TWO TYPES OF DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS. 1. One-duty deontological ethics2. Many-duties deontological ethics. RELIGIOUS ETHICS. IS IT REALLY DEONTOLOGICAL OR IS IT TELEOLOGICAL?IF THE DUTY TO OBEY THE WILL OF GOD IS JUSTIFIED BY REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS IN HEAVEN, IT IS TELEOLOGICAL.. KANT'S ONE-DUTY DEONTOLGOICAL ETHICS.
1. Teleological ethics:
DUTY FOR THE SAKE OF RESULTS
1. EGOISTIC TELEOLOGICAL ETHICS
2. UNIVERSALISTIC TELEOLOGICAL ETHICS
3. NATIONALISIC TELEOLOGICAL ETHICS
DUTY FOR DUTY’S SAKE
2. TWO TYPES OF DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS
1. One-duty deontological ethics
2. Many-duties deontological ethics
3. RELIGIOUS ETHICS IS IT REALLY DEONTOLOGICAL OR IS IT TELEOLOGICAL?
IF THE DUTY TO OBEY THE WILL OF GOD IS JUSTIFIED BY REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS IN HEAVEN, IT IS TELEOLOGICAL.
4. KANT’S ONE-DUTY DEONTOLGOICAL ETHICS You are a rational being.
But you have passions and inclinations that cloud reason.
This is the distinction between your higher self and your lower self.
Your real self is your higher self.
You are moral when you follow your higher rational self rather than your lower self.
5. You must expect no external reward for being moral.
If you are moral because it makes you happy, you are not really moral.
You are then moral for a non-moral reason, the morally wrong reason.
6. The only moral reason to do your duty is because it is your duty.
If doing your duty makes to happy, we suspect you are doing it for the wrong reason.
So it may be morally better for you to dislike doing your duty as long as you really do it.
Then we know you are doing it for the right reason.
7. Virtue is its own reward (Baruch Spinoza, 17th century)
Everything is ITSELF and not SOMETHING ELSE (Joseph Butler, 18th century)
Self-interest is self-interest, and being moral is being moral.
Reducing morality to self-interest destroys morality, it makes it into something other than itself.
8. FOUR POINTS OF VIEW Standpoint of self-interest
(Prudential or egoistic point of view)
Moral point of view
Aesthetic point of view
Cognitive point of view
9. The only thing absolutely good (from the moral point of view) is a good will.
A good will is a will which wills solely out of reverence for the moral law.
10. In human beings a morally good will is not the holy will of God or angels.
A human good will always struggles against inclination.
A human good will must always rise up against temptation.
Angels know no temptation.
11. The moral law is stated in a categorical imperative.
A categorical imperative says “Do this!”, no If, Ands, or Buts.
Contrasted to a categorical imperative is an hypothetical imperative: “Do this if you want such and such a result.” Example: “Dress for success!”
12. The categorical imperative of ethics says: “Be rational!”
“Be free as a rational being, free yourself as a rational being from the influence of your inclinations!”
13. THE CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE
“Be a law unto yourself as a rational being.”
“Do not allow anything alien to yourself as a rational being rule over you.”
“Do not let passions and inclinations rule over you.”
In what respect is Kant’s ethics similar to Stoic ethics?
15. Categorical Imperative “Be rational!”
“Do not contradict yourself!”
“Do not follow any rule (maxim) which if followed by everyone would result in a contradiction.
16. Example: If everyone stole property would be impossible so no one could steal.
Thus the rule for stealing cannot be logically generalized to everyone.
If you steal, you cannot without self-contradiction want everyone to steal.
You make yourself into an exception to the rule you would have others follow.
Thus you become immoral.