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Chapter 6. Memory Introductory Psychology Dr. Greg Cook. Memory Model Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968). See Textbook, p. 199. Rehearsal. Retrieve. SM. STM. LTM. Input. Transfer Encode. Transfer Encode. Lost. Lost. Lost?. “Computer” as a metaphor

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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Memory

Introductory Psychology

Dr. Greg Cook


Memory model atkinson shiffrin 1968

Memory ModelAtkinson & Shiffrin (1968)

See Textbook, p. 199.

Rehearsal

Retrieve

SM

STM

LTM

Input

Transfer

Encode

Transfer

Encode

Lost

Lost

Lost?

“Computer” as a metaphor

for memory and information processing.


Sensory memory what a flash
Sensory Memory: What a Flash!

  • An “echo” of the input reverberates in our sensory systems for a very brief time.

  • Vision = “Iconic Memory” = fraction of a second.

  • Hearing = “Echoic Memory” = up to 2 seconds.

  • Capacity is LARGE; Duration is VERY BRIEF

  • We sense much more than we can possibly process (funnel effect)

  • Examples: candle “tail”, film images, “feel your feet”

  • Most of our sensory information is LOST from SM; not encoded to STM


Short term memory paying attention
Short-Term Memory: Paying Attention!

  • Current Processing: STM holds the information you are consciously processing (paying attention to) right now.

  • Also called “Working Memory”.

  • Capacity: Digit Span Test

  • Magic number: 7 ± 2 pieces of information (“chunks”).

  • Duration: 0 – 18 secs, maybe 30 secs.

  • Rehearsal: refreshes information, increases likelihood of transfer to LTM

    • Maintenance rehearsal (rote)

    • Elaborative rehearsal (personalize, connect to LTM)


Long term memory memory for life
Long-Term Memory: Memory for life!

  • Storehouse of facts, events, emotions, images . . .

  • Fast & Easy vs. Effortful

  • Example: “What is your middle name?”

  • Duration: For life, theoretically. Decay?

  • Capacity: Unlimited, theoretically.


Forgetting memory failures
Forgetting: Memory failures

  • Decay: do our memories “fade” with time?

  • Encoding failures (didn’t tag it into memory)

  • Retrieval failures (can’t find it or dig it out)

    Also interference, distortions, consolidation problems, other phenomenon


Recognition versus recall
Recognition versus Recall

  • Recognition: “I know that face!”

  • Recall: “What is this person’s name?”


Serial position effect losing the middle
Serial Position Effect: Losing the Middle

If you study a list of words/concepts, then immediately try to recall them, you get “Primacy” and “Recency” effects.

With delayed recall, you get only the “Primacy” effect.

Primacy Effect: early items are transferred to LTM (fresh task)

Recency Effect: items studied w/in last seconds are still in STM, if immed test

Intermediate items were not encoded strongly into LTM, also not now in STM

Image copied from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Serial_position.png


Context effects in memory
Context Effects in Memory

  • Godden & Baddeley (1975) studied people in a diving club. Textbook, p. 205.

  • Learned list of words 10 ft underwater vs. on land

  • Tested 10 ft underwater vs. on land

  • Memory scores were 47% higher when testing context matched learning context. Place cues.

  • Where do you study? Where do you take tests?


Other memory phenomena
Other Memory Phenomena

  • Infantile amnesia

  • Flashbulb memories: dramatic events

  • Repressed memories: traumatic events

  • Motivated forgetting: protecting yourself

    suppression vs. repression


Ebbinghaus famous forgetting curve
Ebbinghaus’ Famous Forgetting Curve

Images from http://encarta.msn.com/media_461547609_761578303_-1_1/Forgetting_Curve.html

Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) conducted the first systematic studies of human memory. Using himself as a subject, he learned nonsense syllables, then tested his memory after delays up to 31 days.

Most forgetting occurs rapidly, then what “sticks” tends to stick long term.

LEJ, XIZ, LUK, ZOH, . . .


How much do you remember from your high school courses? College?

Try this link:

http://lazowska.cs.washington.edu/scienceforum/tsld085.htm


Improving your memory
Improving Your Memory College?

  • Organization: create meaningful clusters

  • Overlearning: take it over the top

  • Spaced practice: better than massed practice

  • Recitation: practice retrieving information

    (use recall; go beyond recognition)



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