AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy
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Ambient Assisted Living Systems. Wolfgang L. Zagler Vienna University of Technology Institute Integrated Study. The Conflicts between Technology, Acceptance, Ethics and Privacy. AAL at Vienna University of Technology.

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Ambient assisted living systems

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Ambient Assisted Living Systems

Wolfgang L. Zagler

Vienna University of Technology

Institute Integrated Study

The Conflicts betweenTechnology, Acceptance,Ethics and Privacy


Aal at vienna university of technology

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

AAL at Vienna University of Technology

  • More than 10 years ago: Development of two smart rooms for severely impaired children (cognitive and motor).

    • for training their cognitive abilities.

    • for teaching reason and effect.

    • for playing with “smart” remote controlled toys.

    • for teaching them the basics of environmental control systems (ECS) and augmented and alternative communication (AAC).


Aal at vienna university of technology1

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

AAL at Vienna University of Technology

  • The AUTONOMY System offered

    • a very intuitive user interface for the end users.

    • a very intuitive user interface for making all the configurations for the therapists and teachers.

    • several links to home automation and smart home components.

    • remote controls for TV and radio.

    • remote controls for a toy train.


Aal at vienna university of technology2

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

AAL at Vienna University of Technology

  • Development of the “Friendly Restroom (FRR)

    • Re-inventing the toilet from scratch to become a smart toilet.

    • powered adjustments for seat height and tilt.

    • different illumination schemes.

    • special seating-areas for transfer from and to wheelchair.

    • powered and sensor-triggered rising assistance.

    • RFID user recognition to trigger user customized settings.

    • voice control and fall detector for automatic alarming.


Aal at vienna university of technology3

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

AAL at Vienna University of Technology

  • The FRR received excellent acceptance by the users.

  • Many users gave enthusiastictestimonials at presentations.

  • A commercial version of FRR(downgraded from the prototype)is available.


Aal at vienna university of technology4

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

AAL at Vienna University of Technology

  • Intensive tests with users:

    • in the laboratory.

    • in real life test.

  • Toileting is a sensitive and private topic:

    • all interviews and tests were prepared and accompanied by an expert in ethics.

    • explaining the tests and obtaining written informed consent.


Together with ceit raltec

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Together with CEIT-RALTEC

  • About 1 ½ years ago the institute “Rehabilitation and Assisted Living Technology - RALTEC” was founded at the “Central European Institute of Technology – CEIT” at Schwechat (east of Vienna).

  • Two pilot projects launched:

    • e-Home – Development of a smart, context aware and assistive home for older persons.

    • e-Shoe – Instrumented shoe for fall prevention, fall detection and continuous gait analysis.

  • Establishing a “Living Lab” for real life tests.



Project e shoe1

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Project e-Shoe

  • Instrumented sole or insole:

    • Pressure distribution.

    • Accelerometers (3 axes).

    • Spatial position (Gyros).

  • Pre-processing in the heel of the shoe.

  • Wireless data transfer to base station at home or at the GP or clinic.


Project e shoe2

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Project e-Shoe

  • Will allow for continuous monitoring of gait:

    • not only during few minutes when in the gait laboratory.

    • showing a whole day.

    • recording therapy progress.

  • Continuous assessment of the risk of falling:

    • give early indicators and warnings to avoid falls.

    • trigger possible measures (inflatable hip protector).

    • summon help after fall occurred.


Project e home

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Project e-Home

  • Monitoring the activity and behaviour of inhabitants

    • Learning regular and healthy patterns

    • Responding to abnormal or critical patterns

    • Reminding when actions are forgotten, left unfinished or left in a dangerous state

    • Detecting early signs of suspicious health conditions

    • Making life more comfortable


Project e home1

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Project e-Home

  • Easy-to-install, plug and play solution

    • wireless multi-sensor nodes

    • non invasive sensors (acceleration, illumination, temperature, switches)

    • No cameras or microphones.

    • battery operated or alternative energy sources.

    • central unit for local processing.

    • data transfer to the outside only in emergency.



Project e home2

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Project e-Home

  • Three real life tests:

    • one week (female test person).

    • two weeks (female test person).

    • two weeks (male test person).

  • Manual evaluation of recorded sensor data.

  • Comparison with diary notes.

  • First tests with automatic analysis.

  • Preparation of a long term installation in two flats.


Lessons we learned

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Lessons we Learned

  • What we learned from our test-persons.

  • What we learned from care persons, social workers and experts in ethics in discussing the coming long-time tests.

  • It is what WE learned – others will certainly have different experiences.

  • It is what we LEARNED – this does not imply that we yet also have the answers and solutions.


The technology is there

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

The Technology is there

  • Just have a look at cars today


The technology is there1

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

The Technology is there

  • An average scrap-yard today holds more (assistive) technology than 99% of our homes

So, bring the technology from the junk yard to the living room



Once upon a time

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Once upon a Time

... in the good old golden days

… when technology was not the enemy of people

… who were concerned about privacy and data protection

… there lived …


AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

1. a very nice old lady and …

2. her beautiful daughter


In the un smart blue house with the red door

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

… in the (un-smart) blue house with the red door.


But they had a severe problem

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

But they had a severe problem

  • Anybody could open the red door and step in

  • They did not like that and so mother and daughter went to see the friendly engineer

+





In the smart blue house with the red door

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

.… and they lived happily ever after …

… in the smart blue house with the red door.


Basic experiences 1

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Basic Experiences (1)

  • Even with the most careful and open minded approach you can encounter reluctance, scepticism, suspicion – often where you never did expect it.

  • There will be roadblocks and resentments

    • It is not a general technophobia or techno-animosity

    • It can be resignation, tiredness, indifference, modesty

    • Kind of humility: “this will not pay-off for me”, “now I am too old”, “I bet, this will nor work here”.


Basic experiences 2

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Basic Experiences (2)

  • Test-persons and prospective customers are often more open-minded than carers and experts:

    • The recognized user-benefits of technology soon sweep away scepticism.

  • Well grounded confidence will work better than complicated discussions on privacy the (aged) user cannot sort out – make it trustworthy and simple

  • One of the first question is the price and “who will have to pay”?

  • Long-term revenues and indirect returns are simply neglected.


Basic experiences 3

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Basic Experiences (3)

  • Catalogue page of 1984

  • 10 MB HD for € 5.000(300 GB … 150 Mio €)

  • Moore’s law is in place

    BUT

  • Will next generation agers be able to cope with next generation technology???


Lesson 1

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Lesson #1

  • The “Help me ! – But please stay away !!” attitude:

    • The trade-off between assistance and feared side effects.

    • We discussed the possibilities of AAL with a group of social workers, and experts in care and ethics.

    • They wanted us to make “a house with a guardian angel”.

    • The did not want any sensors or monitoring.


Lesson 2

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Lesson #2

  • If the house is by and by learning to do all and everything, the inhabitants will loose the rest of their skills and become lazy:

    • Assistance is considered good – but there could also be something like over-assistance and over-protection.

    • Wouldn’t it be better to make a less perfect solution?

    • As long as not vital part of the responsibility shall be left to the human inhabitants?

    • The help provided shall have a positive training effect.

    • Reminding is fine, but could become a nuisance if not done well and will result in low compliance.


Lesson 3

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Lesson #3

  • Make absolutely clear to all players what and where the collected data are - and what will happen to them:

    • For context aware operation a lot of behavioural (and social and medical) data will have to be collected.

    • The home system shall do all the inference drawing on a local bases.

    • Data shall not migrate to other places except for reactions in case of emergency or where explicitly agreed upon.


Lesson 4

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Lesson #4

  • The benefits of AAL have to be made clear and in an easy-to-understand way:

    • This has to be done in a very practical, non-technological and obvious way.

    • e.g. using scenarios, drama, stories …

    • not only for the inhabitants.

    • include relatives and friends.

    • include carers and payers.


Lesson 5

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Lesson #5

  • AAL Technology must be communicated convincingly:

    • It will be a pervasive technology, but it should also be a persuasive technology.

    • Using the right words can be crucial (monitoring vs. observation etc.).

    • The fear of „Big Brother“ lingers everywhere – show them, that also a „Little Sister“ exists.


Lesson 6

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Lesson #6

  • AAL Technology has to be solid, reliable and sustainable:

    • It has to fit into existing homes – so we believe in wireless technology, modularity and adaptive systems.

    • Installations shall be profitable even in the short run (say 6 to 12 months).

    • It is not necessary to have a 100% solution – but be honest in explaining the benefits and risks of your 80% solution.


Lesson 7

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Lesson #7

  • The inhabitants still shall be the „Masters of their Universe“:

    • The decision for use or non-use of the system shall (as far as risk considerations allow) always stay with the users.

    • Switching-off shall be allowed (the duration shall be discussed).

    • Technology shall be unobtrusive but not completely invisible – total invisibility (the voice in the off) can be threatening.


Thank you

for

your

Attention

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy


Kontaktadresse

AAL-Conflicts – Technology / Acceptance / Ethics / Privacy

Kontaktadresse

fortec –Research Group for Rehabilitation Technology

Institut „integrated study“

Vienna University of Technology

A-1040 Wien, Favoritenstrasse 11/029,

Tel.: +43 (1) 58 801 / 42900Fax: +43 (1) 58 801 / 42999

Email: [email protected]

Web: http://www.is.tuwien.ac.at


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