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Chapter 11. Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact 500-1500. Section 1 – The Byzantine Empire. The New Rome. Empire was divided in 395 In 527, Justinian took over the East South to make the West great again Took Rome back from the Germanic tribes (changed hands 6 times in 16 years)

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact

500-1500



The new rome
The New Rome

  • Empire was divided in 395

  • In 527, Justinian took over the East

    • South to make the West great again

    • Took Rome back from the Germanic tribes (changed hands 6 times in 16 years)

  • Even though they took back Italy, the East had become the “New Rome”


Justinian code
Justinian Code

  • One of Justinian’s first acts will be to update the lawsof the Byzantine Empire

    • Used a panelof expertsto compile the 4 parts

  • Final product had 4parts

    • Code– 5000Roman laws that were carried over

    • Digest– Summarized the opinionsof top thinkersabout laws

    • Institutes– law textbookfor how to use the law

    • Novellae– the newlaws


Changing the capital
Changing the Capital

  • Justinian sought to rebuild Constantinople

  • Focused on Churchbuilding

    • Hagia Sophia was his greatest achievement

  • Most significantly, Byzantine culture preserved Greco-Roman culture because of their interest in learning/arts


The east falls
The East Falls

  • Justinian’sdeath triggered the slow collapse of the Empire

    • Bubonicplague was killing 10,000/day

  • Location put them under constant attacks

    • Used diplomacyto try to keep the empire together

  • After centuries of struggling to stay alive, Constantinople fell in 1453


Division of the church
Division of the Church

  • The cultural differences between East/West also affected religion

  • Arguments over things like whether iconscould be used led to the East/West religious leaders excommunicatingeach other in 1054

    • Orthodoxin the Byzantine Empire(the East)– led by emperor

    • Catholicin the Roman Empire(West) – led by the pope



Russia s birth
Russia’s Birth

  • Because of the crossroads of trade networks, the Slavsin Northern Europe embraced Greek Byzantine culture

  • Originally went from the Uralsto the Balticand south to the BlackSea

  • Originally inhabited by tribes who spokethe same languagebut were not united


Growth
Growth

  • Originally the Slavs were controlled by the Vikings

  • Eventually, Kievbecame the capital because it offered quick access to trade routes

  • Vladimirwill be responsible for converting Russia to Christianity (EasternOrthodox)


Kiev s power
Kiev’s Power

  • Kiev will be the center of growth for Russia

  • Vladimir initially expands to Poland

  • 1019– Yaroslav the Wisetakes Kiev to greater heights

    • diplomacyand marriagesto achieve peace and power

    • Legal Code to make trading more secure (like Justinian)


Fall of kiev
Fall of Kiev

  • Started with the death of Yaroslavin 1054

  • Crucial error

    • Dividedthe realm among his sons

      • Sons go to war with each other

  • In addition, the Crusadesdisrupted trade

  • Just when things couldn’t get worse…


Mongol invasions
Mongol Invasions

  • 1200s, Mongols, led by GenghisKhan, left Asia for Europe

    • Savage brutality

  • At their peak, they controlled China, Mongolia, and Russia all the way to the Baltic Sea

  • 1240, Genghis’ grandsondemolished Kiev

    • “No eye remained to weep”


Mongol rule over russia
Mongol Rule over Russia

  • 200 years of Mongol control over Russia became known as the “Khanate of the Golden Horde”

  • Left Russian customs (religion) aloneas long as:

    • Absolute obedience

    • Pay tribute

  • Result of Mongol control: isolationfrom the West


Russian revolution
Russian Revolution

  • The Russianprinces gathered respect and power from the Mongol controllers slowly but steadily

  • Ivan I moved the capital to Moscowwhere they slowly grew in wealth and power


An empire begins
An Empire Begins

  • Ivan III will introduce the Russian Empire

  • Took power and immediately challenged Mongol control

    • Named himself Czar(Russian Caesar)

    • Refused to pay tribute

    • Raised an army to fight Mongols

  • Both armies will square off but refuse to fight and return home

    • Russia counts this as their moment of liberation



Losing control
Losing Control

  • Over 114 years (756-868), the Abbasidslostmore an more of their empire

    • Spain

    • Morocco

    • Tunisia

    • Persia

    • Egypt

  • In 945, the Persians put an end to Muslim political control over the region


Seljuks
Seljuks

  • The Persians were not able to hold the region for long

  • The Turkswere a nomadic group that survived by herding animals

    • Good fighters

  • One group of Turks began settling in the region (Seljuks)

  • Turkish slaves (mamelukes) had become a major force of the AbbasidEmpire

  • They turned on the Persians in 1055and took control


Persian support
Persian Support

  • The Seljuksdid not have to worry about rebellionsbecause they treated the conquered Persians with respect

    • Positions of power

    • Citieswere important

    • Convertedto Islam

    • Persian terms

      • Rulers were called Shahs (Persian for King)


Seljuks vs crusaders
Seljuksvs Crusaders

  • When Malik Shah died in 1092, the Seljuk Turks lost control of the region

    • At the same time, the West launched a campaign to reclaim the Holy Land from Muslims

  • Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade in 1095

    • Conquered Jerusalem in 1099 and slaughtered Jewish and Muslim inhabitants


Weakening wars
Weakening Wars

  • Seljuk Muslims will regain strength (led by Saladin) and takebackJerusalem in 1187

    • English King Richard I and Saladinsign a truceto share Jerusalem

  • New popes called for new Crusades but each was weakerthan the last


New problems
New Problems

  • Mongolswere not just a problem in Europe

  • Genghis Khan’s grandson, Hulagu, will destroy everyone

    • Turks (political)

    • Abbasids (religious)


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