Madhu raman acharya 21 july 2014
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Changing Scope and Dimension of Peacekeeping and the Participation of Nepal. Madhu Raman Acharya 21 July 2014. Introduction. Word of welcome Only introducing the subject before the main speaker Nepal’s perspectives Peacekeeping: global challenges Some steps to be taken From Nepal’s side

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Madhu Raman Acharya 21 July 2014

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Madhu raman acharya 21 july 2014

Changing Scope and Dimension of Peacekeeping and the Participation of Nepal

Madhu Raman Acharya

21 July 2014



  • Word of welcome

  • Only introducing the subject before the main speaker

  • Nepal’s perspectives

  • Peacekeeping: global challenges

  • Some steps to be taken

    • From Nepal’s side

    • From UN’s side

      (Does not represent the views so the Government of Nepal and that of the UN)

Nepal in the un pko

Nepal in the UN PKO

  • Long association (since first participation in 1958- three years after UN membership in 1955)

  • Long experience (58 years)

    • Continuous contingent participation in PKO since 1974

    • Participation in all major missions

  • Huge contribution

    • 40 Missions over 100,000 uniformed personnel

    • Sacrifice of 58 lives- Similar numbers injured and disabled

    • Contributed troops and police even to UN mission even during domestic conflict (1996-2006)

  • Among top ten troops contributors

    • 6th largest- 4,762 uniformed personnel as of May 2014 (DPKO)-

Nepal in the un pko1

Nepal in the UN PKO

  • Nepal has significantly invested in its capacity

    • Standby troops/ Equipment

    • Peacekeeping Training Centre -since 1986

  • Nepal’s three security agencies (army, police and armed police) contribute personnel to peacekeeping

  • Excellent performance – widely acclaimed- included in Nobel Peace Prize receiving entourage of the SG

  • Force commanders ( 4 missions)

  • Increasing participation of police/armed police forces

  • Responded to every call of the UN for deployment

Nepal in the un pko2

Nepal in the UN PKO

  • No caveats in deployment

  • Flexibility, adaptability and versatility- main characteristics of Nepal’s peacekeepers

  • No vested interests (political, economic or cultural) in the peacekeeping settings

  • Considers peacekeeping as an important instrument for solving conflicts and maintaining international peace and security

  • PKOs have provided Nepal wide exposure, identity and role in the global arena

  • Increased professionalism of Nepalese uniformed personnel

Nepal in the un pko3

Nepal in the UN PKO

  • Non-permanent member of the Security Council twice (1969-70, 1988-89)- also recognition of Nepal’s contribution in peacekeeping

  • Nepal also became member of the UN Peacebuilding Commission (2009) on account of its troops contribution

  • Participation in UN peacekeeping consistent with its foreign policy objectives and principles, including of the UN Charter

  • An important instrument in Nepal’s engagement with the United Nations activities around the world

Nepal and un peacekeeping

Nepal and UN peacekeeping

  • UN peacekeeping in Nepalese psyche

    • Songs and films

    • ShantiSena as respected job and as an opportunity

    • Most Nepali army and police officials have served at least in one mission and are proud of it

  • UN Peacekeeping gives Nepal

    • International platform

    • Strong partnership with the United Nations

    • International identity

    • Professional exposure

Nepal s participation in major pkos

Nepal’s participation in major PKOs

Nepal current standing as of may 2014 dpko

Nepal: Current Standing(As of May 2014, DPKO)

South Sudan (UNMISS )- 1,354

Congo (MONUSCO)- 1,049

Lebanon (UNIFIL) - 869

Darfur( UNAMID) - 603

Liberia (UNMIL )- FPUs 417

Haiti (MINUSTAH) - 154

Mali (MINUSMA) 149

Syria (UNDOF) - 72

Iraq (UNAMI)- 49

Abei, Sudan UNISFA 4

Code d’ Ivoire (UNOCI)- 4

Western Sahara (MINURSO) 4

Middle East (UNTSO)- 4

Total 4,762

Types of contribution from nepal

Types of contribution from Nepal

  • Infantry

  • Military Observers

  • Military Police

  • Engineers

  • Staff Officers

  • Police Advisors

  • Formed Police Units

  • Police Monitors

  • Others

Peacekeeping some features

Peacekeeping: Some features

  • Most visible flag of the UN

  • Valuable instrument for maintain peace and security – other alternates are riskier and costlier

  • Cheaper instrument - $ 7.83 billion (2013/14)- less than 0.5% of the world’s military expenses $ 1,747 billion (2013)

  • Still bigger than UN’s biennial budget

Peacekeeping important features

Peacekeeping: Important features

  • Missions with various needs

    • Disarmament

    • Elections

    • Human rights monitoring

    • Support to refugees/ returnees

    • Protection of civilians

    • Security sector reform

    • Rule of law

  • Diversification

    • From peacekeeping, to peacemaking, peace enforcement, peacebuilding etc.

Reports galore

Reports Galore

  • Brahimi Report 2000

    • Concept of peace operations

    • Highlighted need for increased political support

    • Broadened the concept and doctrine of peacekeeping

    • Some implemented, Others of scholarly interest,

  • Capstone Doctrine 2008- as a guide for UN personnel

  • New Horizons Report 2009

    • Thrust on policy measures, and capacity development, field support and oversight mechanism

    • Seeks to address the policy and major policy and strategy dilemmas faced by the PKOs

  • UN Peace Operations 2010- reform strategy for the next decade post Brahimi report

Factors contributing to success of pkos

Factors contributing to success of PKOs

  • Legitimacy

  • Experience

  • Impartiality

  • Credibility

Challenges of un peacekeeping

Challenges of UN Peacekeeping

  • Too big to manage- “overstretch”

    • 98,755 uniformed personnel in 17 missions ( May 2014)

  • Growing complexities

  • Going to places where there is “no peace to keep”

  • Lack of political strategy

  • Ambiguous mandates- divided Security Council

  • “Mission creep”- so called Integrated Approach seeks to put everything under PKOs

  • Lack of exit strategy- UN is stuck in most circumstances

  • Haunted by failed mandates- Rwanda, Former Yugoslavia, Somalia- several shortcomings still continuing

Doctrinal challenges

Doctrinal Challenges

  • UN Charter has no provision for UN peacekeeping

  • Consent of the parties- not applicable in peace enforcement mandates (e.g. Darfur)

  • Impartiality (undermined in many instances) especially in Chapter VII mandates

  • Use of force- for self defense and in defense of the mandate (e.g. protection of civilians)- difficulty in maintaining uniform approach

  • No commensurate investment in preventive diplomacy and political capability (cheaper to prevent)

  • Peacekeeping cannot be a substitute for addressing he root causes of conflict

Doctrinal challenges1

Doctrinal Challenges..

  • Difficulty to separate continuum of peacekeeping, peacebuilding and reconstruction

  • Difficulty to implement the thematic resolutions

    • 1325 on women in peace and security

    • 1612 Children in armed conflict

    • 1674 Protection of civilians

  • Putting “protection of civilians” in each mission’s mandate- creates false expectations – one of the causes of perceived failure of the UN

  • Protection mandate requires use of force which is difficult to apply under existing rules of engagement

  • Responsibility to Protect: Failure to apply, selectivity

Operational challenges

Operational Challenges

  • UN does not have its own military

  • Absence of rapid deployment capability

  • Poor support from member states e.g. helicopters

  • Resources crunch

  • Robust peacekeeping – and hybrid missions

  • Field support challenges

  • Lack of gender and geographical balance

    • Top troops contributors come from South Asia

    • Women still under represented

Other challenges

Other Challenges..

  • Disintegrated approach: each mission from scratch- same hurdles every time

  • Human rights abuses at home and at duty station- need better strategy to handle

  • Sexual abuse and harassment- implementation of “Zero Tolerance” policy

  • Safety and security of peacekeepers- peacekeeping has become more lethal

  • Need better consultation with troops contributing countries

    • “Being informed is not same as being consulted”

  • Nepal s issues on peacekeeping

    Nepal’s issues on Peacekeeping

    • Better involvement in mandating of the mission, political strategy, rules of engagement and exit strategy

    • Standby capacity- lack of equipment support often delaying deployment

    • Need more representation of women

    • Need more senior level appointments for both uniformed and civilian personnel

    Nepal s issues on peacekeeping1

    Nepal’s issues on Peacekeeping

    • Better use of Training centre- by the UN system for regional endeavors

    • Safety and security concerns/ Need to exercise selectivity

    • Need to increase civilian participation in peacekeeping missions

    • More efficient reimbursement procedure

    • More efficient vetting procedure for human rights- (DPKO should consult before taking any action)

    • Better oversight mechanism in purchases etc. to avoid scandals of corruption in supplies (e.g. Darfur)

    Reforming nepal s peacekeeping

    Reforming Nepal’s peacekeeping

    • Improve standby capacity- size of army has grown

    • Reinforce contingent-owned equipment

    • Gove more training on host country situation, driving, languages, UN practices, human rights etc.

    • Improve vetting procedure and end impunity allegations on human rights

    • Increase capability to deploy more women- showcasing inclusive reforms

    • Take stern action against sexual exploitation and abuse

    Measures dpko should take

    Measures DPKO should take

    • Invest in the capacity of the troops contributing countries (including in standby equipment and training)

    • Improve consultation with troops contributing countries (on mandate, political strategy, rules of engagement, etc)

    • Improve vetting procedure for human rights to avoid embarrassment for both sides

    • Consult with sending countries before taking any action on human rights etc.

    • Introduce more stringent measure for safety and security of peacekeepers – introduce better risk analysis and rapid response mechanism

    • Speedier investigation into allegations against peacekeepers

    Measures dpko should take1

    Measures DPKO should take

    • Introduce better strategy to deal with unfounded allegations (e.g. cholera in Haiti) –overshadowed what Nepalese troops did in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake

    • Improve partnership with regional organizations, troop contributing countries etc.

    • Increase senior level appointments from Nepal in UN’s missions and headquarters (military, police and civilians )

      • No SRSG from Nepal in any of the UN’s peacekeeping missions so far

      • Need to appoint more force commanders, heads of police and senior level civilians etc.

        Thank You

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