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Differentiating as a Coach Bev Freedman August 22, 2006. The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat. Differentiating as a Coach August 2006. Leading the pack used to be an image of leadership. As a coach image would you select now?. Before Isolated events Boards determined focus and

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Differentiating as a Coach

Bev Freedman

August 22, 2006


The literacy and numeracy secretariat
The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat

Differentiating as a Coach

August 2006


Leading the pack used to be an image of leadership

Leading the pack used to be an image of leadership

As a coach image would you select now?


Sharpening the focus

Before

Isolated events

Boards determined focus and

priorities

Isolated ad hoc professional

development

Multiple Initiatives

Limited reliance on research and

data

Getting people’s attention

Sharpening the Focus

Now

Goal-oriented and strategic

Alignment with Ministry goals

Team focussed and job embedded

Selected high yield strategies

Research-based and data driven

Focusing on results

Building motivation and commitment


Schools as harbours of hope
Schools as Harbours of Hope

From

Teaching

Teacher isolation

Pass/fail mindset

Compliance

Curriculum overload

General goals

Static assessment

Over-the-wall grade

promotions

Planning to plan

Time and staff fixed

Learning for most

To

Learning

Collaboration

Elimination of failure

Commitment

Guaranteed curriculum

Specific goals

Dynamic assessment

Flexible structures

Planning to improve

Learning fixed

Learning for all

Hulley & Dier (2005, p. 108)


What is the target
What is the target

that coaching is the solution?


Large scale improvement of student achievement is an adaptive challenge

Large-scale improvement of student achievement is an adaptive challenge

All of the necessary knowledge to solve the problem doesn’t exist and we are creating the knowledge and tools as we are working on the problem

Change Leadership, 2006


As a job embedded coach

As a job-embedded coach, adaptive challenge

What do you see as the 3 most important issues in terms of working with teachers? Discuss with your elbow partner.


Coaching can

Coaching can adaptive challenge

Improve the efficiency and productivity of the organization, increase metacognition, supports collaboration

Schon; Osterman; Gates Foundation, 2005


As a literacy or numeracy coach

What are you? adaptive challenge

What are you not?

Complete at your table

As a literacy or numeracy coach


Coaching
Coaching adaptive challenge

is a collegial relationship


Coaching for teachers is a series of intentional strategies designed to
Coaching for teachers is a series of intentional strategies designed to:

  • Improve teachers’ effectiveness in the classroom

  • Focus on improvement achievement for all

  • Support resiliency

  • Enhance self and collective efficacy

  • Help teachers reflect on their craft and change practice to better teach all students

  • Help them manage and balance

    • Through observation, feedback and modeling


Improve performance

Improve performance designed to:

But its based on situational needs

Its contextual


Coaching enhances the intellectual capacity of teachers

Coaching enhances the intellectual capacity of teachers; designed to:

Which in turn produces greater intellectual achievement in students

Costa & Gamston


ULTIMATE PURPOSE OF INTERACTION designed to:

THE REFLECTIVE TEACHER

ON-GOING

SELF-ANALYSIS

PROFESSIONAL GROWTH TARGETS

FOR IMPROVING PRACTICE

SEARCH FOR RESEARCHED PRACTICES

Collaborative Interactions

And Learning Together


What works as a coach you need to probe
What works – As a coach you need to probe designed to:

  • Pay attention to teachers’ belief systems – allow time for them to articulate their beliefs and express their concerns

  • Make time for self-reflection, self-analysis and growth

  • Have teachers articulate, paraphrase and communicate their beliefs with others

  • Collaborative dialogue, problem-solving exercises and shared teaching experiences


Factors to consider
Factors to Consider designed to:

  • Interaction existed between cognitive, behavioural and environmental influences,

  • Collaborative conversations lead to reciprocal learning,

  • Use open-ended, high-end Blooms taxonomy.


Efficacy
Efficacy designed to:

  • Perceived self and collective efficacy – beliefs about their own and others capabilities to produce designated levels of performance

  • Determines how people feel, think, behave and motivate themselves

    • Bandura, 1994


What influences a willingness to change

What influences a willingness to change? designed to:

There are moderating factors that influence beliefs and values – gender, experience, panel


Coaching it s a formalized relationship

Instructional or Directive designed to:

External

Specific expertise

Specific experiences and abilities

Address a specific problem or impart a specific skill

Peer or Non-Directive

Internal – part of the team

Broad background

Climate for change, learning environment

Facilitate meetings

Knight, 2004; Fouts and Associates, 2005

Coaching – it’s a formalized relationship


Leadership
Leadership designed to:

…persuading other people to set aside for a period of time their individual concerns and to pursue a common goal that is important for the responsibilities and welfare of the group.

[Avolio and Lock, 2002]


Change leadership s blueprint of improved achievement
Change Leadership’s Blueprint of Improved Achievement designed to:

  • Urgency for improvement through the use of data

  • Shared vision of good teaching

  • Shared understanding of student data and its implications for teaching and learning

  • Collaboration

  • Effective supervision

  • Professional development

  • Diagnostic data with accountable collaboration


Categories of core leadership practices
Categories of designed to:Core Leadership Practices

• Setting Directions (motivation)

• Developing People (capacity)

• Designing the Organization (situation)

• Managing the Instructional Program (keeping it all together)

(Leithwood, Riehl, 2004; Leithwood, Jantzi, 2005)


Towards Sustainability: designed to:

Michael Fullan’s Eight Elements

  • Public service with moral purpose

  • Commitment to changing context at all levels

  • Lateral capacity building through networks

  • Intelligent accountability and vertical relationships

  • Deep learning

  • Dual commitment to short and long term goals

  • Cyclical energizing

  • The long lever of leadership

Michael Fullan “ Leadership and Sustainability” 2004


Linking leadership to student learning the student engagement link
Linking Leadership to Student Learning: designed to:The “Student Engagement” Link

Moderators

Student Learning

Leadership

Teacher Emotions

Student Engagement


High designed to:

Arousal

Flow

C

H

A

L

L

E

N

G

E

S

Anxiety

Worry

Control

Apathy

Relaxation

Boredom

Low

High

SKILLS

Csikszentmihalyi (1990)


Key issues for today s teachers
Key Issues for Today’s Teachers designed to:

  • Asked to teach in new ways

  • Require more extensive knowledge of literacy and numeracy

  • Need a deep pedagogical knowledge to deal effectively with a range of students

  • Need to manage time effectively

    • Which have you experienced in your work?

      • The Secretariat p. 1


The effects of individual teacher efficacy on students
The Effects of Individual Teacher Efficacy on designed to:Students

• Higher levels of student efficacy

• Higher levels of student achievement, particularly in math and reading in the elementary grades and across diverse student populations

• More positive attitudes toward school, subject matter and teachers

• Lower rates of suspension and dropouts

(e.g., Tschannen-Moran, Wolfolk Hoy and Hoy,1998)


Conditions which foster individual teacher efficacy
Conditions Which Foster Individual Teacher Efficacy designed to:

Examples of School-level Conditions

• Positive school atmosphere

• Academic press among staff

• Sense of community

• Teacher participation indecisions affecting their work

• Lack of barriers to effective instruction

• High expectations for students

• Collaboration among teachers


Conditions which foster individual teacher efficacy continued
Conditions Which Foster designed to:Individual Teacher Efficacy(continued)

Examples of District Conditions

• Well designed district in-service experiences

- Differentiated for individual teachers

- Distributed throughout the implementation period

- Lead to the establishment of in-school networks and provide support for instructionalunderstanding


Conditions which foster individual teacher efficacy continued1
Conditions Which Foster designed to:Individual Teacher Efficacy(continued)

Examples of Leadership Practices

• Being influential with district/provincial superordinates

•Providing resources for teachers

•Buffering teachers from disruptions

•Allowing teachers discretion over classroom decisions


Effects of burnout on teachers
Effects of Burnout on Teachers designed to:

• Increased absenteeism

• Decline in instructional performance

• Poor interpersonal relationships with colleagues and students

• Less sympathetic toward students

• Less committed to their jobs


Effects of burnout on teachers continued
Effects of Burnout on Teachers designed to:(continued)

• Lower tolerance for classroom disruption

• Less likely to be prepared

• Chilling effect on other staff

• More dogmatic about their practices

• More likely to blame students for poor performance


Effects of teacher burnout on students
Effects of Teacher Burnout on Students designed to:

Slower progress with their learning

Higher rates of dropping out


Linking leadership to student learning unraveling the chain
Linking Leadership to Student Learning: designed to:Unraveling the Chain

Moderators

Student Learning

Leadership

Mediators


Differentiation

Differentiation designed to:

It is a classroom practice that looks eyeball to eyeball with the reality that kids differ, and the most effective teachers do whatever it takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning.

Carol Ann Tomlinson 1999


Effective teaching is a set of complex context decisions about teaching

Effective teaching is a set of complex, context decisions about teaching

Carl Glickman (2003) Holding Sacred Ground


Implementing differentiation
Implementing Differentiation about teaching

  • Content

  • Process

  • Product

  • Time

  • Environment

  • Assessment and evaluation


Moderating factors
Moderating Factors about teaching


Why gender matters

Why gender matters. about teaching

Gender is the central organizing category of our psyches. It is the axis around which people organize their personalities, and around which distinct egos develop. (Kaufman, 1999p.77)


Elementary teaching as a feminized profession
Elementary teaching as a feminized profession about teaching

  • Over 80% of elementary teachers are female

  • Dominated by perceptions of female norms – nurturing, non-confrontational, focus is children not data, not competitive

  • Male teachers may feel alienated and isolated


Schwalbe wolkomir 2002

Schwalbe & Wolkomir, 2002 about teaching

noted that men may see interactions within a framework of control and that “the threat may be heightened, if it seems the leader is interested in gender” (p. 207)

Need to be business-like and refer the facts and research


Reinhartz chase 2002

Reinhartz & Chase (2002) about teaching

Women are less formal, more connected and need to share personal experiences and stories


Panel differences
Panel Differences about teaching

. Siskin (1994) mentioned that “workplaces are socially constructed” and that teachers working within each panel possess distinct knowledge about students and the relevant content taught (p.39). Teachers immersed in one particular panel may perceive differences in how another panel understands education. “Their differences are discursively magnified and dichotomized and this dichotomization takes on a life of its own.” (Bascia & Imants, 2006, p.4)


  • Elementary Panel about teaching

    The elementary teacher’s world is profoundly polychronic in character. This increases as one moves from the higher to the lower age ranges,” (p. 104) Tasks and demands are immediate as teachers strive to meet children’s developmental and academic needs.

    • Bascia & Imants, 2006;Hargreaves, 1994


Life cycle of the career teacher betty steffy
LIFE CYCLE OF THE CAREER TEACHER about teaching(Betty Steffy)

Still Contributing to Field

(Retired)

EMERITUS

DISTINGUISHED

Creating New Knowledge

EXPERT

National Certific.

Level of Expertise

PROFESSIONAL

Mature Teacher

APPRENTICE

Beginning Teacher

NOVICE

Pre-service

Time in the Field


Years of experience
Years of Experience about teaching

  • Individuals move along a continuum at different rates; and views the growing individual as an active participant in his or her own development,” (Steffy et al. 2000, p. 4).

  • Huberman (1989) discussed how this life-span developmental model, reflected “conceptual and methodological shifts in the field” (p.31).

  • Hargreaves & Goodson (2006), “Teaching and change in schools are driven by a generational centre of gravity, a dominant demographic of teachers who are of a particular age and career stage,” (p. 23).


Novice teachers
Novice Teachers about teaching

  • Huberman (1989) discussed this cohort’s willingness to engage in exploration of the possibilities within teaching: “the present conveys no sense of loss for them, as there is no past to compare it against, (Hargreaves & Goodson, 2006). They are positive and more accepting of the current educational environment (Hargreaves & Goodson, 2006). They tend to volunteer to serve on committees or work on extra-curricular activities,” (Hargreaves & Goodson, 2006; Steffy et al., 2000, p.7) They are also more assertive about their own learning needs.


Professional teachers
Professional Teachers about teaching

  • The Life Cycle of the Career Teacher identified the mid-experience teachers as “Professional Teachers,” characterized by a willingness to engage in collaborative work and a commitment to the broader profession (Steffy et al, 2000). As these cohorts engage in stabilization they feel more at ease in the classroom and consolidate their repertoire of skills. These teachers with 4-11 years of experience often assume positions of leadership on school committees (Steffy wt al., 2000).


Experienced teachers
Experienced Teachers about teaching

  • If experienced teachers are not in positions of responsibility, they may have a diminished expectation, desire and/or ambition to be in one of these roles (Steffy et al., 2000). Teachers in this group may experience emotional withdrawal from colleagues and school initiatives for a variety of reasons. These may include a perceived lack of administrative support, a lack of collegiality, disconnect with the school’s goals and directions and/or a lack of opportunities for personal and professional growth and renewal (Ingersoll, 2003; Huberman, 1989; Steffy et al., 2000).


Experienced teachers continued
Experienced Teachers Continued about teaching

Huberman (1989) identified the most experienced cohort as most willing to reassess their teaching career and engage in reflective practice.


At your tables

At your tables, about teaching

Work through 1 scenario, post for a gallery walk and be prepared to share your thoughts


Critical teaching
Critical Teaching about teaching

Students need to be shown how to read critically and how to write effectively. They need to read to develop their intellectual capabilities. They need to be taught to think and reason.

In a review of 1500 classrooms, most teaching is teacher talk.

Researchers found that between .2 and 5% of classrooms used high-yield strategies, higher order thinking, clear learning objectives

Reeves, 2006; Schmoker, 2006


Why teaching matters
Why Teaching Matters about teaching

  • Mortimore and Sammons (1987) found teaching had 6 to 10 x as much impact on achievement as all other school based factors

  • Marzano (2003) effective teacher can account for 35 to 50 % difference

  • 5 years of effective teaching could eliminate the achievement gaps on some state assessments (Haycock, 2005)


Teaching reading is rocket science
Teaching Reading is Rocket Science about teaching

  • Phonetics, phonology, morphology, orthography, semantics and syntax and text structure

  • Each area required specific knowledge and skills from teachers

    • American Federation of Teachers, 1999


International reading association
International Reading Association about teaching

  • Standards for Reading Professionals

  • Refer to large-scale research

  • Tried to synthesize knowledge, skills and professional development

  • Looking at Learning First Alliance 2000 Table 1.2

    • What type of PD would be useful for you as a coach to assist teachers


Research says
Research Says about teaching

  • Phonemic awareness – blending and segmenting – initial lessons should oral language

  • Phonics – instruction in how letters map to sound must be explicit

  • Fluency – guided oral reading procedures improve fluency, timed repeated reading procedures improve fluency

    • As a coach how would you use this?


Data about teaching

  • What are data?

  • What data is needed?

  • How do you know?

  • How is data collected?

  • How is data analyzed?

  • How does it inform practice?

    • See Preparing for job-embedded professional learning


Classroom observations
Classroom Observations about teaching

The purpose of a classroom visit is to help teachers improve their instruction and identify the best teaching practices in your school. Observation visits reflect your interest in instruction and in your staff's professional growth. (Blase & Blase, 1998; Scholastic, 2005)


Classroom observations1
Classroom Observations about teaching

Challenges:

  • Time

  • Knowledge of effective reading instruction

  • Understanding what to look for

  • Collection and analysis of appropriate observational data


Indicator categories
Indicator Categories about teaching

  • Classroom Environment

  • Materials

  • Teacher Instruction

  • Whole Class Instruction

  • Small Group, Differentiated Instruction

  • Student Reading Centers

  • Phonemic Awareness

  • Phonics & Fluency

  • Vocabulary & Comprehension


Questions to promote professional dialogue p 12 15
Questions to Promote Professional Dialogue (p.12 -15) about teaching

  • Which questions do you already use?

  • Which are ones that you want to incorporate into your repertoire?

  • Why? Share with the table.


Knowledge learning
Knowledge Learning about teaching

  • We learn together

  • We learn from common data sources that are reliable

  • We learn when we accept challenges

  • We learn by applying knowledge to develop innovative ways of improving


The literacy and numeracy secretariat1

The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat about teaching

Thanks

[email protected]


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