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Set of IP hosts within a same IP domain (subnet) communicate with each other directly over ATM network. The IP hosts outside their subnet (domain) communicate with other IP hosts in another subnet via an IP router. 8. IP Over ATM. IP Host 3. IP Host 1. ATM Network. IP Host 2. IP Host 4.

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8 ip over atm

Set of IP hosts within a same IP domain (subnet) communicate with each other directly over ATM network.

The IP hosts outside their subnet (domain) communicate with other IP hosts in another subnet via an IP router.

8. IP Over ATM


8 ip over atm

IP Host 3

IP Host 1

ATM Network

IP Host 2

IP Host 4

CASE 1:


8 ip over atm

CASE 2:

IP Router

IP Host 1

IP Host 3

ATM

NETWORK

ATM Network

IP Host 2

IP Host 4


Ip over atm

OVERLAY MODEL  IP over ATM

PEER MODEL  MULTIPROTOCOL

LABEL SWITCHING

(MPLS)

Integrated ATM switching and IP Routing Function.

No Address Resolution Protocol.

IP Over ATM


Framework for ip over atm

1. Packet Encapsulation

2. Address Resolution

3. Multicasting

4. Large Network (Scalability)

FRAMEWORK for IP over ATM


Detailed framework

1. How many VC’s do we need for n protocols?

i.e., Define a method to transport multiple types of network

or link layer packets across an ATM connection and also for

MUXing multiple packet types on the same connection.

 Encapsulating IP packets in ATM AAL5 cells?

Packet Encapsulation [RFC 1483]

2. How to find ATM addresses from IP addresses?

Address Resolution [RFC 1577]

DETAILED FRAMEWORK


Detailed framework1

3. How to handle multicast?

MARS [RFC 2022]

4. How do we go through n subnets

on a large ATM network?

NHRP

DETAILED FRAMEWORK


Packet encapsulation rfc 1483

Goal: Encapsulating IP packets in ATM AAL5 cells

LLC/SNAP EncapsulationVC Multiplexing

(Multiprotocol Encapsulation)(VC based Encapsulation)

(“NULL”Encapsulation)

PACKET ENCAPSULATION (RFC 1483)

A node that receives a network layer packet across an ATM connection to know what kind of

packet has been received, and to what application or higher level entity to pass the packet to;

hence the packet must be prefixed with a MUX field.


Packet encapsulation rfc 14831

Different Protocols

AppleTalk

IP

IPX

Router

Router

ATM Switch

PACKET ENCAPSULATION (RFC 1483)

Scenario:

Given an ATM link between two routers with 3 different protocols. How many VC’s shall we set up?


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IPX

IPX

IP

IP

Apple Talk

Apple Talk

VC

ANSWER 1: LLC/SNAP ENCAPSULATION

Share a VC using LOGICAL LINK CONTROL (LLC) Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP).

Several protocols are carried over the same VC. The protocol is identified

by prefixing the IP packet with an IEEE 802.2 LLC header followed by

an IEEE 802.1a Subnet Attachment Point (SNAP) header. Encapsulations

Terminate at the LLC layer within the end system.


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IP Packet

3Bytes

LLC

2Bytes

PID

3Bytes

OUI

IP Packet

0xAA-AA-03

0x00-00-00

0x08-00

8Byte header

AAL5 Frame

LLC/SNAP ENCAPSULATION

An LLC (3 bytes) /SNAP header (5 bytes) is prepended to each packet to identify

which protocol is contained in the payload. PID distinguishes one protocol from

another.

0x0800 specifies IP; 0x0806 is ARP; 0x809B is AppleTalk; 0x8137 is IPX; ..

OUI  Organizationally Unique Identifier administers the

meaning of the following 2 Octet Protocol Identifier (PID),

e.g., OUI value 0x000000  the PID as an Ethernet type.

Max Transfer Unit (MTU) size is standardized at 9180 Bytes, excluding

8 Byte header. However, the size can be negotiated up to 64K Bytes.


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IPX

IP

IPX

AppleTalk

IP

Apple Talk

ANSWER 2:

VC MULTIPLEXING (“NULL” ENCAPSULATION)

Each protocol is carried over a separate VC with the protocol

type specified at connection set-up.

VCc

VCb

VCa

VC is terminated directly at a layer 3 endpoint. In other words, the AAL endpoints

of a VC multiplexed connection would be the layer 3 protocol entities. This means

that a VC will carry one protocol only. No MUXing. LANE encapsulation is a form of VC MUXing.


8 ip over atm

Comparison of Both Schemes

  • Sharing a VC limits the number of VCs required in an IP & multi-protocol environment

  • However, it uses an additional 8 Byte per AAL frame as a header.

  • Also an LLC/SNAP entity must be present at each endpoint to demultiplex the frames & pass them up to the higher layer protocol

  • VC-based multiplexing is more efficient from a pure VC perspective.

  • VC multiplexing results in minimal bandwidth and processing overhead.

  • Moreover, because a single protocol is mapped to a single VC it may be easier to perform filtering and/or authentication.

  • UNI Signaling is required to initiate an LLC/SNAP encapsulated SVC.

  • LLC/SNAP supports multiple protocols over the same VC. Permits connection reuse & reduces connection set-up time.

  • LLC/SNAP method is the default method for IP over ATM.


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ATMARP

Server

ADDRESS RESOLUTION (RFC1577)

  • IP Address: 123.145.134.65

    • ATM Address: 47.0000 1 614 999 2345.00.00.AA….

  • Issue: IP Address  ATM Address translation (Logical IP Subnet Concept)

    • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

    • Inverse ATM ARP: (ATM_ARP Server sends messages to client).

  • Solution: ATMARP servers


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Host

Host

ATM_ARP

Server

LIS

LIS

LIS

Host

Logical

IP

Subnet 3

Host

Logical

IP

Subnet 2

Logical

IP

Subnet 1

Host

Host

ATM_ARP

Server

ATM_ARP

Server

IP Router

IP Router

Architecture


Architecture cont

Hosts on subnet are assigned an IP address and PHY layer

address (ATM).

IP nodes (end-systems and routers) in the ATM network are

grouped into logical IP subnets (LIS) (with similar subnet addresses).

The nodes in one LIS communicate with those outside their

LIS through IP routers.

When communicating with another host on the same subnet

using ATM, it is necessary to resolve the destination IP

address with the ATM address of the end-point.

Architecture (Cont.)


Architecture cont1

When traversing subnet boundaries, it is necessary

to first pass through a IP router which can

continue to implement any filtering, access or

security policies.

Architecture (Cont.)


Architecture cont2

Within each LIS, there is an ATM Address Resolution Protocol Server (ATM_ARP) which performs directory services function for the nodes in the LIS.

A single LIS can support many hosts and routers with the same IP network & subnet mask.

Communication between any two members of the LIS takes place over ATM PVC or SVC.

Architecture (cont.)


8 ip over atm

ATM ARP Server

IP Router

ATM ARP Server

IP Host 1

IP Host 3

LIS 1

LIS 2

ATM Network

(ATM Network)

IP Host 2

IP Host 4

Configuration Requirements

(Intra-subnet)


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Configuration Requirements (Cont.)

  • All LIS members must use ATMARP and InATMARP in conjunction with an ATMARP server entity to resolve IP and ATM addresseswhen using SVCs.

  • All LIS members must use InATMARP to resolve VCs to IP addresses when using PVCs. An ATMARP server entity is not required when using PVCs.

  • All LIS members must be able to communicate with all other LIS members using an ATM PVC or SVC. This implies that the underlying ATM fabric can be fully meshed.


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Configuration Requirements (Cont.)

  • The following ATM parameters must be configured for each member of the LIS:

  • ATM Hardware Address : This is the ATM address of the individual IP host.

  • ATMARP Request Address: This is the ATM address of the ATMARP server for the LIS. If the LIS is using only PVCs, then this requirement may be null.


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ATMARP server

IP address=176.13.11.99

ATM address=ZZZ

ATM

Switch

IP Client# 2

IP address=176.13.11.2

ATM address=BBB

IP Client# 1

IP address=176.13.11.1

ATM address=AAA

ATMARP SERVER

  • Primary purpose is to maintain a table or cache of IP address mappings.

  • At least one ATMARP server must be configured for each LIS, along with a specific IP and ATM address.

  • A single ATMARP server may service more than one LIS as long as it is IP and ATM addressable within each LIS.

  • An ATMARP server learns about the IP and ATM addresses of specific members (IP clients) of the LIS through the use of ATMARP and InATMARP messages exchanged between the ATMARP server and LIS members.

  • Finally, an ATMARP server can run on an IP host or router.

  • Figure shows an LIS with 2 IP clients and a stand-alone ATMARP server.


8 ip over atm

ATMARP SERVER (Cont.)

The ATMARP protocol is composed of five unique message types.

ATMARP Message

Description

ATMARP request

Sent from IP client to server to obtain destination ATM address, contains the

client’s IP address, ATM address, and the destination’s IP address

ATMARP reply

Response from server to IP client with destination ATM address, contains the

client’s and destination’s IP and ATM addresses

InATMARP request

Sent from server to IP client over VC to obtain IP address, contains the client’s

ATM address and the ATMARP server’s IP and ATM addresses

InATMARP reply

Response from IP client over VC with IP address, contains the client’s and

Server’s IP and ATM addresses

ATMARP NAK

Negative response to ATMARP request sent from server to IP client


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  • Registration

  • IP clients must first register their IP and ATM addresses with the ATMARP server.

  • This is performed by the IP client who initially establishes an SVC with the ATMARP server.

  • The IP client is able to do this because it is configured with the ATM address of the ATMARP server.

  • Next the ATMARP server sends out an InATMARP request.

  • The purpose of this message is to obtain the IP address of the client.

  • The client returns an InATMARP reply which will contain both the IP and ATM addresses of the client.

  • The ATMARP server checks its existing table and if there are no duplicates, time-stamps the entry and adds it to the table.

  • This entry is valid for a minimum of 20 minutes.


8 ip over atm

IP address=176.13.11.99 ATM address=ZZZ

ATMARP Server

IP Client #1 IP address=176.13.11.1 ATM address=AAA

IP Client #2 IPaddress=176.13.11.2 ATM address=BBB

ATM Switch

Setup VC

InATMARP_Req (IP addr of client #1???)

InATMARP_Reply (176.13.11.1)

  • Registration

  • The registration process flow for IP Client #1 is shown in Figure.

  • Of course, IP Client #2 will register its own address with the ATMARP server once it is initialized.


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Client

ATM_ARP Server

Inverse ARP

A new client wants to join

Client Comes Up (Registers)  To establish a connection to the ATMARP Server of its own LIS.

ATMARP Server detects the connection from the new client, sends an inverse ARP request using the clients ATM address to request clients’ IP address since it knows clients ATM address through VC connection.


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ADDRESS RESOLUTION

  • If IP Client #1 wishes to communicate with IP Client #2 and a connection already exists, then the packets will immediately flow over that connection.

  • IP Client #1 may contain the ATM address of IP Client #2 in its own ARP cache and if so, then it can immediately set up an SVC to IP Client #2.

  • However, if a connection does not already exist and IP Client #1 does not know the ATM address of IP Client #2, then the ATMARP process is invoked.

  • IP Client #1 sends an ATMARP request to the ATMARP server that contains the source IP address, destination IP address, and source ATM address.


8 ip over atm

ATMARP server

IP address=176.13.11.99

ATM address=ZZZ

IP Client# 2

IP address=176.13.11.2

ATM address=BBB

IP Client# 1

IP address=176.13.11.1

ATM address=AAA

ATM

Switch

ATMARP_Req (IP addr of Client #2, ATM addr ???)

ATMARP_Reply (ATM addr = BBB)

Setup VC and Send Data

ADDRESS RESOLUTION

  • If the ATMARP server contains an IP/ATM address entry for IP Client #2, it will return that information in an ATMARP reply message.

  • IP Client #1 then knows the ATM address of IP Client #2 and can set up an SVC.

  • If not, then the ATMARP server will return an ARP NAK message.


8 ip over atm

Example:

  • Client in LIS 1 wants to communicate with a client in LIS 2 must go through ROUTER 1 even though a direct VC can be established between two clients over the ATM network.

  • Two clients are attached to two different ATM switches.

  • Within this LIS  Host 2 had registered earlier with ATM-ARP server.

  • Each node is configured with the ATM address of its ATM_ARP server.

  • Host 1 establishes a connection to its LIS ATM_ARP Server and then resolves an address for Host 2 in the same LIS.


8 ip over atm

Source

Switch

ATM_ARP

Server

Destination

Switch

Host 1

Host 2

Set Up

Set Up

Connect

Registration

Connect

Connection Established

InARP request

InARP RP

ARP Request

Address

Resolution

ARP Response

Set Up

Set Up

Set Up

Connection

Establishment

Connect

Connect

Connect

Connection Established

Operation of Classical IP over ATM


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ATM ARP Server

IP Router

ATM ARP Server

IP Host 1

IP Host 3

LIS 1

LIS 2

ATM Network

(ATM Network)

IP Host 2

IP Host 4

REVIEW:

Suppose: A host S wants to use CLIP (Classical IP over ATM) to send packets

to another host D wthin the same LIS. S knows only the IP address of D. To set up a VCC through ATM. How does S resolve ATM address of D?


8 ip over atm

Reminder (Pure IP Case):

IP uses the CLASS D address space to send packets to the members of a multicast group.

Host and routers exchange messages using a group membership protocol called the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).

The routers use the results of this message exchange along with a multicast routing protocol such as MOSPF to build a delivery tree from the source subnetwork to all other subnetworks that have members in the multicast group.

IP Multicasting over ATM


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Multicast Address Resolution Server (MARS)

(Analog to the ATMARP Server that supports multicast address resolution)

IP Multicasting over ATM

  • IP hosts attached to an ATM network utilize the MARS

  • to track and disseminate information about multicast

  • group membership.

  • IP multicast senders may query the MARS when

  • multicast address needs to be resolved with the ATM

  • address(es) of the IP hosts participating in the group.


8 ip over atm

IP Multicasting over ATM (Ctd)

The following should also be noted about the MARS:

  • The concept of a CLUSTER is used to define ATM hosts (or routers) that are participating in an ATM level multicast and that share a MARS.

  • A cluster is mapped to a single LIS but it is possible to extend the MARS to support a single cluster over multiple LISs.

  • However, that would require support for multicast routing (e.g., MOSPF, PIM) over ATM, which is an area that requires further study.

  • So for now consider a one-to-one relationship between LIS and CLUSTER.


8 ip over atm

  • But instead of maintaining a table of IP to ATM

  • address pairs, it holds an extended table consisting

  • of IP group addresses and then the ATM addresses

  • of the specific CLUSTER MEMBERS.

  • This is called a HOST MAP.

  • For example, an entry for members belonging

  • to multicast group 232.200.200.1 might look like:

  • {232.200.200.1, ATM Address 1, ATM Address 2, …, ATM Address N}


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MARS

A.2

LIS

A.1

A.3

Pt-Pt VC between IP client and MARS

Pt-Mpt ClusterControlVC

Example: A Cluster with a MARS & 3 Cluster Members or MARS Clients


8 ip over atm

  • Clients who wish to participate in a multicast group establish a point-to-point VC with the MARS.

  • Clients register with the MARS by sending a MARS_JOIN message containing the “all nodes” group address (224.0.0.1) as described in RFC 1112.

  • The MARS will then add the client as a leaf on its ClusterControlVC.

  • The ClusterControlVC is a point-to-multipoint VC that is established between the MARS and all multicast-capable cluster members (hosts or routers).

  • The ClusterControlVC is used by the MARS to distribute group membership updates to all members of the cluster.


8 ip over atm

  • For example, after host A.2 registers, the MARS will send a MARS_JOIN message out over its ClusterControlVC to all members, indicating that host A.2 has registered and is multicast-capable.

  • Clients who wish to join or leave a specific multicast group will send a MARS_JOIN or MARS_LEAVE message to the MARS containing one or more IP group addresses.

  • Again, this information will be propagated to other cluster members over the ClusterControlVC so that sources (roots) can add to or prune their multicast trees.

  • Clients send a MARS_REQUEST to the MARS seeking address resolution of a specific IP group address.

  • MARS responds with a MARS_MULTI message which contains the HOST MAP for the IP group address.


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Example  Join Address Resolution Flow

MARS-REQUEST and MARS-MULTI Flows

MARS

LIS

A.2

A.1

A.3


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  • Hosts A.2 and A.3 forward MARS_JOIN messages up to the MARS indicating they wish to join multicast group XYZ.

  • The MARS redirects these messages out over the ClusterControlVC.

  • Host A.1 wishes to send packets to group address XYZ.

  • It issues a MARS_REQUEST message to the MARS which returns a MARS_MULTI message that contains a HOST MAP of (XYZ,A.2,A.3).

  • A.1 now has sufficient information to establish a point-to-multipoint VC with the group members A.2 and A.3, and will begin multicasting.


8 ip over atm

Next Hop Resolution Protocol (for Inter-Subnets)

(NHRP: pronounced nerp)

Host

Host

LIS

(ATM Network)

LIS

(ATM Network)

Router

Go through a router that is a member of multiple logical IP

subnets. This router may become a bottleneck.

Solution NHRP


8 ip over atm

Router

ATM

Switch

ATM

Switch

ATM

Switch

Router

ATM

Switch

ATM

Switch

ATM

Switch

ATM

Switch

ATM

Switch

ATM

Switch

ATM

Switch

ATM

Switch

ATM

Switch

Subnet X

Subnet Y

Subnet Z

VC

Data


8 ip over atm

NHRP (Addendum)

  • Main Objective: Find the most efficient shortcut path through ATM network so that intermediate IP routers can be bypassed.

  • Recall: Previously an IP router had to forward packets between 2 LISs. CLIP model resolves only the ATM address that belongs to the same LIS. CLIP model requires an IP router to perform packet forwarding between two different LISs.

  • NHRP: provides shortcuts to traverse multiple LISs making it more suitable for larger networks.


8 ip over atm

NHRP

  • It is an address resolution technique for resolving IP addresses with ATM addresses in a multiple subnet environment.

  • The purpose of NHRP is to provide a host or router with the ATM address of a destination IP address so that one or more layer-3 hops can be bypassed by using a direct connection over the ATM network.

  • NHRP can be considered an extension to the ATMARP process described in RFC1577.

  • Whereas ATMARP is used to map IP and ATM addresses in a single LIS, NHRP is used to map IP and ATM addresses in a multiple LIS environment contained within a single ATM network.


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NHRP Terminology

  • NON-BROADCAST MULTI-ACCESS NETWORK (NBMA)

  • An NBMA network is defined as:

  • * Does not support an inherent broadcast or multicast capability.

  • * Enables any host (or router) attached to the NBMA network to communicate directly with another host on the same NBMA network.

  • ATM, Frame Relay, SMDS, and X.25 are all examples of NBMA networks. An NBMA ATM network may contain one or more LISs.

  • * The NBMA is partitioned into administrative domains.Logical NBMA Subnets (LNS)

  • * Each LNS is served by an NHS (Next Hop Server)


8 ip over atm

NHRP Terminology (Cont.)

  • 2. NEXT HOP SERVER (NHS)

  • (These are responsible for answering NHRP resolution requests by means of NHRP replies.)

  • NHS serves a set of hosts (or NHRP stations) in the NBMA network and answers NHRP resolution requests from these stations called NHC (Next Hop Clients).

  • Both NHS and NHC contain a CACHE or table of IP & ATM addresses for devices attached to the ATM network (Address Resolution Cache).

  • If the desired destination IP address is not on the ATM network, then the NHS will provide the ATM address of the router nearest to the destination.

  • The NHS should run on a router so as to facilitate forwarding of NHRP requests, replies, and other messages over the default-routed path.

  • The NHS responds to queries from NHRP clients.

  • The NHS serves a specific set or domain of NHRP clients for whom it is responsible.


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NHRP Terminology (Cont.)

  • 3. NEXT HOP CLIENTS (NHC)

  • NHRP cloud contains entities called NHCs.

  • These are responsible for initiating NHRP resolution

  • request packets.

  • REMARK:

  • Both NHC and NHS maintain an ADDRESS RESOLUTION

  • CACHE.

  • An NHC in NHRP replaces an ATMARP client in CLIP

  • (Classical IP over ATM Case)

  • NHS replaces an ATMARP server.


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NHRP Configuration

  • NHRP clients must be attached to an ATM network and

  • must be configured with the ATM address of the NHS

  • that is serving the client. Alternatively, it should have a

  • means of locating its NHS.

  • Techniques under consideration involving other server

  • location requirements such as ATMARP and MARS are

  • a group address and a configuration server.

  • NHRP can run on an ATM-attached host or router.

  • The NHS will likely be located on a station’s peer or

  • default router.


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NHRP Configuration (Cont.)

  • NHRP clients can be serviced by more than one NHS.

  • NHRP Servers are configured with their own IP and ATM addresses, a set of IP address prefixes that correspond to the domain of NHRP clients it is serving, and an NBMA (ATM) network identifier.

  • If the NHRP server is located on an egress router attached to a non-ATM network, then the NHRP server must exchange routing information between the ATM and non-ATM network.


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NHRP Client Registration

  • NHRP clients register with their NHRP server in one of the two ways:

  • 1- Manual Configuration

  • 2- NHRP Registration Packets

  • The NHRP registration packet contains the following information along with additional values:

  • {NHC’s ATMaddress, NHC’s IPaddress, NHS’s IPaddress}

  • With this information, the NHRP server can begin to build its table of IP and ATM addresses.


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NHS X

NHS Z

ATMSwitch

ATMSwitch

ATMSwitch

SubnetX

SubnetY

SubnetZ

ATMSwitch

ATMSwitch

ATMSwitch

ATMSwitch

ATMSwitch

ATMSwitch

ATMSwitch

ATMSwitch

ATMSwitch

X.1

Z.3

NHRP Registration Request

NHRP Registration Request

NHRP Registration Reply

NHRP Registration Reply

NHRP Client Registration


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ATM Switch

ATM Switch

ATM Switch

ATM Switch

ATM Switch

ATM Switch

Subnet Z

Subnet X

Subnet Y

ATM Switch

ATM Switch

ATM Switch

ATM Switch

ATM Switch

ATM Switch

Z.3

X.1

IP address = Z.3

ATM address = BBB

IP address = X.1

ATM address = AAA

First Packet

First Packet

First Packet

NHRP Resolution Request

NHRP Resolution Request

NHRP Resolution Reply

NHRP Resolution Reply

Setup SVC

A single NBMA ATM network that contains 2 LISs: X and Z. Actually 3 if we count the LIS connecting the two routers omitted.

Data

NHRP ADDRESS RESOLUTION

NHS X

NHS Z


8 ip over atm

NHRP ADDRESS RESOLUTION

  • The LISs are connected by two routers that serve as NHRP servers

  • for subnets X and Z, respectively.

  • The routers are running a normal intra-AS routing protocol, OSPF, and

  • are connected by an ATM PVC so they are exchanging routing

  • information.

  • The station attached to subnet X with the IP address of X.1 wishes

  • to communicate with station Z.3.

  • Station X.1 builds a packet and addresses it to Z.3.

  • If Z.3 ATM address known, then X.1 uses an existing VCC to send its data.

  • If not, I.e., X.1 does not know the ATM address of Z.3, then it sends NHRP.

  • This packet is forwarded over an existing ATM VC to the default router.

  • This causes X.1 to send a NHRP Next Hop Resolution Request message to NHS X with the following information: [AAA, X.1, Z.3].

  • Station X.1 may also opt to hold onto the packet until a NHRP reply is received or drop it.

  • The first option, the default, is the better choice because that allows data to flow over the default-routed path.


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NHRP ADDRESS RESOLUTION

  • NHS X checks to see if it serves station Z.3.

  • It also checks to see if it has an entry in its cache for Z.3.

  • SUPPOSE Neither is true so the NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Request) is forwarded to the adjacent NHRP server, NHS Z.

  • NHS Z receives the NHRP Next Hop Resolution Request from NHS X.

  • NHS Z determines that it serves the destination IP address contained in the request message.

  • An entry is contained in the cache or table of NHS Z which contains an IP to ATM address mapping for the destination IP address of Z.3.

  • NHS Z resolves the destination IP address, Z.3, with its matching ATM address, BBB.

  • It places this information in a NHRP Next Hop Resolution Reply and returns it to station X.1 over a default-routed path that the request came from.


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NHRP ADDRESS RESOLUTION

  • The NHRP Next Hop Resolution Reply could flow directly back to the initiator X.1 if

  • A VC exists between station X.1 and NHS Z,

  • An NHRP Reverse NHS record Extension is not included in the request message, and

  • The authentication policy permits direct communication between the initiator, station X.1, NHS Z.

  • Sending a direct response back to the NHRP initiator may save time but does not enable any of the intermediate NHSs to cache information contained in the NRP Next Hop Resolution Reply messages.

  • As the NHRP Resolution Reply flows back to station X.1, NHS X may cache the information contained in the packet.

  • This means it could add the entry of [Z.3, BBB] into its cache.


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NHRP ADDRESS RESOLUTION

  • This information could be used by NHS X to provide a non-authoritative NHRP Next Hop Resolution Reply for another station on subnet X that wishes to communicate DIRECTLY WITH STATION Z.3.

  • An authoritative NHRP Next Hop resolution reply is the one that is generated by the NHS that directly serves the NHRP client.

  • If a NHRP client generates an authoritative resolution request, then only the serving NHS can respond authoritatively.

  • If a NHRP client generates a non-authoritative resolution request, then any NHS that can resolve the request can respond.


8 ip over atm

NHRP ADDRESS RESOLUTION

  • Nonauthoritative reply speeds up the Address Resolution Process.

  • However, we need to increase the CACHE SIZE requirement at the NHS.

  • Another disadvantage is that when IP-ATM address binding at the destination changes, a transit NHS will respond with a wrong address resolution reply.


8 ip over atm

NHRP ADDRESS RESOLUTION

  • Station X.1 will receive a NHRP Next Hop

  • Resolution Reply and take two actions,

  • (1) Cache the information contained in

  • the reply and

  • (2) Establish an ATM SVC directly to station

  • Z.3 and begin data transmission.


8 ip over atm

REINVENTING IP over ATM

  • Ipsilon Networks IP Switching

  • Toshiba  Cell Switching Router

  • Cisco  Tag Switching

  • IBM  Aggregate Route Based IP Switching (ARIS)

  • IETF  MPLS (MultiProtocol Label Switching)


8 ip over atm

LANE

Address Resolution Process Overhead is high.

IP Address MAC Layer Address Mapping

MAC Layer Address ATM Address Mapping

IP over ATM

ATM_ARP Server only

IP AddressATM Address

Difference of LANE and IP over ATM

  • LANE hides the layers above layer 2 from ATM fabric.

  • Consequent Applications running over a LANE network cannot take advantage of QoS capabilities of the ATM.


8 ip over atm

Application

Integrated Service Internet

Flow

Specs

Packet Scheduling

Flow

IDs

RSVP

PIM

ATM

Signaling

VC

Routing

Traffic

Management

Traffic

Contract

ATM

VPI/VCI

Mapping of Integrated Services Internet into ATM


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