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Verification & Test Activities @ CISS – Aalborg. Brian Nielsen Kim Guldstrand Larsen Arne Skou. Overview. CISS Verification & Scheduling S/E-machines, UML & visualSTATE Timed Automata & UPPAAL Priced Timed Automata & UPPAAL CORA Markov Decision Processes & RAPTURE Testing

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Brian nielsen kim guldstrand larsen arne skou

Verification & Test

Activities

@

CISS – Aalborg

Brian Nielsen Kim Guldstrand LarsenArne Skou


Overview

Overview

  • CISS

  • Verification & Scheduling

    • S/E-machines, UML & visualSTATE

    • Timed Automata & UPPAAL

    • Priced Timed Automata & UPPAAL CORA

    • Markov Decision Processes & RAPTURE

  • Testing

    • Connectivety Testing

    • On-line Testing & UPPAALTRON

    • GateHouse, Generic Test Adaptation

    • visualSTATE Test Extensions


Ciss center for embedded software systems 2002

CISS Center for Embedded Software Systems, 2002 –

MVTU

25.5 MDKK

Regional & City

Councils

12 MDKK

External collaboration:

EE&CS Berkeley

Twente U

Uppsala U

AMETIST

ARTIST

NASA Ames

ICT Companies

Aalb. Uni

12.75 MDKK

Companies

12.75 MDKK

Institute for

Computer Scienc

Institute for

Elektronic Systemer

[email protected]

Modelling and Validation;

Programming Languages;

Software Engineering

Distributed

Real Time Systems

Control Theory;

Real Time Systems;

Networking.

Embedded Systems

Communication;

HW/SW

Power Management

20 Staff / 12 PhD studens


Focus areas

Focus Areas

Applikationer

Model Based Development of Embedded Software

Home automation

Mobile robotter

Intelligente sensorer

Ad hoc netværk

Mobiltlf

Audio/Video

Konsum elektr

Kontrolsystemer

Automobile

X-by wire

Intelligent Sensor Networks

Embedded & RT Platform LAB

Kommunikationsteori

Resource Optimal Scheduling

Hybride systemer

Test & Validering

Effektforbrug

Pålidelighed

SW-udvikling

Algoritmik

Modeller

Metoder

Safety Critical Software Systems

Protokoller

Design- og Prog.sprog

Operativ system

HW platform

GPS

Open source

Embedded System Testing & Verification

Teknologi

Værktøj

HW/SW Co-Design, Design Space Exploration


Visualstate

visualSTATE

  • UML compatible development tool

  • Automatic code-generation

  • Check for generic properties.

  • Patented CBR technique developed in 1998 [TACAS98, TACAS99]

  • New project:

    • Extension of visualSTATE w test-case generation facilities

    • Context dependent code-generation [FASE05]

    • Improvement of verification engine (handling of signal-queue).


Uppaal

UPPAAL


Modus operandi

Modus Operandi

Theoretical development & validation

IDEA

e.g.

language extension

datastructure

abstraction

algorithm

Prototype implementation

&

performance evaluation

In-house evaluataion

Incorporation in official release


Issues

Datastructures for Passed and Waiting

Datastructures for zones

Do we really need to always store in Passed ?

Do we really need to add all successors ?

Which symbolic state to select from Waiting ?

Issues


Passed waiting

Passed/Waiting

[SPIN03]

States

Hash

table

PASSED

Hash

table

WAITING


Passed waiting1

Passed/Waiting

[SPIN03]

States

Hash

table

States

UNIFIED

Hash

table

PASSED

Hash

table

Waiting queue

WAITING


Passed waiting2

Passed/Waiting

[SPIN03]

States

Hash

table

States

UNIFIED

Hash

table

PASSED

Hash

table

Waiting queue


To store or not

To-store-or-not

117 statestotal

!

81 statesentrypoint

!

9 states

[CAV03]


Datastructures for zones

Datastructures for Zones

-4

  • DBMs

  • Minimal Constraint Form

  • CDDs

x1

x2

4

3

3

2

-2

-2

2

x0

x3

1

5

UPPAAL library to be made available

Alexandre David


Zone abstractions

Zone Abstractions

[TACAS03,TACAS04]

  • Abstraction taking maximum constant into account necessary for termination

  • Utilization of distinction between lower and upper bounds

  • Utilization of location-dependency


Lu abstraction

LU Abstraction

[TACAS04]

THEOREM

For any state in the LU- abstraction there is a state

in the original set simulating it

LU abstraction is exact wrt reachability


Zone abstractions1

Zone abstractions

Classical

Loc. dep. Max

Loc. dep. LU

Convex Hull


Symmetry reduction

Symmetry Reduction

[Formats 2003]

  • Exploitation of full symmetry may give factorial reduction

  • Many timed systems are inherently symmetric

  • Computation of canonical state representative using swaps.


Symmetry reduction1

Symmetry Reduction

[Formats 2003]


Analysis methods identified

Analysis Methods Identified

  • Techniques identified and implemented:

    • Zone abstractions (max constant, loc.dep., lower/upper bounds)

    • Storage techniques

    • Symmetry reduction

    • Cost-guiding search and pruning

    • Distributed exploration

    • Cycle acceleration

    • Sweep line reduction

  • Conclusion:“ Progress by far exceeding expectations ”

  • Future: “ Consolitation & combination ”


Uppaal cora

UPPAAL CORA


Uppaal cora1

x ¸ 4

x ¸ 5

x:=0

c+=1

C

c’=1

c’=5

x · 2

y:=0

y=0

G

A

B

c´=10

c+=7

x:=0

x ¸ 4

C

x ¸ 3

UPPAAL CORA

Priced Timed Automata

  • Branch of UPPAAL with support for cost-optimal reachability.

  • Based on priced zones

  • Substantial performance improvement by translation to min-cost-flow problems

  • Competitive with MILP

  • Possibility of guiding (improving) search by heur and remaining meta-variable.

  • Fully compatible w UPPAAL (GUI).

  • Application to AXXOM case-study.

  • Application to vehicle routing problems w time-windows (Carmen Consulting).

  • Applied to Dynamic Voltage Scheduling, WCET analysis.

  • Visualization of generated optimal schedules using Gantt charts (to be finished during beginning of 2005).

  • New optimization problems to be added:

    • Optimal Infinite schedules [HSCC’04]

    • Conditional Optimal Schedules [FOSSACS’05]

[HSCC’01, CAV’01, EMSOFT’03, TACAS’04]

s = (A x=y=0)

!0 (B x=y=0)

!0 (C x=y=0)!5,5 (C x=y=5) !1 G


Aircraft landing

cost

E earliest landing time

T target time

L latest time

ecost rate for being early

l cost rate for being late

dfixed cost for being late

d+l*(t-T)

e*(T-t)

t

E

T

L

Aircraft Landing

Planes have to keep separation distance to avoid turbulences caused by preceding planes

Runway


Uppaal cora2

UPPAAL CORA

Source: Baesley et al’2000

PTA versus MILP on Aircraft Landing Benchmark

DEC300/700 (225MHz) vs Pentium MMX (200 MHz)


Brian nielsen kim guldstrand larsen arne skou

RAPTUREProbabilistic Reachability for Markov Decision ProcessesPedro D’Argenio, Henrik Jensen, Bertrand Jeannet , Kim Larsen

PAPM’01, PAPM’02

process A

{

var x : uint(4);

t : uint(10);

init #send and x=0 and t=0;

loc send:

when x>=4 goto { success 0.01 ; wait 0.99 };

when x<5 and t<200 goto send assign {x:=x+1; t:=t+1};

loc wait:

when x=8 goto send assign {x:=0};

when x<8 and t<200 goto wait assign {x:=x+1; t:=t+1};

loc success:

when true goto success;

}

system A;

initial #A.send and A.x=0 and A.t=0;

final #A.success and A.t<200;

x:=x+1

send

x:=0

x5

x4

x=8

x:=x+1

x8

success

wait


Partition refinement

Partition/Refinement

T

0.5

1

0.5

1

0.5

0.4

1

0.6

0.5

0.5

1

1

0.5

0.5

0.5


Partition refinement1

Partition/Refinement

T

Ta

0.5

0.5

1

1

1

0.5

0.5

1

0.5

0.4

1

0.6

0.5

0.5

1

1

1

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

1

Theorem

0.5

0.5


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