Establishing objectives and budgeting for the promotional program
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7. Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program. Setting Objectives. Obstacles to setting objectives Complex marketing situations Conflicting perspectives Uncertainty over resources. Value of Objectives. Measurement/Evaluation. Planning & Decision Making.

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Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program

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Establishing objectives and budgeting for the promotional program


Establishing Objectivesand Budgeting for thePromotional Program

Setting objectives

Setting Objectives

  • Obstacles to setting objectives

    • Complex marketing situations

    • Conflicting perspectives

    • Uncertainty over resources

Value of objectives

Value of Objectives


Planning & Decision Making


Specific Objectives

Characteristics of objectives

Characteristics of Objectives






Sales vs communications objectives

Sales vs. Communications Objectives


Communications Objectives

  • Primary goal is increased sales

  • Requires economic justification

  • Should produce quantifiable results

  • Increased brand knowledge, interest, favorable attitudes and image

  • Immediate response not expected

  • Goal is creating favorable predispositions

Problems with sales objectives

Problems with Sales Objectives

Won’t work in isolation

Ad effects take time

Hard to determine precise relationship between advertising and sales

Offers little guidance to those planning and developing the promotional program

Factors influencing sales

Factors Influencing Sales



The economy

Advertising & promotion

Product quality



Where sales objectives are appropriate

Where Sales Objectives are Appropriate

Where sales objectives are appropriate1

Where Sales Objectives are Appropriate

Test your knowledge

Test Your Knowledge

Which of the following statements about communications objectives is true?

A) Sales goals are easily translated into communications objectives.

B) It can be difficult to determine the relationship between communications objectives and sales performance.

C)Communications objectives cannot serve as operational guidelines for planning, executing, and evaluating promotional programs.

D)Marketing managers often do not recognize the value of setting communications objectives.

Communications objectives

Communications Objectives

Conative (behavioral)

Ads stimulate ordirect desires

Affective (feeling)

Ads change attitudes and feelings

Cognitive (thinking)

Ads provide

information and facts


Purchase intentions

Favorable attitudes and image

Brand knowledgeand interest

Brand awareness

Creating an image

Creating an Image

Communications effects pyramid

Communications Effects Pyramid

5% Use


20% Trial

25% Preference


40% Liking

70% Knowledge/comprehension


90% Awareness

Gfk purchase funnel

GfK Purchase Funnel

Problems with communications objectives

Problems With Communications Objectives

  • Translating sales goals into communications objectives

    • What is adequate level of awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, or conviction?

    • No formulas or guidelines

The dagmar approach

The DAGMAR Approach







Goals for




Characteristics of objectives1

Characteristics of Objectives

Concrete, measurable tasks



Specifiedtime period

Criticisms of dagmar

Criticisms of DAGMAR

Problems with response hierarchy

Only relevant measure is sales

Costly and time consuming

Inhibits creativity

Advertising based view of marketing

Advertising-Based View of Marketing


Acting on Consumers

Utilizing a variety of media

Utilizing a Variety of Media

Balancing objectives and budgets

Balancing Objectives and Budgets

What we’re willing and able to spend

What we need to achieve our objectives

Establishing the budget

Establishing the Budget

To whom should we allocate the monies?

How much should we spend on advertising and promotion?

Budget decisions in a down economy

Budget Decisions in a Down Economy

When times get tough, advertising and promotional budgets are the first to be cut

Marginal analysis

Marginal Analysis

Weaknesses of marginal analysis

Weaknesses of Marginal Analysis

Sales are a direct measure of advertising and promotions efforts.

Sales are determined solely by advertising and promotion.

Test your knowledge1

Test Your Knowledge

In marginal analysis, all of the following should be considered except:

A) Sales

B) Fixed costs of advertising

C) Advertising expenditures and other variable costs

D) Gross margin

E) Net worth

Budget adjustments

Budget Adjustments

Increase Spending

If cost is less than the marginal revenue generated



If the cost is equal to the marginal revenue generated

Decrease Spending

If the cost is more than the marginal revenue generated

Sales response models

Sales Response Models

A.Concave-Downward Response Curve

B.S-Shaped Response Function

Incremental Sales

Incremental Sales

Initial Spending

Little Effect

High Spending

Little Effect

Middle Level

High Effect

Range A

Range B

Range C

Advertising Expenditures

Advertising Expenditures

Factors influencing advertising budgets

Factors Influencing Advertising Budgets

Hidden productqualities

Product life cycle





Top down vs bottom up budgeting

Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Budgeting

Top down budgeting methods

Top-Down Budgeting Methods


Return onInvestment



Percentage of Sales



Build up approaches

Build-Up Approaches

  • Objective and Task Method

    • Define communications objectives to be accomplished

    • Determine specific strategies and tasks needed to attain them

    • Estimate costs associated with performance of these strategies and tasks

Implementing the objective and task approach

Implementing the Objective and Task Approach

Isolate objectives

Determine tasks required

Estimate required expenditures


Reevaluate objectives

Payout planning

Payout Planning

Quantitative models

Quantitative Models

Computer Simulation

Allocating to imc elements

Allocating to IMC Elements

Other budget allocation factors

Other Budget Allocation Factors

  • Budgeting Factors

    • Client/agency policies

    • Market size

    • Market potential

    • Market share goals

Share of voice effect

Share of Voice Effect

Decrease–find a defensible niche

Increase to defend



Share of Voice

Attack with large SOV premium

Maintain modest spending premium




Your Share of Market

Economies of scale

Economies of Scale

Proposition I

Larger firms can support their brands with lower relative advertising costs than smaller firms.

Proposition II

The leading brand in a product group enjoys lower advertising costs per sales dollar than do other brands.

Proposition III

There is a static relationship between advertising costs per dollar of sales and the size of the advertiser.

There is no evidence to support any of these!

Organizational characteristics

Organizational Characteristics

  • Factors that influence advertising and promotion budgets

    • The organization’s structure

    • Power and politics

    • The use of expert opinions

    • Characteristics of the decision maker

    • Approval and negotiation channels

    • Pressure on senior managers to arrive at the optimal budget

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