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Introduction to Spring.NET. Speaker’s Qualifications. Mark Pollack is a founding partner at CodeStreet LLC, a software and consulting firm in the financial services industry.

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Introduction to


Speaker s qualifications
Speaker’s Qualifications

  • Mark Pollack is a founding partner at CodeStreet LLC, a software and consulting firm in the financial services industry.

  • .NET and J2EE architect and developer specializing in financial front office solutions, EAI, and message based middleware

  • Spring Developer (2003)

    • JmsTemplate, Annotation abstraction

  • Contributing author

    • Java Development with the Spring Framework

      • JMS Section

  • Founder and Co-lead of Spring.NET (2004)

  • Speaker at various Spring related conferences


  • Why a .NET version?

  • Introduction to IoC/AOP

  • Core Spring.NET Technologies

    • IoC Container

    • AOP

  • Additional functionality packaged in Spring.Core

  • Services

    • Remoting, WebServices, EnterpriseServices Middle Tier Data Access

  • Web

  • Data Access

  • Additional Modules

    • NHibernate, TIBCO, Threading.Concurrent

Why spring net
Why Spring.NET?

  • There is always a need for a good application framework, regardless of the platform

  • Makes life easier to companies and developers using both platforms

  • We got spoiled by Spring and wanted to be able to build .NET apps in a similar way

  • The programming model, ideas and architectural concepts in Spring are not platform specific

    • Are GoF design patterns platform specific?

    • “It is as much a collection of best practices as it is a framework.”

Spring net project overview
Spring.NET Project Overview

  • Not a blind port of Spring

    • .NET developers feel ‘right at home’

    • Spring.Java developers feel ‘right at home’

  • Version 1.0 released September 2005

  • 1.0.3/1.1 RC1 October 2006 (Web + Services)

Spring net project overview1
Spring.NET Project Overview

  • Documentation

    • ~200 pages reference

    • API documentation

      • VS.NET integration

  • “Quick Start” examples with documentation

  • Unit tests with high % code coverage

    • Continuous Integration

  • ~2,600 downloads/month

    • More from nightly builds

  • MSI Installer

  • User Forums

  • JIRA issue Tracking

  • Fisheye Repository Browser

Spring s nature
Spring’s “Nature”

  • Layered Framework

    • Control flow driven by core container

    • Can be a one stop shop or just use certain subsystems

    • Separation between the modules is ‘enforced’.

  • Can also be considered a library

    • Implementation classes are considered as a public API

    • ContextRegistry, ProxyFactory, Template classes

  • Not an all-or-nothing solution

Spring net modules





Data Access


Spring.NET Modules

  • Main Platform

  • Separate Module Projects

Windows Services



Spring in relation to the j2ee net stack
Spring in relation to the J2EE/.NET stack

  • Spring is broad but not deep

    • Address end-to-end requirements rather than one tier

    • Consistent programming model across different technologies within the stack

    • Expands on base APIs/technologies that are deep.

  • Analogy with an ice flow

Spring in relation to the j2ee net stack1
Spring in relation to the J2EE/.NET stack

  • J2EE/.NET stack is deep. How much code to implement the following

    • Distributed Transaction Manager

    • Messaging Server

    • Web Server

    • etc…

  • Analogy with an iceberg

    • See a small narrow view of a big foundation; the public APIs, above the waterline

Approaches to application configuration
Approaches to application configuration

  • Flow of control in a “traditional” application as it relates to obtaining other objects and services

    • ‘Your’ code calls out to class libraries and creates other objects and services as necessary.

    • You ‘new’ and configure the objects.

    • If using interfaces typically create many specialized factory classes.

    • Factory classes may or may not configure returned object.

  • Inversion of Control presents an alternative approach


  • Simplified “PortfolioManager”

    • Calculate value of portfolio

      • Obtain collection of instruments by Account ID

      • Compute the present value of each instrument

public class PortfolioManager {

public void CalculatePresentValue(string accountId) {

Portfolio portfolio = GetPortfolioFromTradingSystems(accountId);

foreach (Position position in portfolio.Positions)


double baseValue = PriceInstrument(position.Instrument);

position.PositionValue = position.QuantityHeld * baseValue;

portfolio.PresentValue += position.PositionValue;



/// other methods . . .


Traditional implementation
“Traditional” Implementation

  • Use of interfaces

private Portfolio GetPortfolioFromTradingSystems(string accountId)


ITradingService s = TradingServiceFactory.CreateTradingService();

IList positions = s.GetPositions(accountId);

Portfolio p = new Portfolio("Porfolio for account " + accountId);


return p;


public double PriceInstrument(Instrument i)


IPricingService p = PricingServiceFactory.CreatePricingService();

return p.PriceInstrument(i);


Pricingservicefactory implementation
PricingServiceFactory Implementation

public class PricingServiceFactory


private static PricingServiceFactory instance =

new PricingServiceFactory();

private static IBondPricingService bondPricingService;

private static IEquityPricingService equityPricingService;

private PricingServiceFactory()


bondPricingService =


equityPricingService =



public static IPricingService CreatePricingService()


DefaultPricingService ps =

new DefaultPricingService (bondPricingService, equityPricingService);


return ps;



Summary of traditional approach
Summary of Traditional Approach

  • Meets design goals of interface based design

    • Issue: Being able to vs. being able to easily.

    • Switching implementations is difficult

    • Testing against stub implementation is difficult

  • Code up many factory classes

    • Pretty soon have dozens of them

  • What about non-trivial configuration

    • No object is an island – need to resolve collaborating objects

    • Classic ‘primitive’ data type configuration is often ad-hoc

      • maxResults, connectionString. Read in and parse .property files, xml etc.

  • Code noise infrastructure code unrelated to business logic

    • Tedious, Repetitive, Error Prone

      • Pushes you in the direction not to do it.

      • Takes discipline.

      • Can we do better?

Core concepts inversion of control
Core Concepts – Inversion of Control

  • Inversion of Control (IoC)

    • Framework code is calling ‘your’ application code.

  • IoC applies to many areas

    • Messaging - Callback functions

      • Framework passes ‘Message’ object when available

    • Configuration management

      • Framework passes ‘Context’ to obtain references to other objects and services.

      • Framework calls your object’s properties directly.

  • Central design principal for other Spring modules

    • Data Access – Get passed IDbCommand with all resources managed by framework

    • Similar for other resource intensive APIs

Pull style ioc for configuration
“Pull Style” IoC for Configuration

  • Dependency Pull

    • Pull in dependencies and data as required

      • Object o = context.lookup(“string identifier”);

    • Looks like JNDI, Directory Service code

  • Contextualized Dependency Lookup

    • “Context” is pushed into your code by the framework.

      • Then pull in dependencies using the context

  • Context is a ‘generic factory’

    • No need to write a factory class per object

  • The framework manages dependent object that is pulled in.

    • Lifecycle

      • Create, Configure, Initialize, Destroy, etc…

      • Typically via framework specific interfaces

Push style ioc for configuration
“Push Style” IoC for Configuration

  • Dependency Injection

    • Object not responsible for looking up resources or dependencies.

    • An container creates objects and pushes configuration data/object dependencies into an object by reflection based calls to “standard” object constructor and/or properties

  • Setter Injection

    • Injection of dependencies via Properties

  • Constructor Injection

    • Injection of dependencies via constructor arguments

  • Method Injection

    • Container implements methods at runtime for lookup

Pull style contextualized dependency lookup
Pull Style – Contextualized Dependency Lookup

public interface IManagedComponent {

voidPerformLookUp(Context context);


public class PortfolioManager : ManagedComponent {

private ITradingService tradingService;

public void PerformLookup(Context context) {

tradingService =

(ITradingService) context.GetObject( “bbTradingService” );


public class BloombergTradingService : IInitialize, IOtherLifecycle {

// normal implementation; constructor, properties, etc

public void Initialize()


// allocate resources if necessary etc..



Push style dependency injection
Push Style - Dependency Injection

public class PortfolioManager {

private ITradingService tradingService;

public ITradingService TradingService {

get { return tradingService; }

set { tradingService = value; }



public class BloombergTradingService {

// normal implementation; constructor, properties, etc

public void Initialize()


// allocate resources etc..



Example ioc configuration
Example IoC Configuration


<object name="..." type="...">

... (properties and dependencies)


<object name="..." type="..."


... (properties and dependencies)


... Other objects


Ioc bootstrapping
IoC Bootstrapping

  • Usually get ‘top level’ object via IoC pull

    • Done in ‘main’

    • All dependencies of top level object are ‘wired’

IApplicationContext ctx = ContextRegistry.GetContext();

PortfolioManager mgr =

(PortfolioManager) ctx.GetObject (“myPortfolioManager");

Portfolio p = mgr.GetPortfolio(“ACCT123”);

Ioc externalized configuration
IoC Externalized Configuration


type="PricingDemo.PortfolioManager, PricingDemo">

<property name="TradingService" ref="myTradingService"/>

<property name="PricingService" ref="myPricingService"/>


<object name="myTradingService"

type="Bloomberg.TradingService, Bloomberg“>

<property name="ConnectionString" value="http://nytrade01:5005"/>


<object name="myPricingService"

type="PricingDemo.DefaultPricingService, PricingDemo">

<property name="BondPricingService" ref="myBondPricingService"/>

<property name="EquityPricingService" ref="myEquityPricingService"/>


Ioc externalized configurition
IoC Externalized Configurition

<object name="myBondPricingService"

type="PricingDemo.DefaultPricingService, PricingDemo">

<property name="MarketDataService" ref="myMarketDataService"/>

<property name="BondPricingAlgorithm" ref="basicBondPricingAlgorithm"/>


<object name="basicBondPricingAlgorithm"

type="Algorithms.BasicBondPricer, Algorithms"/>

<property name="Calendar" value="DEFAULT"/>


<object name="myMarketDataService"

type="Reuters.MarketDataService, Reuters“


<property name="service" value="7500"/>

<property name="network" value="lan1"/>

<property name="daemon" value=""/>


Dependency injection advantages
Dependency Injection Advantages

  • No lock-in to a particular framework APIs for configuration management

  • Application classes are self-documenting

    • Dependencies are explicit and always up-to-date

  • No ‘code-noise’

    • Key piece of application plumbing is kept out of the way.

  • Promotes coding to interfaces

    • Strategy Pattern

  • Application classes are easier to test

  • General IoC advantage

    • Framework is responsible for reading configuration

      • Can switch where configuration comes from without changing application code

      • Greater consistency in configuration management.

Ioc summary
IoC Summary

  • DI has gained a large following

  • Spring supports all types of IoC

    • Dependency Pull

    • Contextualized Lookup

    • Dependency Injection

  • Spring’s goal is to provide the most robust and feature rich IoC container

    • Singleton support, lazy initialization, support for traditional factory classes, …

  • Spring is not the only game in town – is part of a larger movement …

    • HiveMind, PicoContainer, SEAM, EJB3

    • Castle, StructureMap, ObjectBuilder

Core concepts aop
Core Concepts - AOP

  • Another way to think about program structure

    • Apply common behavior across OO hierarchies

      • “Cross Cutting Concerns”

    • Introduce new behavior across OO hierarchies

      • “Mixins”

    • How can that behavior be applied and encapsulated?

      • Think “Decorator” on steroids in terms of functionality

      • Minimize code duplication

    • Non invasive to code – gives flexibility across an entire code base

Good modularity
Good Modularity

  • XML parsing in org.apache.tomcat

    • red shows relevant lines of code

    • nicely fits in one class

Poor modularity
Poor Modularity

  • logging in org.apache.tomcat

    • red shows lines of code that handle logging

    • not in just one place

    • not even in a small number of places

Cross cutting concerns
Cross cutting concerns

  • Logging

    • entry/exit/exception to methods

  • Performance Metrics

    • Logging with timers

  • Observer design pattern

  • Caching Method return values

  • Security Checks

  • Monitoring

    • Alerts via email

    • WMI

  • Transaction Management

Core concepts aop1
Core Concepts - AOP

  • Decorator

    • Can stick in code before a method executes, after it executes, and after it throws an exception

    • “Intercept” a method

  • AOP “Advice” Chain

    • Chained decorators.

  • AOP framework provides you with the means to

    • Define what code gets stuck in (Advice)

      • Before/After Returning/After Throwing

    • And where it can get stuck in (Pointcut)

      • Methods, Conditional Flow

    • Define the order of the chained advice.

Spring aop
Spring AOP

  • Spring.NET implements AOP by dynamically generating proxy classes at runtime.

  • Object obtained from a Spring IoC container can be transparently advised based on configuration

    • XML, Attributes.

    • Can also use programmatic API.

  • Out-of-box logging, pooling, caching, tx aspects

  • AOP Artifacts are also managed by container

    • Pointcuts – where to apply behavior

      • Methods invocation, Exception throwing.

    • Advice – what behavior to apply (Spring Terminology)

  • “AOP + IoC is a match made in heaven”

Spring aop example
Spring AOP Example

public interface ICommand {

object Execute(object context);


public class ServiceCommand : ICommand {

public object Execute(object context) {

Console.Out.WriteLine("Service implementation : [{0}]", context);

return null;



public class ConsoleLoggingAroundAdvice : IMethodInterceptor {

public object Invoke(IMethodInvocation invocation) {

Console.Out.WriteLine("Advice executing; calling the advised method...");

object returnValue = invocation.Proceed();

Console.Out.WriteLine("Advice executed; advised method returned " +


return returnValue;



Creating and executing a aop proxy
Creating and Executing a AOP Proxy

ProxyFactory factory = new ProxyFactory(new ServiceCommand());

factory.AddAdvice(new ConsoleLoggingAroundAdvice());

ICommand command = (ICommand) factory.GetProxy();

command.Execute("This is the argument");

Advice executing; calling the advised method...

Service implementation : [This is the argument]

Advice executed; advised method returned

Aop configuration example
AOP Configuration Example

  • AutoProxy – Help apply AOP advice across objects in the IoC Container

    • ObjectNameAutoProxyCreator

      • Wildcards on object names

    • DefaultAdvisorAutoProxyCreator

      • Regular expression match on method name + advice

<object id="ProxyCreator"

type="Spring.Aop.Framework.AutoProxy.ObjectNameAutoProxyCreator, Spring.Aop">

<property name="ObjectNames">






<property name="InterceptorNames">






Transaction aspect
Transaction Aspect

public class TransactionInterceptor : TransactionAspectSupport, IMethodInterceptor {

public object Invoke(IMethodInvocation invocation) {

Type targetType =

( invocation.This != null ) ? invocation.This.GetType() : null;

TransactionInfo txnInfo =

CreateTransactionIfNecessary( invocation.Method, targetType );

object returnValue = null;



returnValue = invocation.Proceed();


catch ( Exception ex )


DoCloseTransactionAfterThrowing( txnInfo, ex );




DoFinally( txnInfo );


DoCommitTransactionAfterReturning( txnInfo );

return returnValue;



Attribute driven aop
Attribute driven AOP

  • Attributes are used to define pointcut and provide the aspect configuration information

public interface IAccountManager{

void DoTransfer(float creditAmount, float debitAmount);


public class AccountManager : IAccountManager {

. . .


public void DoTransfer(float creditAmount, float debitAmount)





Aop summary
AOP Summary

  • What it is

    • Complementary to good OOP design

    • Solves problems that are difficult to solve with OOP

    • Leads to cleaner, better modularized code that is easier to maintain and extend.

  • What it is not

    • Experimental

    • Answer to all problems

Spring net java comparison
Spring.NET/Java Comparison

  • bean->object

  • Ioc/AOP: Spring.NET = Spring.Java 1.2

    • .NET has custom schema support but different than Spring.Java 2.0

    • .NET has web scoped objects (Session/Application) .Java 2.0

  • Spring.NET has ‘ConfigureObject’

  • .NET specific

    • named constructor args

    • Indexers

  • Spring.Java has more breath

    • JMX, no WMI equivalent…

    • WebFlow

    • AspectJ’ized Spring.Java AOP

    • JMS – but coming soon to .NET

  • Expression Evaluation used for Property Name parsing.

Other functionality in spring core
Other functionality in Spring.Core

  • Spring.Expressions

    • Powerful expression language for manipulating an object at runtime

    • Think OGNL for C#

  • Spring.Validation

    • Validation based on expression language

  • Spring.Collections

    • ISet, thread-safe Set/Dictionary, PriorityQueue

  • Spring.Threading

    • LogicalTheadContext, Semaphore, Latch

Spring expressions
Spring Expressions

public class Inventor {

public string Name;

public string Nationality;

public string[] Inventions;

private DateTime dob;

private Place pob;

/// constructors omitted

public DateTime DOB {

get { return dob; } set { dob = value; }


public Place PlaceOfBirth {

get { return pob; }


public int GetAge(DateTime on) {

return on.Year - dob.Year;



Spring expressions1
Spring Expressions

Inventor tesla =

new Inventor("Nikola Tesla",

new DateTime(1856, 7, 9),


tesla.PlaceOfBirth.City = "Smiljan";

string evaluatedName =

(string) ExpressionEvaluator.GetValue(tesla, "Name");

string evaluatedCity =

(string) ExpressionEvaluator.GetValue(tesla,



"PlaceOfBirth.City", "Novi Sad");

Spring expressions2
Spring Expressions

  • Literals

    • ExpressionEvaluator.GetValue(null, "6.0221415E+23");

  • Properties, Arrays, Lists, Dictionaries, Indexers

    • "Members[0].Inventions[6]")

  • Methods

    • "Members[0].GetAge(date('2005-01-01')"

  • Logical, Relational, Math Operations

    • "DateTime.Today <= date('1974-08-24')"

  • Variables

    IDictionary vars = new Hashtable();

    vars["newName"] = "Mike Tesla"; ExpressionEvaluator.GetValue(tesla, "Name = #newName", vars);

  • If-then-else

  • Spring Object References

    "@MyMovieLister.MoviesDirectedBy('Roberto Benigni').Length

Spring services features
Spring.Services Features

  • Exports plain .NET objects (PONOs) as

    • Serviced Component,

    • Remote object

    • Web service

  • Exporters to connect .NET client to

    • RMI or EJB

    • Uses IIOP.NET library

  • Exported objects can be configured via Dependency Injection.

  • Apply aspects to exported objects using Spring.AOP

  • Isolates you from the changes in distributed technology

Net remoting example
.NET Remoting Example

  • “Technology agnostic” calculator

<object id="singletonCalculator"

type="Services.AdvancedCalculator, Services">

<constructor-arg type="int" value="217" />


  • Export as a Singleton SAO






serviceName="RemotedSaoSingletonCalculator" />


Spring web
Spring Web

  • Extends ASP.NET

  • Enables Dependency Injection for ASP.NET web pages and controls

  • Enables bi-directional data binding

  • Greatly improves support for data validation

  • Adds localization support

  • Implements ‘result mapping’-based page flow

  • Adds Master Pages support to ASP.NET 1.1

Dependency injection for asp net
Dependency Injection for ASP.NET

  • Uses custom IHttpHandlerFactory implementation to perform DI

<object id="masterPage" type="~/Master.aspx" />

<object id="basePage" abstract="true">

<property name="Master" ref="masterPage"/>


<object type="TripForm.aspx" parent="basePage">

<property name="BookingAgent" ref="bookingAgent" />

<property name="AirportDao" ref="airportDaoProxy" />

<property name="TripValidator" ref="tripValidator" />

<property name="Results">


<entry key="displaySuggestedFlights"

value="transfer:SuggestedFlights.aspx" />




Spring data access
Spring Data Access

  • Provide uniform best practice approach across data access technologies.

  • IoC integration

    • Connection String management

    • Resource management

      • ‘Template’/callback APIs

  • Transaction management

    • Programmatic and declarative

  • Exception Translation

  • Added value

    • Make ‘native’ APIs easier to use

    • Higher level encapsulation of Data Access

      • DAO support classes, “AdoOperation” objects

Spring net data access
Spring.NET Data Access

  • Spring.Java” users should feel right at home

    • ADO.NET, to first order

    • Java ported O/R Mappers, to second order.

  • ADO.NET framework

  • NHibernate support

    • iBatis.NET under development.

  • Early Adopter stage

    • Well hedged by “Spring.Java” design

Motivations for ado net framework
Motivations for ADO.NET framework

  • Provide usable provider independent API

    • No factory in BCL (.NET 1.1)

    • Simplistic and at times incomplete interfaces

  • Easier parameter management

  • Exception Handling

    • Not singly rooted (.NET 1.1)

    • Base exception + error code (.NET 2.0)

    • No portable “DAO” exception hierarchy

  • Centralize Resource Management

    • Using is a great addition! No catch though.

  • Transaction management

    • Ad-hoc passing around of Transaction object

    • Still need to coordinate connections with TxScope


  • Execute()

    • ICommandCallback, CommandDelegate

    • Use of delegates – i.e. stateless callbacks.

    • Use of variable length arguments, boxing

  • ExecuteScalar(), ExecuteNonQuery(), Query()

    • IRowCallback, IRowMapper, IResultSetExtractor

  • Variations with

    • IDbCommandSetter, IDbCommandCreator

    • One “inline” parameter

      • string name, Enum dbType, int size, object parameterValue

  • Factory Method for creating IDbParameters

Standard ado net
Standard ADO.NET

public class NativeAdoTestObjectDao : ITestObjectDao {

// Connection String Property ...

public void Create(string name, int age) {

using (SqlConnection connection =

new SqlConnection(connectionString)) {

string sql =

String.Format("insert into TestObjects(Age, Name) " +

"VALUES ({0}, '{1}')", age, name);

using (SqlCommand cmd = new SqlCommand(sql, connection) {







Adotemplate example
AdoTemplate Example

public class TestObjectDao : AdoDaoSupport,

ITestObjectDao {

public void Create(string name, int age) {



"insert into TestObjects(Age, Name) "

+ "VALUES ({0}, '{1}')", age, name));



<object id="testObjectDao"


<property name="ConnectionString"

value="Data Source=(local);Database=Spring;





  • OO model for DB operations

    • Preferred approach

  • AdoQuery - Result set mapping to objects

  • AdoNonQuery- Insert/Update/Delete

  • AdoScalar – Return single value

  • StoredProcedure

    • out parameters and multiple result sets

  • AdoDataSetQuery* – Return DataSet

  • Use of ICommandCreater implementation for efficient parameter re-creation.

Stored procedure
Stored Procedure

  • ADO.NET supports discovery of Stored Procedure parameters.

public class CallCreateTestObject : StoredProcedure {

public CallCreateTestObject(IDbProvider dbProvider)

: base(dbProvider, "CreateTestObject") {




public void Create(string name, int age) {

ExecuteNonQuery(name, age);



Microsoft transaction management
Microsoft Transaction Management

  • The sweet spot

    • Declarative transaction management + local transactions

Spring net platformtransactionmanager
Spring.NET PlatformTransactionManager

  • Abstraction for transaction management

    • Support for three Microsoft tx technologies

  • AdoPlatformTransactionManager

    • Local transactions

  • ServiceDomainPlatformTransactionManager

    • Distributed transactions

  • TxScopePlatformTransactionManager

    • Local or Distributed as needed.

  • Switching is just a small configuration change.

  • Callback interfaces

    • ITransactionCallback

O r mapping support
O/R Mapping Support

  • Easy ‘porting’ code/concepts from .NET versions of Java O/R

    • NHibernate

    • iBatis.NET

  • Two levels of support

    • IoC helpers for central object injection/configuration

    • Template classes for resource/tx management.

Nhibernate example
NHibernate Example

public class NativeNHTestObjectDao : ITestObjectDao {

// SessionFactory property ...

public void Create(TestObject to) {

ISession session = null;

ITransaction transaction = null;

try {

session = SessionFactory.OpenSession();

transaction = session.BeginTransaction();



} catch {

if(transaction != null) transaction.Rollback();


} finally {

if(session != null) session.Close();




Nhiberatetemplate dao implementation
NHiberateTemplate DAO Implementation

  • Support for declarative and programmatic transaction management for any data access technology

public class NHTestObjectDao : HibernateDaoSupport,

ITestObjectDao {


public void Create(TestObject to) {




Spring net messaging
Spring.NET Messaging

  • Starting development of TIBCO RV and JMS (ActiveMQ/TIBCO) support

    • JmsTemplate

      • send and sync receive

    • MessageListenerContainer

      • asynchronous consumption

    • MessageConverter

      • Message to Object mapping

    • MessageListenerAdapter

      • Combine MessageConverter and listener to call JMS agnostic methods, ala RCP.

Jms based net java interop
JMS based .NET/Java interop

  • Reflection based Object to Message Converter

    • Part of MessageForge OS project

    • Java/C# implementations

  • Objects are converted via reflection to map messages

    • Vendor support for nested map messages required

    • Preserves ability to consume from other language bindings.

  • Java objects automatically translated to .NET via Microsoft’s Java Language Conversion Assistant


  • Spring.NET is a robust IoC/AOP solution

  • Similar platform and programming model across .NET/Java

  • Active development

  • Training and Support through Interface21

  • Suggestions and feedback always welcome.

Upcoming spring conference
Upcoming Spring Conference

  • The Spring Experience 2006

  • December 7th – 10th, Hollywood Florida

  • Register at

  • 3 full days, 55 sessions across 5 tracks