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Lecture # 3. Airfoil Aerodynamics. Aerodynamic Coefficients. C l = (Lift force/unit span)/(q c) C d = (Drag force/unit span)/(q c) C m = (Pitching moment/unit span)/(q c 2 ) where q is the dynamic pressure, q = 0.5 r V 2 , and c is the airfoil chord. Some Questions.

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Lecture 3

Lecture # 3

Airfoil Aerodynamics


Aerodynamic coefficients
Aerodynamic Coefficients

  • Cl = (Lift force/unit span)/(q c)

  • Cd = (Drag force/unit span)/(q c)

  • Cm = (Pitching moment/unit span)/(q c2)

    where

    q is the dynamic pressure, q = 0.5 r V2, and c is the airfoil chord


Some questions
Some Questions

  • What is an airfoil?


Some questions1
Some Questions

  • What is an airfoil?

  • What aerodynamic characteristics are we interested in knowing?


Some questions2
Some Questions

  • What is an airfoil?

  • What aerodynamic characteristics are we interested in knowing?

  • What are the geometric parameters that describe an airfoil?


Some questions3
Some Questions

  • What is an airfoil?

  • What aerodynamic characteristics are we interested in knowing?

  • What are the geometric parameters that describe an airfoil?

  • What are the factors that influence the aerodynamic characteristics?



Geometric construction of an airfoil
Geometric Construction of an Airfoil

From NASA Sp-367 by Taly


Airfoil camber line variations
Airfoil Camber line Variations

From NASA Sp-367 by Taly


Lift coefficient versus angle of attack
Lift Coefficient versus angle of attack

From Introduction to Flight by Anderson



Influence of airfoil geometry on airfoil aerodynamics

What are some of the geometric factors that influence the aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

Thickness to chord ratio, t/c

Location of max t/c

Nose radius

Camber

Maximum camber

Location of max camber

Influence of Airfoil Geometry on airfoil aerodynamics


Aerofoil thickness
Aerofoil Thickness aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

  • What is the influence of thickness?


Aerofoil thickness1
Aerofoil Thickness aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

  • What is the influence of thickness?

  • Influence of t/c on lift coefficient

    • Clmax increases with increasing t/c up to t/c in the order of 13-15% at t/c > 15% begins to Clmax decrease.


Aerofoil thickness2
Aerofoil Thickness aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

  • What is the influence of thickness?

  • Influence of t/c on lift coefficient

    • Clmax increases with increasing t/c up to t/c in the order of 13-15% at t/c > 15% begins to Clmax decrease.

  • Influence of t/c on drag coefficient

    • Cdmin increases with increasing t/c


Leading edge nose radius
Leading edge nose radius aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

  • What is the major effect of the leading edge radius on airfoil performance?


Leading edge nose radius1
Leading edge nose radius aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

  • What is the major effect of the leading edge radius on airfoil performance?

    • Effects airfoil stall characteristics

      • Small leading edge radius has a sharp stall break

      • Large leading edge radius has a gentle stall break


Camber
Camber aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

  • What is the influence of camber on the aerodynamic characteristics?


Camber1
Camber aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

  • What is the influence of camber on the aerodynamic characteristics?

  • Increasing camber increases zero lift angle of attack.


Camber2
Camber aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

  • What is the influence of camber on the aerodynamic characteristics?

  • Increasing camber increases zero lift angle of attack.

  • Camber can be used to get a low drag coefficient at the designed lift coefficient.


Camber3
Camber aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

  • What is the influence of camber on the aerodynamic characteristics?

  • Increasing camber increases zero lift angle of attack.

  • Camber can be used to get a low drag coefficient at the designed lift coefficient.

  • The maximum lift coefficient of moderately cambered airfoil sections increase with increasing camber.


Camber4
Camber aerodynamic performance of an airfoil?

  • What is the influence of camber on the aerodynamic characteristics?

  • Increasing camber increases zero lift angle of attack.

  • Camber can be used to get a low drag coefficient at the designed lift coefficient.

  • The maximum lift coefficient of moderately cambered airfoil sections increase with increasing camber.

  • Camber can effect the stall behavior.

    • For airfoil sections that have the maximum camber far forward the stall is very abrupt



What other factors besides geometry influence the aerodynamic characteristics1
What other factors besides geometry influence the aerodynamic characteristics?

  • Aerodynamic coefficients are a function of

    • Geometry

    • Angle of attack

    • Reynolds number

    • Mach Number


Maximum lift coefficient
Maximum Lift Coefficient aerodynamic characteristics?


Minimum drag coefficient
Minimum Drag Coefficient aerodynamic characteristics?


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