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Sector Model. Hoyt. Background. Research conducted by economist Homer Hyot (1895-1984) in 1939 Studied 64 widely distributed American cities Publication: The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighbourhoods in American Cities . Homer Hoyt’s sector model of 30 US cities.

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Sector Model

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Sector model l.jpg

Sector Model

Hoyt


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Background

  • Research conducted by economist Homer Hyot (1895-1984) in 1939

  • Studied 64 widely distributed American cities

  • Publication: The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighbourhoods in American Cities.


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Homer Hoyt’s sector model of 30 US cities


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Why did he put forward another model?

  • He rejected the idea of concentric zones.

  • He suggested that residential areas took the form of a series of sectors.

  • Sector is a section of an urban area in the shape of a wedge, beginning at the edge of the CBD and gradually widening to the periphery.


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Significance

  • ecological factors + economic rent concept to explain the land use pattern

  • stress on the role of transport routes in affecting the spatial arrangement of the city.

  • both the distance and direction of growth from the city centre are considered.

  • Brings location of industrial and environmental amenity values as determinants in residential location

  • Example: sectors of high class residential areas tend to grow towards higher grounds, sites with better view, more open space, the homes of influential leaders within the community and existing outlying, smaller settlements.


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wedge like/ sector arrangement following the axial arrangement of the transport lines diverging from the city centre.

found near to railways, bordering the manufacturing / warehousing sectors (the least desirable land).

occupied intermediate positions.

  • locate outside the CBD due to land costs and along transport routes to minimize costs of transportation.

  • developed along main transport routes for ease of commuting into the CBD

  • located away from areas of heavy polluting industry.

  • found on high grounds (good view),

  • waterfronts not used by industries and homes of community leaders.

CBD remains a circular form in the centre.


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How are sectors developed?

  • Differences in accessibility from outlying districts to the city centre

  • High-class housing estates were built along transport routes, e.g. suburban railway line / highway

  •  attract accretionary growth of similar residential housing, thus extending the zone out as a sector (ecological factor).

  • A high rent residential district in one sector of the city will migrate outwards by the addition of new belts of housing along its outer arc.

  • Similar land uses attracted other similar land uses, concentrating a function in a particular area and repelling others. This ‘attract and repel’ process led to sector development.


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How are sectors developed?

  • The growth of the city depends on the direction of the transport route (directional factor)

  • Hoyt suggested high-rent sector would expand according to four factors

    • Moves from its point of origin near the CBD, along established routes of travel, toward another nucleus of high-rent buildings

    • Will progress toward high ground or along waterfronts, when these areas are not used for industry

    • Will move along the route of fastest transportation

    • Will move toward open space


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Sector model

  • As high-rent sectors develop, areas between them are filled in

    • Middle-rent areas move directly next to them, drawing on their prestige

    • Low-rent areas fill remaining areas

    • Moving away from major routes of travel, rents go from high to low

  • There are distinct patterns in today’s cities that echo Hoyt’s model

  • He had the advantage of writing later than Burgess — in the age of the automobile


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Sector model

  • Today, major transportation arteries are generally freeways

    • Surrounding areas are often low-rent districts

    • Contrary to Hoyt’s theory

    • Freeways were imposed on existing urban pattern

    • Often built through low-rent areas where land was cheaper and political opposition was less


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Growth of low-density high-income residential areas in NE NT

Palm Springs

Rolling Hills / Scenic Heights / Vineyards

Fairview Park


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Growth of middle-income residential belt in West Kowloon


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Yuen Long

  • Describe the spatial distribution of various residential land uses in Yuen Long.

  • Account for their distribution pattern. Take account of the following factors: transport network, “attract-and-repel” of social groups, land-rent mechanism, difference in relief, historical inertia, government influence.


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Criticisms

  • He based his model on housing and neglected other land uses.

  • Areas of low cost housing do occur beside main roads near to the boundaries of most cities.

  • It is too concerned with residential land use and has not paid enough attention to the existence of residential and industrial suburbs in cities.

  • It has paid little attention to the height of buildings and the variation of land use with height.


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