Agenda for february 22
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 12

Agenda for February 22 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 85 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Agenda for February 22. Administrative Items/Announcements Missing pages available from Medvec et al article Presentation on Thursday 1 st Exam will be returned on Thursday Paper topics: Already some exciting ones submitted! Time to sign up for RPP Research opportunities available.

Download Presentation

Agenda for February 22

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Agenda for february 22

Agenda for February 22

  • Administrative Items/Announcements

    • Missing pages available from Medvec et al article

    • Presentation on Thursday

    • 1st Exam will be returned on Thursday

    • Paper topics: Already some exciting ones submitted!

    • Time to sign up for RPP

    • Research opportunities available

Week 6, Part 1


Agenda for february 22 cont

Agenda for February 22, cont.

  • Transition from the Separate Systems Debate Debates About the Effects of Emotion on Judgment and Choice

    • Today’s topic: Counterfactual emotion

Week 6, Part 1


Counterfactual emotion

Counterfactual Emotion

  • A lottery example (Kahneman & Tversky, 1982)

    • The winning number was 865304

    • 3 individuals compare the ticket they hold to the winning number:

      • John holds 361204

      • Mary holds 965304

      • Peter holds 865305

    • All 3 have identical outcomes (losing) but one is much more upset than the others.

Week 6, Part 1


Counterfactual emotion cont

Counterfactual Emotion, cont.

  • A travel example:

    • Person X misses a plane for which she had a ticket and then later learns that the plane has fatally crashed.

    • Although everyone in the airport who was not on the plane has reason to feel a mixture of sadness and relief, Person X extremely relieved.

Week 6, Part 1


So what is counterfactual emotion

So What is Counterfactual Emotion?

  • Counterfactual Emotion (def.): When the mental construction of fictitious outcomes (“what might have been”) determines your feelings about actual outcomes.

  • Premise of theories on counterfactual emotion: Objective outcomes do not predict subjective happiness as well as counterfactual comparisons do.

Week 6, Part 1


Counterfactual emotion cont1

Counterfactual Emotion, cont.

  • When is counterfactual thought especially likely to occur?

    • Any ideas?

Week 6, Part 1


Counterfactual emotion cont2

Counterfactual Emotion, cont.

  • Counterfactual thought occurs:

    • When outcomes deviate from norms or expectancies

      • Example: surprising weather conditions

    • When “close calls” occur, thus making it easy to imagine alternative outcomes. When only one aspect of an event needs to be changed as opposed to some fundamental change.

      • Example: missed plane because of spontaneous decision to go back inside house and pick up files before leaving vs. missed plane because of deliberate decision to change reservation due to inconvenient schedule.

Week 6, Part 1


3 ways in which counterfactual thought influences emotion

3 Ways in Which Counterfactual Thought Influences Emotion

  • What might have been serves as a standard, influencing assessment of actual event.

    • Just making a cutoff elicits downward social comparisons, boosting satisfaction

    • Just missing a cutoff elicits upward social comparisons, decreasing satisfaction (show data)

    • Comparison can be to an alternative outcome (e.g., lottery example) or to another person (e.g., life satisfaction ratings vary as a function of who else is present when making ratings – note studies with disabled individuals and highly-attractive models).

Week 6, Part 1


No significant difference between actual grades yet a significant difference in satisfaction

No significant difference between actual grades yet a significant difference in satisfaction

Medvec & Savitsky (1997): People attach qualitative boundaries to quantitative outcomes

Satisfaction

Week 6, Part 1


Students with an 87 feel more satisfied than students with an 89

Students with an 87 feel more satisfied than students with an 89

B range

B+ range

A- range

Satisfaction

87

89

90

86

Week 6, Part 1


3 ways in which counterfactual thought influences emotion1

3 Ways in Which Counterfactual Thought Influences Emotion

  • Counterfactual thinking can suggest specific causal implications, which in turn influence judgments & affective experiences.

    • Different explanations for why the abnormal event occurred will lead to different emotions.

      • Example: Hope follows from a surprising failure if one attributes the cause to transient external circumstances (“I couldn’t sleep the night before the exam because of a party next door”) as opposed to stable personality characteristics (“I’m no good at math”).

Week 6, Part 1


3 ways in which counterfactual thought influences emotion2

3 Ways in Which Counterfactual Thought Influences Emotion

  • The act of explaining abnormal outcomes, particularly when it becomes ruminative, can alter affective states. Such thoughts tend to focus on lack of personal efficacy.

    • “If only I hadn’t…”

    • “Why me…”

    • “I wish I had…”

Week 6, Part 1


  • Login