Communited fracture: bone breaks into many pieces

    • Spiral fracture: break occurs in a line around the bone

    • Compound (open) fracture: broken bone sticks out of the skin

    • Greenstick fractures: bone breaks only on one side and does not break completely

    • Transverse fracture: break occurs in a straight line across the bone

    • Simple fracture: bone is only partially fractured


    Diseases of the skeletal system

    Diseases of the skeletal system

    • Osteoporosis: condition where your bones become weaker are likely to break.

      • treatment consists of eating calcium and vitamin D rich foods

      • Medicine is also needed

  • Paget’s Disease of Bone: disease where bones grow weaker and larger than normal, making it easier to break your bones

    • Symptoms are pain, enlarged or broken bones, and damage in the cartilage

    • Medicine and surgery is needed

  • Ewing’s Sarcoma: type of bone cancer in the bone marrow

    • Symptoms include extreme pain and swelling at site of tumor

    • Surgery, amputation, chemotherapy, and radiation are all used to cure it


  • How to maintain health of the skeletal system

    How to maintain health of the skeletal system

    • Drink lots of milk: Milk contains a lot of calcium, which is good for your bones. Also take vitamin D and calcium supplements

    • Weight lifting exercises: weight lifting is essential to building strong bones and keep your bones healthy

    • Wear a helmet or other kinds of padding while playing sports. This prevents serious injury to bones


    Fun facts

    Fun facts

    • Our bones would be 6 times stronger than steel if both were the same weight

    • The smallest bone is the same size of a rice grain

    • Of the 206 bones in the skeletal system, 52 of them make up our feet


    By katherine wang and jennifer cheng

    Thank you!

    Any questions?


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