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Hyper-V High Availability and Live Migration. Symon PerrimanJeff Woolsey Technical EvangelistPrincipal Program Manager. Introduction to Hyper-V Jump Start. Agenda. High Availability Planning Cluster Deployment Hyper-V Optimization on a Cluster Cluster Shared Volumes & Live Migration

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Hyper-V High Availability and Live Migration

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Hyper-V High Availability and Live Migration

Symon PerrimanJeff Woolsey

Technical EvangelistPrincipal Program Manager

Introduction to Hyper-V Jump Start


  • High Availability Planning

  • Cluster Deployment

  • Hyper-V Optimization on a Cluster

  • Cluster Shared Volumes & Live Migration

  • Hyper-V Replica

High AvailabilityPlanning

Why is HA Important?

  • Server downtime is inevitable

  • Servers will go offline due to

    • Maintenance

    • Upgrade

      • Software or Hardware

    • Update

      • Hotfix, Security Patch

    • Disaster

    • Power Outage

    • Accident

Complete Redundancy In the Box

  • Hyper-V Replica for Asynchronous Replication

  • CSV 2.0 Integration with Storage Arrays for Synchronous Replication

Disaster Recovery

  • Non-Cluster Aware Apps: Hyper-V App Monitoring

  • VM Guest Cluster: iSCSI, Fiber Channel

  • VM Guest Teaming of SR-IOV NICs

Application/Service Failover

  • Network Load Balancing & Failover via Windows NIC Teaming

  • Storage Multi-Path IO (MPIO)

  • Multi-Channel SMB

I/O Redundancy

  • Live Migration for Planned Downtime

  • Failover Cluster for Unplanned Downtime

Physical Node Redundancy

  • Windows Hardware Error Architecture (WHEA)

  • Reliability, Availability, Serviceability (RAS)

Hardware Fault

Overview of Failover Clustering


VMs & Workloads

VMs & Workloads

Shared Storage

Host Clustering

Avoids a single point of failure when consolidating

VMs survive host crashes

VMs restarted on another node

Restart VM crashes

VM OS restarted on same node

Recover VM hangs

VM OS restarted on same node

Zero downtime maintenance & patching

Live migrate VMs to other hosts

Mobility & load distribution

Live migrate VMs to different servers to load balance



Guest Clustering

Application Health Monitoring

App or service within VM crashes or hangs and moves to another VM

Application Mobility

Apps or services moves to another VM for maintenance or patching of guest OS

Virtualized HBAs

iSCSI (2008 R2 & 2012)

Fibre Channel (2012)

Combine physical &virtual servers



Combining Host & Guest Clustering

Best of both worlds for flexibility and protection

VM high availability & mobility between physical nodes

Application & service high availability & mobility between VMs

Increases complexity

Guest Cluster







Increased Scalability

8,000 VMs across 64 nodes

1,024 VMs per node

320 logical processors per host

64 virtual processors per VM

4 TB of RAM per host

1 TB of RAM per VM

64 TB per virtual disk (.vhdx)

More storage choices

Hyper-V over SMB

Virtual Fibre Channel HBA (guest clustering)

Scale up

. . .

Scale out

Failover Cluster Deployment

Hyper-V Validation Tests

Faster storage validation

Select a specific LUN

Replicated storage for multi-site

New Hyper-V Configuration Tests

Run when Hyper-V role is installed

Integration Components

Memory Compatibility

Virtual Switch Compatibility

Hyper-V Role Enabled

Network Configuration

Storage Configuration

Upgrading Clusters to Windows Server 2012

Cluster Migration Wizard

Automated export / import of VMs

Migrate to CSV disks

Storage mapping

Virtual network mapping

Use the same storage or different storage

Hyper-V Optimization on a Cluster

Virtual Machine Priority

  • Start Order

  • Node Maintenance

  • Running Priority

    • Pre-emption shuts down lower priority VMs

  • No Auto Start

    • Must be restarted manually




Disable Starting Low Priority VMs

  • ‘Auto Start’ setting configures if a VM should be automatically started on failover

    • Group property

    • Disabling mark groups as lower priority

    • Enabled by default

  • Disabled VMs needs manual restart to recover after a crash

Also in Windows Server 2008 R2

Keep VMs on Preferred Hosts

  • ‘Preferred Owners’

    • VMs will start on preferred host

  • ‘Possible Owners’

    • VMs will start on a possible owner, only if a preferred owner is not available

  • If neither a preferred or possible owner is available, the VM will move to an active node, but not start

Start VMs on Preferred Hosts

  • ‘Persistent Mode’ will attempt to place VMs back on the last node they were hosted on during start

    • Only takes affect when complete cluster is started up

    • Prevents overloading the first nodes that startup with large numbers of VMs

  • Better VM distribution after cold start

  • Enabled by default for VM groups

    • Option is hidden from GUI in 2012

Keep VMs off the Same Host

  • AntiAffinityClassNames

    • Groups with same AACN try to avoid residing on the same node

  • Configured by PowerShell directly on the cluster

  • System Center 2012 VMM has a GUI “Availability Groups”

  • Enables VM distribution across host nodes for best resource utilization

  • Scenarios

    • Separate similar VMs

      • Guest cluster nodes

      • DCs or infrastructure servers

    • Separate tenets

  • For affinity, use preferred owners

VM Health Monitoring

  • Enable VM heartbeat setting

    • Requires Integration Components (ICs) installed in VM

  • Health check for VM OS from host

    • User-Mode Hangs

    • System Crashes



VM Guest Service Monitoring

The host monitors the guest VM

Any application with a service

Uses Service Control Manager

Configurable recovery actions

Restart service

Reboot VM

Move VM

Node Drain (Node Maintenance) Mode

Drain all VMs off a node

Supports all cluster roles

Role-specific features

Live migration or quick migration for VMs

Uses VM Priority



Cluster-Aware Updating


  • Automated cluster updating

  • Coordinator serially updates all nodes

    • Windows Update Agent (WUA)

    • Windows Server Update Services (WSUS)

    • Windows Update

  • Workflow

    • Scan nodes to find which patches are needed

    • Identify node with fewest workloads

    • Move workloads or live migration VMs to other nodes

    • Call to WUA to patch

    • Verify patch is successful

    • Repeat steps 2 – 5 on next node

    • Repeat on remaining nodes

Windows Update

I have good processes in place, but what other safeguards can I use to protect my data?

So You’re a Building a Cloud…

Server Hard Disks Appear on eBayReal Case : A US Power Company

  • The Company had processes in place to either physically destroy drives or scrub them to U.S. DOD standards

    • Degaussing

    • Overwriting the data with a minimum of three specified patterns

  • Data on drives used in servers, contained:

    • Proprietary company information such as memos, correspondence

    • Customers data (460,000+) & Confidential employee information

According to Gartner about 1/3 companies use outside firms to dispose of PCs & Servers

HIPAA Breach: Stolen Hard Drives

  • March 2012: Large Medical Provider in Tennessee paying $1.5 million to the US Dept. Health & Human Services

    • Theft of 57 hard drives that contained protected health information (ePHI) for over 1 million individuals

  • Secured by:

    • Security Patrols

    • Biometric scanner

    • Keycard scanner

    • Magnetic locks

    • Keyed locks

“71% of health care organizations have suffered at least one data breach within the last year” -Study by Veriphyr

CriticalSafeguard for the CloudEncrypted cluster volumes

  • BitLocker encrypted cluster disks

    • Support for traditional failover disks

    • Support for Cluster Shared Volumes

  • Cluster Name Object (CNO) identity used to lock and unlock Clustered volumes

  • Enables physical security for deployments outside of secure datacenters

    • Branch office deployments

  • Volume level encryption for compliance requirements

  • Negligible (<1%) performance impact

Cluster Shared Volumes & Live Migration

Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV)

All cluster nodes can read/write to the CSV volume

LUN ownership by node abstracted from application

Applications failover without drive ownership changes

No dismounting and remounting of volumes

Faster failover times (less downtime)

New CSV Architecture in Windows Server 2012

What it delivers

Improved interoperability with file system mini-filter drivers

Anti-virus software

Backup software (No more redirected mode for backups!)

Infrastructure for application consistent distributed backups

Integrate with new file system features

Support for Offloaded Data Transfer (ODX)

Spot-fixing integrated to do online correction

Significant performance improvements

Supports BitLocker encrypted volumes

Memory mapped files now supported

No longer Active Directory dependencies for improved performance and resiliency

Your Thoughts on VM Mobility

  • Don’t provide new features that preclude Live Migration.

  • I want to be able to securely move any part of a VM anywhere at anytime. No Limits.

  • No Downtime Servicing

    • SAN Upgrades/Migrations

  • When VMs migrate, move the historical data with the VM

  • Fully Leverage hardware to speed migrations

Improved Live Migration

  • Live Migration Queuing

  • Concurrent Live Migrations

Concurrent Live Migrations:Multiple simultaneous LMs for a given source or target

Live Migration Queuing:

In-box tools queue & manage large numbers of VMs

Live Migration

Entire VM memory copied

Memory content is copied to new server

Live Migrate

May be additional incremental data copies until data on both nodes is essentially identical

Enable-VMMigration, Move-VM



Live Migration

Client directed to new host

Session state is maintained

No reconnections necessary

Clients stay connected to VM

Multiple live migrations can be performed either concurrently or as a queued request

ARP redirects clients to new node

Old VM deleted after success



Live Migration with SMB

File Based Storage Solution

Storage is not moved, just the running virtual machine

Like live migration in a cluster, without high availability

Requires SMB 3.0

Shared Nothing Live Migration

Ability to live migrate a virtual machine with only an Ethernet cable

The VM is mirrored to the destination first over the network and then the VM is migrated

Live Migrate in/out cluster

Live Migrate between clusters

Storage Migration

Move any part of a running virtual machine with no need to turn it off


Config files


Perform storage upgrades with no downtime

Respond to I/O bottlenecks with no downtime


Storage Migration Architecture


Virtual Machine

VHD Software


Destination Device

Source Device

Storage Migration Architecture


Virtual Machine

VHD Software



Destination Device

Source Device

Storage Migration Architecture


Virtual Machine

VHD Software



Destination Device

Source Device

Storage Migration Architecture


Virtual Machine

VHD Software



Destination Device

Source Device

Storage Migration Architecture


Virtual Machine

VHD Software

Move-VMStorage "File Server 3" –DestinationStoragePath "K:\File Server 3"


Destination Device

Source Device

Hyper-V Replica

Disaster Recovery Challenges

  • Cost

  • Complexity

  • Inflexibility

  • Initial Replication

  • Distance Requirements

Hyper-V Replica

Disaster recovery scenarios

Planned, unplanned, and test failover

Pre-configuration for IP settings for primary/remote location

Key features

Recovery point objective and recovery time objective in minutes

Seamless integration with Hyper-V and clustering

Automatically handles all VM mobility scenarios (e.g. live migration)

Supports heterogonous storage between primary and recovery

Integrates with Volume Shadow Services (VSS)



NASA Image: Hurricane Sandy

Hurricane Sandy: Email from10/30/12

Good morning;

The Hurricane hit our area badly; many downed trees, even on my wife’s car. Flooding and total power cuts were everywhere. We are very grateful that everyone is well.

I now want to thank the Microsoft 2012 server team for giving businesses the new replica feature. Two of our clients (both whom cannot be without their IT infrastructure) were flooded entirely, and might take 2 weeks to get back into their businesses.

At 7pm last night we failed over their entire domains to the Replica site, and they have been able to continue their daily business with ZERO interruption. “Windows Server 2012 saved their business”.

Hyper-V ReplicaComplements Array Based Replication

Key Hyper-V Replica Takeaways

Easy to Setup

Via wizard

Or, via PowerShell

Works with your current hardware

All you need is two connected servers running Windows Server 2012

No Guest Dependencies

New Live Migrations

Storage live migration

Network live migration

“Shared nothing” live migration

Hyper-V Replica

New Live Migrations

Network Live Migration: Moves VMs across the network, supports concurrent LMs


Branch Office


“Shared Nothing” Live Migration: Moves VMs & VHDs across the network & SAN, supports concurrent LMs

Hyper-V Replica:Point-in-time replication of VHDs for disaster recovery


Storage Live Migration:

Moves VHDs from one disk to another, supports concurrent LMs



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