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Lesson 9

The Interwar Years:

Preparing for the Next War


Lesson Objectives

•  Understand the major military lessons that each of the major combatants (Britain, France, US, Germany and Russia) took from World War I. •  Be able to describe and discuss the steps that each major combatant took to "prepare for the next war." •  Understand the military revolution that occurred during the interwar years. •  Be able to recount the major events in the 1930's that lead to war in Europe and the Pacific.


World War II

the Next War

Seeds of

Versailles Treaty

Lessons of World War I

Great Depression


Treaty of Versailles

Extremely harsh conditions

• Significant territorial concessions

• Huge reparations

• Severe limitations on military

• German admission of responsibility for war


Treaty of Versailles

Territorial Concessions


Treaty of Versailles

Reparations

• 269 billion gold marks ($64 B then, $834 B today)*

• Later reduced to 112 B gold marks ( $26.6 B) (1929)

• Equivalent to $360 B today *

Many feel this led to the economic collapse of the 1920’s that sewed the seeds of Fascism

* Based on CPI, 2012


Treaty of Versailles

Reparations Cycle

Germany Pays Reparations

To Britain & France

Crash of 1929

US Banks

Britain, France

Loan Money to Germany

Pay War Debts to US


Treaty of Versailles

Military Provisions

• German army restricted to 100,000 men (long term contract)

• No conscription or training

• No tanks or heavy artillery

• Navy limited to 15,000 men

• 6 small battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers, no U-boats

• No air force


Treaty of Versailles

War Guilt Clause

''The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.''

Article 231


Treaty of Versailles

Extremely harsh conditions

• Significant territorial concessions

• Huge reparations

• Severe limitations on military

• German admission of responsibility for war


Treaty of Versailles

 10:16

Video


Lessons of World War I

France: Defense!

Germany: Offense!

Britain: Sea Power!

U.S.: Stay out of war altogether


Lessons of World War I

France: Defense!

• Maginot Line: static defense


Maginot Line

"We could hardly dream of building a kind of Great Wall of France, which would in any case be far too costly. Instead we have foreseen powerful but flexible means of organizing defense, based on the dual principleof takingfull advantage of the terrainand establishing a continuous line of fireeverywhere."—December 10, 1929

André Maginot (1877-1932)

French Minister of War

(1922–1924, 1929–1930, 1931–1932)


Maginot Line

"Whatever conception one can make of a future war, there is a necessity that remains imperious, it's to protect the territory from invasion. We know what disasters can accumulate so that victory itself isn't able to compensate for the irreparable damages. The defensive organization on the borders that we want to realize doesn't have any other goal than to block the way of a still possible invasion. Concrete is better in this way and is cheaper than a wall of chests..."

"Concrete is better … and is cheaper than a wall of chests..."

André Maginot (1877-1932)

French Minister of War

(1922–1924, 1929–1930, 1931–1932)

To the French Parliament, 1929


Maginot Line

Rationale:

• To avoid a surprise attack and to give alarm (trip wire)

• To cover the mobilization of the French Army (2 and 3 weeks).

• To save manpower:

France 39,000,000 inhabitants, Germany 70,000,000

• To protect Alsace and Lorraine and their industrial infrastructure

• To be used as a basis for a counter-offensive.


Maginot Line

Defense in depth

… but not everywhere


Maginot Line

Localized Defense in Depth


Maginot Line

Above and Below


Lessons of World War I

France: Defense!

• Maginot Line: static defense

• Huge expenditure

• Repeated mistake of 1914:

• assumed Belgian neutrality would be honored

• Had good armored forces


French Armor

Char B Heavy Tank

47 mm cannon

75 mm cannon


French Armor

German PzKpfw II *

French Char B

Faster, better suspension, more range

Larger guns, heavier armor

Radios

One-man turret

Superior Tactics

* Panzerkampfwagen


Lessons of World War I

France: Defense!

• Maginot Line: static defense

• Huge expenditure

• Repeated mistake of 1914:

• Assumed Belgian neutrality would be honored

• Had good armored forces

• Not enough funds to develop properly

• Neglected innovations in tactics


Lessons of World War I

Germany: Offense!

Size of army limited by Versailles Treaty

• Not enough to defend against attack

• Strategy: “Best defense is good offense”

Capitalized on tactics under development in WW I

=Blitzkreige

• Stormtrooper tactics

+ Armor

Lightning War!


German Armor

Encyclopedia Britannica


Interwar Years

Maginot Line video

 11:39


Ten Military Revolutions

Infantry Revolution

Artillery Revolution

Revolution of Sail and Shot

Fortress Revolution

Gunpowder Revolution

Napoleonic Revolution

Land Warfare Revolution

Naval Revolution

Interwar Revolutions in Mechanization,

Aviation, and Information

Nuclear Revolution

Interwar Revolutions in Mechanization,

Aviation, and Information

Andrew F. Krepinevich

“Cavalry to computer: the pattern of military revolutions”

The National Interest, Fall 1994


Interwar Revolutions

1920’s – ’30’s

Perfected concepts introduced in WW I

• Mechanized warfare

• Aerial warfare

• Carrier aviation

• Amphibious warfare

• Radio-based command & control

Proliferation of new organizations

• Armored divisions,

• Carrier battle groups

• Strategic bombardment wings


Idealism

Reality

of World War I

“The War to End All War”

“Only the dead have seen the end of war”


Reality

of World War I

Hope

Renewed effort to limit war as an option

“Only the dead have seen the end of war”

New focus on the Laws of War


Laws of War

The Ultimate Oxymoron?


Arms Control and the Laws of War

Download Slides


Treaties & Protocols

Precedents for the Laws of War

Kellogg – Briand Pact (1928)

• Renounced war as an instrument of national policy

• Negotiated between

• Fran B. Kellogg – US Secretary of State

• Aristide Briand – French Foreign Minister

• Ultimately 62 nations signed the agreement

• Failed in goal of preventing war

• First Violation: Japan in Manchuria (1931)

• Served as basis for concept of crime against peace

• Nuremburg Trails (1945-1949)

• Still in force


Treaties & Protocols

Precedents for the Laws of War

Geneva Convention (1928)

• Prohibit Use of Gas and Biological Methods of War

Geneva Convention (1929)

• Treatment of Prisoners of War

Geneva Convention (1949)

• I: Care of Sick and Wounded in the Field

• II: Care of Sick, Wounded and Shipwreck at Sea

• III: Treatment of Prisoners of War

• IV: Protection of Civilians in War


Treaties & Protocols

Precedents for the Laws of War

Geneva Convention (1975)

• Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction


Arms Limitation

Can be considered almost a separate branch of the Laws of War

Attempts to limit or ban entirely certain weapons


First Arms Limitation?

Crossbow

By 11th & 12th centuries, crossbows could penetrate armor of knights.

Threaten to upset the balance of power:

• Semi-skilled peasants could anonymously kill gentlemen


First Arms Limitation?

Crossbow

Banned by Pope Innocent II for use in killing Christians.

• Second Lateran Council 1139


First Arms Limitation

Second Lateran Council

Canon 29

“We prohibit under anathema that murderous art of crossbowmen and archers, which is hateful to God, to be employed against Christians and Catholics from now on.”

Pope Innocent II

EWTN: The Global Catholic Network

http://www.ewtn.com/library/COUNCILS/LATERAN2.HTM


Arms Limitation

Interest in arms limitation increased as war has become come mechanized and weapons more deadly and expensive


Arms Limitation

Early Attempt

St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868

“The Contracting Parties engage mutually to renounce, in case of war among themselves, the employment by their military or naval troops of any projectile of a weight below 400 grammes, which is either explosive or charged with fulminating or inflammable substances. “

Intent: Ban the use of fragmentation, explosive, or incendiary small arms ammunition. (Wikipedia)

Signatories: Austria-Hungary, Bavaria, Belgium, Denmark, France, the United Kingdom, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, the North German Confederation (i.e., Greater Prussia), Russia, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey (i.e.,the Ottoman Empire), and Württemberg.

Only binding during war between signatories.

US not invited (not considered a major power at the time), took no part in convention, never ratified it.


Arms Limitation

Modern Controversy

Just because you are not a signatory, should you still abide by a humanitarian arms limitation treaty?


Arms Limitation

Modern Controversy

Weapon: .50 cal McMillan Tactical Sniper Rifle

http://www.eme421.com/50calmac.html

Bullet: Raufoss Round

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raufoss_Mk_211


Arms Limitation

Modern Controversy

Video: Canadian Snipers

Afghanistan

Video


Arms Limitation

Washington Naval Treaty (1922)

• Response to post WW I naval building programs

• Limited tonnage, armament on capital ships and aircraft carriers

• Five major naval powers

• US, Britain, Japan, France, Italy


Arms Limitation

Washington Naval Treaty (1922)

Limits on capital ships

• US: 525,000 tons

• Britain: 525,000 tons

• Japan: 315,000 tons

• France: 175,000 tons

• Italy: 175,000 tons

No capital ship could exceed 35,000 tons

Ratio 5 : 5 : 3 : 1.7 :1.7

Armament Limitation: 16-inch guns maximum


Arms Limitation

Washington Naval Treaty (1922)

Limits on aircraft carriers

• US: 135,000 tons

• Britain: 135,000 tons

• Japan: 81,000 tons

• France: 60,000 tons

• Italy: 60,000 tons

Each nation could have two carriers up to 33,000 tons; remaining carriers limited to 27,000 tons each.

Armament Limitations: 8-inch guns (max of 8 per ship)


Arms Limitation

Washington Naval Treaty (1922)

Other Limits:

• All other ships limited to

• 10,000 tons each (no limit on total tonnage)

• 8-inch guns or less


Arms Limitation

Washington Naval Treaty (1922)

Impact of Treaty:

• Navies modified existing capital ships

• Unusual designs evolved (treaty battleships, treaty cruisers) to remain within tonnage restrictions

• US built no battleships 1918-1937

• US concentrated on cruisers, aircraft carriers


Treaty Battleships

HMS Nelson

Displacement: 33,950 tons Main Armament: nine 16-inch guns

Post-Treaty:

USS North Carolina

Displacement: 35,000 tons Main Armament: nine 16-inch guns


Treaty Cruisers

USS Northampton CA-26

Displacement: 9,000 tons Main Armament: nine 8-inch guns

Post-Treaty:

USS Baltimore CA-68

WW II cruiser: more secondary armament

Displacement: 15,500 tons


Battle Cruisers

USS Lexington CC-1

Displacement: 43,500 tons Main Armament: eight 16-inch guns


Aircraft Carriers

USS Lexington CV-2

Displacement: 33,000 tons

Note: 8 in. guns

USN photo

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-l/cv2.htm

1929


Aircraft Carriers

USS Lexington CV-2

Note: 5 in. guns

Oct 1941

USN photo

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-l/cv2.htm


Aircraft Carriers

USS Lexington CV-2

Displacement: 35,000 tons (wartime)

USS Essex CV-9

Displacement: 27,100 tons


Significance of Treaties

: still happened

Little impact on World War II

• No use of poison gas


Next:

Next:

Next:

Exam 1 - Lessons 1-9


Exam 1

Covers lessons 1 - 9

Similar in format to quizzes

Should take 30-45 minutes

… if you have been keeping up!

There will be a lecture following


Next:

Lesson 11

WW II -- Global War, Global Strategy


Thesis

The grand scope of World War II was determined by a battle you never heard of fought before the war in Europe began.


Lesson Objectives

•  Be able to recount the chains of events that led to the opening of hostilities in Europe and Asia in the 1930's. •  Understand the genesis and significant features of the strategies of each major combatant:       • Germany and Japan      • Britain, France, Soviet Union, U.S. •  Be able to recount and discuss the major events in World War II through the end of 1941. •  Understand the role of the advances in military technology since the end of The Great War on the events of the first two years of World War II.


End


Influences on World War II

Versailles Treaty

Lessons of World War I

Great Depression


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