NRTs and CRTs. Two families of tests. Norm-referenced tests (NRT) The relative standing of a student is important (ex. TOEFL, GRE) Students are measured against other students Criterion-referenced (CRT)
Imagine that 24 students take a 25-item proficiency test:
We expect most students to be “average” with some higher and some lower
Imagine that 24 students take a 25-item test on the first day of the semester and then again on the last day of the semester:
We expect most students to “bomb” the test the first time (because they don’t know the material yet, and “ace” the test the second time (because they’ve learned the material over the course of the semester.