Starter
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 33

Starter PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 97 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Starter. Review the questions from last week. How can you improve them? (Look at the command words) Make use of your green pen. A2 Physical Education Sport Psychology. ANXIETY AND ATTITUDES. Week 2 Revision. Overview. Review your summary notes. Any questions arising?. Attitudes TIPS!.

Download Presentation

Starter

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Starter

Starter

  • Review the questions from last week. How can you improve them? (Look at the command words)

  • Make use of your green pen.


A2 physical education sport psychology

A2 Physical Education Sport Psychology

ANXIETY AND ATTITUDES

Week 2 Revision


Overview

Overview


Review your summary notes

Review your summary notes

  • Any questions arising?


Attitudes tips

Attitudes TIPS!

  • Make sure you understand how attitudes are formed and influenced.

  • You need to be able to explain how attitudes can be changed. What are the two techniques called?

  • Try to understand the links between attitude and behaviour in sport.


Attitude objects

ATTITUDE OBJECTS

The people, subject or situation towards which an attitude is directed.


What is an attitude

What is an ATTITUDE?

ATTITUDES – A learned behavioural predisposition. (linked with personality)

UNSTABLE

LEARNED

CAN BE

CHANGED/

CONTROLLED

DIRECTED TOWARDS

ATTITUDE OBJECTS

ENDURING EMOTIONAL

& BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE


Formation of attitudes

Formation of Attitudes

COACHES/ TEACHERS

PAST EXPERIENCES

ATTITUDES

PREDUJICE

PARENTS

MEDIA

FRIENDS/ PEERS

Attitudes are mainly formed through experiences.

Socialisation: The process of mixing and relating to other people.


Triadic model of attitudes

Triadic Model of Attitudes

This is known as the information component

This concerns how a person intends to behave towards an attitude object

This is known as the emotional component


Measurement of attitudes

Measurement of attitudes

  • Interviews

  • Self report questionnaires

  • Observations

  • Thurston scale, Likert scale, Osgood’s semantic differential scale

  • +ve and –ve

  • Validity and reliability. Why?


Changing attitudes persuasive communication theory

Changing attitudes - Persuasive Communication Theory

You need to be aware of most effective way of persuading someone to change their attitude.

Would these people persuade you or would they just cause you stress?


Persuasive communication theory

Persuasive Communication Theory

  • The Persuader

  • Significant other

  • with high status

2. The Message

Positive to initiate

the change

  • PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION

  • the personmust

    • pay attention

  • - understand

    • - accept

    • - retain

    • the message being given

  • the coach must

    • - be expert

    • - be trustworthy

  • the message must

    • - be clear

    • - be unambiguous

    • - be balanced between pros and cons

3. The recipients

Easy to changed

an attitude if the

recipient really

wishes to be

changed

4. The situation

The presence of

other persuaders


Starter

TASK…………

You are a GCSE PE pupil. How could persuasive communication change your negative attitude towards cross country?


Answer

ANSWER…………

  • A significant other, e.g. teacher/captain persuades you that cross country has excellent fitness benefits for a GCSE PE pupil. The teacher explains that they can chose cross country as one of their 4 sports.

  • The teacher tells you it will improve your practical grade if you opt for cross country.

  • You understand that this could improve your overall practical grade so you begin to realise the benefits of taking part.

  • Other pupils in your GCSE class share positive experiences of cross country with you and actively encourage you to take part.

  • Focus on aspects of the triadic model


Cognitive dissonance theory festinger

Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger)

If a person hold two ideas that oppose and conflict with each other an element of discomfort arises. Emotional conflict is called DISSONANCE.


Cognitive dissonance theory festinger1

Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger)

To reduce this feeling of dissonance, the impact of one of the conflicting ideas could be lessened and therefore an attitude would change.

Updating knowledge or providing a person with new information can change the cognitive component.

Providing a person with new and positive experiences can modify the affective component.

If a skill is simplified or if some form of guidance is used to make execution easier, the behavioural component of attitude can be changed.


Starter

TASK…………

How could a physical education teacher change the negative attitude that a pupil may have towards swimming?


Answer1

ANSWER…..

  • Educate the pupil about the benefits of swimming

  • Use cognitive dissonance theory

  • Persuasive communication from a significant other, e.g. teacher

  • Set achievable goals to ensure pupil achieves success and experiences enjoyment.

  • Offer rewards, e.g. praise, trophies.

  • Familiarise with role models from within the sport of swimming.

  • Use floats to make execution of some strokes easier.

  • Attribution retraining.


To conclude

To conclude……….

  • Attitudes are generally poor predictors of behaviour.

  • Social and situational factors influence actual behaviour very strongly.

  • “Behavioural intention is the strongest predictor of behaviour (Fishbein, 1974).”


Review the syllabus

Review the syllabus

  • Devise two attitude questions (3 and 4 marks)

  • Devise an attitude essay question (14 marks)


Attitudes traffic light sheet

Attitudes – traffic light sheet


Types of anxiety

Types of anxiety

TRAIT ANXIETY: Genetically inherited. These people appear to be anxious at all times. This tends to be permanent and relatively stable.

STATE ANXIETY: This fluctuates in response to a given situation and is associated with arousal. It is a learned behavioural response, but can be controlled and manipulated to facilitate optimal performance.

(SPIELBERGER)

SOMATIC (physical) RESPONSE: Follows the inverted U hypothesis and refers to physiological changes. Somatic responses include excesses muscular tension, heart and respiration rates, resulting in impaired movement. This condition will not allow the performer to enter a ‘peak flow’ state.

COGNITIVE (psychological) RESPONSE: Reflects increasing worry about performance. They could become increasingly apprehensive and develop doubts and negative thoughts. Attentional changes occur which negatively impact on the information processing system. If the athlete experiences worry, he or she will not attain a ‘peak flow’ state.


Review your summary notes1

Review your summary notes

  • Any questions that area arising?


Anxiety

Anxiety

  • ‘The non specific response of the body to any demand made on it’ Seyle 1956

  • Eustress – Positive form of stress

  • Anxiety – Negative form of stress


Causes of stress and stress response

Causes of stress and stress response

  • Page 142


Measuring anxiety

Measuring anxiety

  • Observations

  • Questionnaires

  • SCAT, STA1, CSAI2

  • Physiological measures

  • +ve / -ve


Anxiety1

Anxiety

‘Anxiety occurs when there is a substantial imbalance between the individual’s perception of their ability and their perception of the demands and importance of the situation.’ (MARTENS)

Perception of the situational

Demands.

e.g. I must win my leg of the relay if my

team is to have the chance of winning.

Perception of ability to cope.

e.g. I am not as good as my

opponent

ANXIETY

Perception of the importance of the situation.

e.g. The result of this competition hinges

on this relay race.


Controlling anxiety

Controlling anxiety

  • Cognitive

  • Imagery

  • Mental rehearsal

  • Stress management

  • Attentional control

  • Thought stopping

  • Self talk

  • Somatic

  • Biofeedback

  • Centring

  • Breathing control

  • Muscle relaxation


Goal setting

Goal setting

  • Effective goal setting =

  • Development of self efficacy

  • Increased motivation

  • Reduction in anxiety

  • Persistence

  • 1. Outcome goal

  • 2. Performance goal


Smarter goals

SMARTER goals


Review the syllabus1

Review the syllabus

  • Devise two anxiety questions (3 and 4 marks)

  • Devise an anxiety essay question (14 marks)


Aspects of anxiety traffic light sheet

Aspects of anxiety – traffic light sheet


Next week and homework

Next week and homework


  • Login